Box Hill, Victoria
Box Hill is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 14 kilometres east of Melbourne's Central Business District. In the local government area of the City of Whitehorse. At the 2016 Census, Box Hill had a population of 11,395. Once a large independent city, Box Hill was absorbed into Melbourne as part of the eastward expansion of the metropolis in the late 1950s; as a result, it once had its own large historic Central Business District, its own municipality in the former City of Box Hill and its own suburbs. Box Hill is notable for its significant population of people of Asian birth or descent Chinese. A large number of Asian restaurants and retailers in its shopping district contribute to the visibility of this aspect of the suburb's demographics. Box Hill is a major transport hub for Melbourne’s eastern suburbs, with a substantial train station, the route 109 tram, numerous bus routes serving the suburb. Box Hill was first settled by the squatter Arundel Wrighte of Van Diemen's Land, who in 1838 took up a pastoral lease on the land he had explored in the Bushy Creek area.
The first permanent settlers, Thomas Toogood and his wife Edith, purchased 5,000 acres in 1841 and Wrighte built a house on his property, "Marionvale", in 1844. The Pioneers' Memorial, which can be found in front of the town hall, is made from a chimney stone, taken from Wrighte's original house, it was not until after 1850, that Crown lands were subdivided and sold. Traffic along a main road running through the district encouraged the building of a hotel at Box Hill in 1853, its owner named it the White Horse hotel and the name was bestowed on the road. Box Hill Post Office opened on 1 February 1861; the postmaster proposed the name, derived from Box Hill, England, near his birthplace. In 1871, Box Hill township's population was 154 and the district relied on orchards and mixed farming; the extension of the railway line from Camberwell to Lilydale in 1882 included a station at Box Hill, but there were stations at Canterbury and Surrey Hills, to the west. They attracted subdivisions and development ahead of Box Hill.
Growth came, with a school opening in Box Hill in 1887 and the town became the seat of the Nunawading Shire Council, which met at the Box Hill Courthouse. In the mid-1880s, Box Hill became a favoured area for landscape artists who wanted to paint the Australian bush en plein air; these artists, among them Arthur Streeton, Tom Roberts and Frederick McCubbin, established the Box Hill artists' camp, formed what would become known as the Heidelberg School, the first distinctively Australian movement in Western art. Unlike suburbs closer to Melbourne, Box Hill lacked the web of tramlines, which promoted residential development beyond the reach of the railway line. In 1916-17, tramlines reached the western edge of what in a short time would be the Box Hill Municipality, at Burwood, Mont Albert, Wattle Park; the years after the World War I saw Box Hill's turn for residential growth. A girls' technical school was built in 1924 and a boys' high school in 1930. During the World War II a boys' technical school was opened.
The new Town Hall on Whitehorse Road opened in April 1935. One of the arguments for its construction was that "the boon it would prove to the local brickworks, which had just resumed production after a period of suspension"; the Box Hill Presbyterian Church building was the West Melbourne Presbyterian Church built 1867 on the corner of Lonsdale and William Streets. After the end of the Second World War, Box Hill was suburbanised, but Box Hill South and Box Hill North remained comparatively undeveloped. Post war housing expansion included a Housing Commission estate in Box Hill South. A district hospital opened in 1956; the shopping area enjoyed growth and prosperity which by the end of the 1950s was putting a strain on it. The development of Myer Eastland and Doncaster Shoppingtown in the late 1960s took trade away, the shopping centre regained custom by undergrounding the railway line and station and building Box Hill Central on land, which included the old market. In 1954, the Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works designated Box Hill as one of five district centres for metropolitan Melbourne.
The plan has succeeded in Box Hill. In addition to the shopping centre, the Box Hill TAFE and several office buildings have strengthened its centrality in the region. Apart from commercial functions there are large reserves, with ovals in three directions, about a kilometre from Box Hill Central. Box Hill South lies between Burwood East, about two kilometres square, its proximity to trams was better than Box Hill North's and its residential growth was pre and early post war. The Box Hill Golf Club is nearby and a linear park continues along Gardiners Creek. There are church educational institutions. In 1971, a sister city relationship was forged with Chiba Prefecture, Japan. "Box Hill" is the name of a department store in Matsudo. Box Hill City was amalgamated with Nunawading City on 15 December 1994, to form Whitehorse City, renewing the boundaries that began with the Nunawading Parish and subsequent Shire. Box Hill has a shopping precinct; these range from the shops along Station Street and Whitehorse Road, to the suburb's two shopping centres.
Centro Box Hill Box Hill Central is integrated with a bus interchange and the Box Hill
Canterbury is an eastern suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 10 km from Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Boroondara. At the 2016 Census, Canterbury had a population of 8,056. Famed for its leafy green boulevards and substantial, opulent historic residences, Canterbury is one of Melbourne's most expensive and exclusive suburbs. Canterbury extends as far as Mont Albert Road in the north, Burke Road in the west and Highfield Roads in the east and Riversdale Road to the south; the main thoroughfare through Canterbury is Canterbury Road, which runs east-west and bisects the suburb. Canterbury is the home to many of Victoria's oldest and most prestigious private schools, including Camberwell Grammar School, Camberwell Girls Grammar School and Strathcona Baptist Girls Grammar School. Other schools include Camberwell High School, Canterbury Girls' Secondary College and Canterbury Primary School. Canterbury contains various parks and gardens and is home to the Camberwell Hockey Club in Matlock Street.
The Canterbury Sports Ground, home of cricket and Australian football, is in Chatham Road. The main shopping area in Canterbury is around the railway station and includes shops in Canterbury Road, as well as Maling Road. Larger shopping centres nearby include Whitehorse Road in Balwyn. Canterbury is serviced by the Canterbury and East Camberwell stations, on the Lilydale and Belgrave train lines, it is serviced by tram routes 72 and 109. The railway station is in many ways responsible for the suburb's existence: before the opening of the railway to the City in 1882, the area was a semi-rural area, it was occupied by the well to do. Many of these early residents and in some cases, their properties, are remembered in the street names of the suburb, notably Logan Street and Monomeath Avenue. Canterbury Post Office opened on 22 November 1870; the first subdivision in the area came in 1885, when Michael Logan created the'Claremont Park Estate' within the area of Canterbury Road, Bryson Street, Prospect Hill Road and Logan Street.
At around this time, Edward Snowden settled on 7 hectares in the area centred on a manor he named Monomeath. In 1900 Snowden's estate was subdivided and sold off to form what is now Monomeath Avenue and residents such as notable architect Percey Kernot and prominent citizen George Coghill moved in; the road was lined with oak trees. Over time it has gained much cachet in Australian society, famed for its wealthy and sometimes eccentric residents. In the 2016 Census, there were 8,056 people in Canterbury. 67.2% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were China 7.9%, England 3.7%, Malaysia 1.7%, New Zealand 1.6% and India 1.3%. 73.4% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 9.9%, Cantonese 2.4% and Italian 1.3%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 37.7%, Catholic 20.1% and Anglican 12.8%. Canterbury is regarded as one of Melbourne's most exclusive suburbs the "Golden Mile" - a term referring to a part of Mont Albert Road, running west from Balwyn Road and the avenues that connect it to Canterbury Road, including Monomeath Avenue, lined by large, century old oak trees and grand ornate mansions and is home to many notable politicians and leaders of business and industry.
Other blue-chip locales along this stretch include Alexandra Avenue, Hopetoun Avenue, Victoria Avenue and The Ridge. It ranks in the top three suburbs for average house prices in Melbourne. Past and present residents of Monomeath Avenue include or have included: Kylie and Dannii Minogue's family. Mark Eddy - Australian GT Champion and Grand Prix Car Racer. Andrew Peacock - Former federal leader of the Liberal Party of Australia. Philip Barnes - Former City of Kew Councillor and Chairperson of Disability Justice Australia. Craig Saddler - Chairman of Boeing Australia. Sir Rupert Hamer - Former Premier of Victoria. Macfarlane Burnet - One of Australia's most famous and decorated scientists and the first Australian of the Year. CBE Leonard William Weickhardt - Former Chancellor of the University of Melbourne. Stan Wallis - Former chairman of Coles Myer and AMP Limited. Frank Cicutto - Former CEO of National Australia Bank. Russell Jones - Former CEO and Managing Director of Amcor. Philip Webb - Former President of the Real Estate Institute of Victoria.
Thomas Watson Haynes - Manager and Director for multiple Australian companies in the first half of the 1900s. Anthony Podesta - Founder and CEO of McMillan Shakespeare. Xianwen Xu - China property developer. Set Canterbury's house price record in May 2008, when he bought Anthony Podesta's mansion for 9 million Australian dollars. Tom Schieffer - Former US Ambassador to Australia, to Japan; the suburb has competing in the Yarra Junior Football League. Canterbury has a number of secondary schools in its vicinity; these include Canterbury Primary School, Camberwell High School, Strathcona Baptist Girls' Grammar School, Canterbury Girls' School. Canterbury Christadelphians Canterbury Presbyterian Church Canterbury Baptist Church City of Camberwell - the former local government area of which Canterbury was a part Australian Places - Canterbury
Port Melbourne, Victoria
Port Melbourne is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 5 km south-west from Melbourne's central business district. It is split between the local government areas of Port Phillip; the area to the north of the West Gate Freeway is in the City of Melbourne. The area to the south is in the City of Port Phillip. At the 2016 Census, Port Melbourne had a population of 16,175; the suburb is bordered by the lower reaches of the Yarra River. Port Melbourne covers a large area, which includes the distinct localities of Fishermans Bend, Garden City and Beacon Cove, it was known as Sandridge and developed as the City's second port, linked to the nearby Melbourne CBD. The industrial Port Melbourne has been subject to intense urban renewal over the past two decades; as a result, Port Melbourne is a diverse and historic area, featuring industrial and port areas along the Yarra, to open parklands, bayside beaches, exclusive apartments and Bay Street's restaurants and cafes. The suburb forms a major transport link from east to west, home to one end of the West Gate Bridge.
The most prominent early resident of the area, now known as Port Melbourne, was Captain Wilbraham Frederick Evelyn Liardet, who arrived in 1839, established a hotel and mail service. Liardet stated that before his arrival the surveyor William Wedge Darke and his family had camped on the beach in their two roomed, carpeted wooden caravan known as'Darke's Ark'. Liardet credited Wedge with cutting the first track to the beach through the tea tree scrub and hoisting a barrel on a pole, on a high section of ground, to point the way back to the Melbourne settlement. From this signpost its first official name,'Sandridge', was said to have originated; the area became known as'Liardet's Beach' but Liardet himself was said to have preferred'Brighton'. It became Port Melbourne in 1884; the area came into prominence during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s. With an increasing number of ships looking to berth, Sandridge became a thriving transport hub. To alleviate the high costs of shipping goods via small vessels up the Yarra River to Melbourne the Port Melbourne railway line was built in 1854 to connect Sandridge to Melbourne.
The disused Sandridge Bridge takes its name from this historic railway line. In 1860, Port Melbourne was an early area of Victoria to gain Municipal status, with the Sandridge Borough, which became the City of Port Melbourne. In the early years of Port Melbourne, the suburb was separated from neighboring Albert Park by a large shallow lagoon; this was filled in over the years, with the last of it completed in 1929. Today, the area is covered by the eponymous Lagoon Reserve, a public park to the east of the Esplanade, between Liardet Street and Graham Street, although the original extent of the lagoon was much greater; as a transport hub, Port Melbourne had numerous hotels. Early industries included a sugar refining, soap production, candle works, chemical works and flour mills, gasworks, a distillery and a boot factory. Station and Princes Piers were major places of arrival to Australia for immigrants prior to the availability of affordable air travel. For many years Port Melbourne was a focus of Melbourne's criminal underworld, which operated smuggling syndicates on the docks.
The old Ships Painters and Dockers Union was notorious for being controlled by gangsters. The Waterside Workers Federation, on the other hand, was a stronghold of the Communist Party of Australia. With the amalgamation of the local Council into the City of Port Phillip in 1994, many of Port Melbourne's civic institutions were adaptively reused; as a result, the Port Melbourne Town Hall is now a public library. As the importance of the Port has declined, as manufacturing industries have moved out of the inner city area, Port Melbourne has become a residential suburb; the area where Port Melbourne developed, around Station Pier and Princes Pier, has been redeveloped with a mixture of apartment complexes and medium-density housing, the best known of, the Beacon Cove development. In Port Melbourne 64.7% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 5.4%, New Zealand 2.8%, Greece 2.6%, United States of America 1.0% and China 0.9%. 73.4% of people only spoke English at home.
Other languages spoken at home included Greek 6.1%, Italian 1.6%, Mandarin 1.0%, Cantonese 0.8% and Russian 0.8%. Two major freeways run through Port Melbourne. Other main roads include Bay Street, Williamstown Road, Lorimer Street, Graham Street, Salmon Street, Inglis Street and Beach Street. Port Melbourne's roads are a mix of planning styles. Port Melbourne is serviced by an extensive bus network operated by CDC Melbourne which connects it to Melbourne CBD and surrounding suburbs. Port Melbourne is serviced by Melbourne tram route 109, run as a high patronage high frequency light rail service since the heavy rail line was converted to light rail in 1987. While there are several disused freight rail links, the light rail is the only used rail connection to Port Melbourne. There have been a number of proposals for tram and light rail extension in Port Melbourne: St Kilda-Port Melbourne link A 5 kilometre tram link between St Kilda and Port Melbourne along Beaconsfield Parade was first raised by the City of Port Phillip in 2005.
The City of Port Phillip's 2007 feasibility study into the route found that the high density population could sustain around 200,000 annual commuter tri
Main Yarra Trail
The Yarra Trail is a shared use path for cyclists and pedestrians, which follows the Yarra River through the north eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. The trail follows the river from near its mouth, through the city and suburbs to Westerfolds Park and Eltham; the Capital City Trail uses the same path up to Dights Falls, where it continues up the Merri Creek Trail as part of its loop around the city. Bicycle Victoria has an ongoing campaign to have the path in Yarra Bend Park improved and the stairs at the east end of Gipps Street removed from the trail by continuing the path on the west side of the river. Other alternatives include installing a ramp or installing a new footbridge near the Abbotsford Convent; the path starts just to the north of West Gate Bridge near the mouth of the Yarra River as it enters Port Phillip Bay by the punt landing. The punt allows cyclists and pedestrians to cross to Spotswood and the Hobsons Bay Coastal Trail and the Scienceworks Museum. From the punt landing, the trail winds through Melbourne Docklands as dedicated path on Lorimer St and east of Todd Rd, continues as an on-road cycling lane on Lorimer St.
At the west side of Yarra's Edge and before the Docklands Highway, head off the road towards the bank of the river. The trail can be picked up, where it intersects with the Capital City Trail, at the southern end of the "Koori Eel Trap" footbridge; the trail passes the north side of Jeff's Shed, the Crown Casino and the restaurant sector of Southbank on the shared and busy pedestrian boulevarde with excellent views of the Melbourne CBD across the Yarra River. At the pedestrian bridge at Southbank you can choose to continue on the south bank or cross and follow the river on the north bank; the trail goes under the Princes Bridge next to Flinders Street station, the starting point for the St Kilda road cycling lane to St Kilda beach. On the north side of the river you can visit Federation Square, the newly established riverside park of Birrarung Marr, Melbourne Park, Melbourne Cricket Ground. On the south bank of the Yarra river you pass several rowing clubs with their boatsheds. You may come across a rowing coach cycling one handed while yelling instructions through a megaphone to the rowing team on the river.
You will pass historic Como House nearby. At MacRobertson Bridge the paths meet on the north side of the river. In Richmond the path meets up with the Gardiners Creek Trail. After going under the Victoria street bridge in Abbotsford the path reaches the Walmer St shared pedestrian and cycle bridge. Once across the bridge on the north side of the river, travel halfway up the short steep hill and turn to the left into the park. Travel along the path until it reaches Yarra boulevarde, where the path descends to cross the Yarra River again at the Gipps Street shared pedestrian and cycle bridge. Alternatively continue to follow the Yarra boulevarde to Studley Park - see below. At Gipps Street, flights of steps connect to the concrete path on the western side of the river; some cyclists choose to avoid the steps and ride the back streets of Abbotsford to meet the trail at the Collingwood Children's Farm. A short way further the trail comes to Dights Falls, an ancient meeting place for the Wurundjeri people and tribes of the Kulin nation.
The weir and water race were used to power the Ceres flour mill once located here. Here the Capital City Trail follows the Merri Creek Trail up the Merri Creek; the Yarra River Trail crosses the Merri Creek here, passes under the Eastern Freeway and starts a long gradual up hill climb to Fairfield Hospital, before crossing the Yarra river at the pedestrian Pipe bridge at the Fairfield boathouse. The bridge is narrow and you will need to walk across when it is busy. On the eastern side of the river the path climbs up steeply to Yarra Boulevard. Stop at the top to admire the sweeping views of the city skyline across Yarra Bend Park. An interesting alternative to the Yarra River Trail at Yarra Bend Park is to follow the Yarra Boulevard as it meanders through the parkland of Yarra Bend following the river, it is a tourist drive with on-road cycling lanes, which provides access to the Studley Park boathouse, where row boats can be hired. After crossing the Eastern Freeway the road climbs up a hill.
From the top of the hill follow the Yarra boulevard down to the Chandler Highway. You can choose to wheel your bike down some steps to go under the bridge, or use the pedestrian crossing to access a ramped connecting path that leads down to the Yarra path, next to the National Guide Dog and Mobility Centre; the northern end of the Anniversary Outer Circle Trail is 0.6 km from this point. Head south on the Chandler Highway and the Anniversary Trail can be found just across the bridge that crosses the Eastern Freeway. A safer alternative is to continue along the Yarra River Trail from the Chandler Highway to Willsmere Park - 1.5 km. You can cross under the Eastern Freeway at Willsmere Park and traverse to the Anniversary Trail via Hyde Park; the Yarra River Trail tracks along the northern edge of the Eastern Freeway with first the La Trobe golf Club to the south over the river followed by the Kew Golf Club directly to the south. Yarra River is rejoined near Burke Rd; the trail crosses over a footbridge to the north side of the Yarra, just before the trail passes beneath the Burke Road bridge over the Yarra and Eastern Freeway.
If you travel straight ahead instead of turning left to cross the footbridge you will find yourself on the Koonung Creek Trail. From the footbridge you can use a hilly path, i
Durham is a historic city and the county town of County Durham in North East England. The city lies on the River Wear, to the west of Sunderland, south of Newcastle upon Tyne and to the north of Darlington. Founded over the final resting place of St Cuthbert, its Norman cathedral became a centre of pilgrimage in medieval England; the cathedral and adjacent 11th-century castle were designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986. The castle has been the home of Durham University since 1832. HM Prison Durham is located close to the city centre. City of Durham is the name of the civil parish; the name "Durham" comes from the Celtic element "dun", signifying a hill fort, the Old Norse "holme", which translates to island. The Lord Bishop of Durham takes a Latin variation of the city's name in his official signature, signed "N. Dunelm"; some attribute the city's name to the legend of the Dun Cow and the milkmaid who in legend guided the monks of Lindisfarne carrying the body of Saint Cuthbert to the site of the present city in 995 AD.
Dun Cow Lane is said to be one of the first streets in Durham, being directly to the east of Durham Cathedral and taking its name from a depiction of the city's founding etched in masonry on the south side of the cathedral. The city has been known by a number of names throughout history; the original Nordic Dun Holm was known in Latin as Dunelm. The modern form Durham came into use in the city's history; the north eastern historian Robert Surtees chronicled the name changes in his History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham but states that it is an "impossibility" to tell when the city's modern name came into being. Archeological evidence suggests a history of settlement in the area since 2000 BC; the present city can be traced back to AD 995, when a group of monks from Lindisfarne chose the strategic high peninsula as a place to settle with the body of Saint Cuthbert, that had lain in Chester-le-Street, founding a church there. Local legend states that the city was founded in A.
D. 995 by divine intervention. The 12th century chronicler Symeon of Durham recounts that after wandering in the north, Saint Cuthbert's bier miraculously came to a halt at the hill of Warden Law and, despite the effort of the congregation, would not move. Aldhun, Bishop of Chester-le-Street and leader of the order, decreed a holy fast of three days, accompanied by prayers to the saint. During the fast, Saint Cuthbert appeared to a certain monk named Eadmer, with instructions that the coffin should be taken to Dun Holm. After Eadmer's revelation, Aldhun found that he was able to move the bier, but did not know where Dun Holm was; the legend of the Dun Cow, first documented in The Rites of Durham, an anonymous account about the Durham Cathedral, published in 1593, builds on Symeon's account. According to this legend, by chance that day, the monks came across a milkmaid at Mount Joy, she stated. The monks, followed her, they settled at a wooded "hill-island" – a high wooded rock surrounded on three sides by the River Wear.
There they erected a shelter for the relics, on the spot where the Durham Cathedral would stand. Symeon states that a modest wooden building erected there shortly was the first building in the city. Bishop Aldhun subsequently had a stone church built, dedicated in September 998, it no longer remains. The legend is interpreted by a Victorian relief stone carving on the south face of the cathedral and, more by the bronze sculpture'Durham Cow', which reclines by the River Wear in view of the cathedral. During the medieval period the city gained spiritual prominence as the final resting place of Saint Cuthbert and Saint Bede the Venerable; the shrine of Saint Cuthbert, situated behind the High Altar of Durham Cathedral, was the most important religious site in England until the martyrdom of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury in 1170. Saint Cuthbert became famous for two reasons. Firstly, the miraculous healing powers he had displayed in life continued after his death, with many stories of those visiting the saint's shrine being cured of all manner of diseases.
This led to him being known as the "wonder worker of England". Secondly, after the first translation of his relics in 698 AD, his body was found to be incorruptible. Apart from a brief translation back to Holy Island during the Norman Invasion the saint's relics have remained enshrined to the present day. Saint Bede's bones are entombed in the cathedral, these drew medieval pilgrims to the city. Durham's geographical position has always given it an important place in the defence of England against the Scots; the city played an important part in the defence of the north, Durham Castle is the only Norman castle keep never to have suffered a breach. The Battle of Neville's Cross, which took place near the city on 17 October 1346 between the English and Scots, is the most famous battle of the age; the city suffered from plague outbreaks in 1544, 1589 and 1598. Owing to the divine providence evidenced in the city's legendary founding, the Bishop of Durham has always enjoyed the title "Bishop by Divine Providence" as opposed to other bishops, who are "Bishop by Divine Permission".
However, as the north-east of England lay so far from Westminster, the bishops of Durham enjoyed extraordinary powers such as the ability to hold their own parliament, raise their own armies, appoint their own sheriffs and Justices, administer their own laws, levy taxes and customs duties, create fairs and markets, issue charters, salvage shipwrecks
Lilydale is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 35 km north-east from Melbourne's central business district situated in the Yarra Valley. At the 2016 census, Lilydale had a population of 15,530, it began as a town within the Shire of Lillydale and is notable as the burial site of Dame Nellie Melba. It is both a residential area of metropolitan Melbourne and an industrial area on the city's rural-urban fringe; some prefer to believe the town was named after an 1852 song "Lilly Dale" by H. S. Thompson but evidence shows it was named after an early settler, Lilly de Castella. Most of Victoria has been named with traditional Aboriginal names. Lilly de Castella was one of four daughters of Colonel Joseph wife Mary. Joseph Anderson was one of eight nominated members of Victoria's first parliament. Lilly was born Elizabeth Anne on Norfolk Island, where her father was commandant from 1835 to 1839. Lilly was a typical Victorian pet-name for girls named Elizabeth; the family settled in South Yarra in 1848 and were friends of Lieutenant-Governor Charles La Trobe and his wife Sophie.
Mary Anderson was a pioneer member of the Melbourne Mechanics Institute. Colonel Anderson was a close friend of Crown Surveyor Clement Hodgkinson and was a pallbearer at the funeral of Governor Hotham, who died on 31 December 1855. Lilly married Paul de Castella in 1856. Anderson Street in Lilydale was named after the Colonel, the parallel Castella Street was named after his son-in-law, Lilly's husband Paul. Lillydale township was surveyed in 1860 by Clement Hodgkinson; the Post Office opened on 1 September 1860 as Brushy Creek, was renamed Lillydale in 1861 and Lilydale around 1872. The Lilydale Hotel opened in 1862; the railway came to town with the opening of the station in 1882. The first town hall was built in 1888 along with the Mechanics Institute Free Library building. Lilydale has an active CFA volunteer fire brigade, first established in 1905. There was an unregistered brigade dating back to the 1880s prior to this; the brigade has a satellite station in Chirnside Park. Lilydale has franchises of McDonald's and KFC.
Lilydale has shopping centres named'Lilydale Marketplace' and'The Lilydale Village' as well as shops on both sides of Main Street. There is a'Baby Bunnings', many other commercial shops. Lilydale station is the terminus for the Lilydale railway line offering half hourly metropolitan rail services. A bus station and taxi rank operates from the railway station servicing many of Melbourne's far eastern suburbs. Lilydale has segregated bicycle facilities including the start of the Lilydale to Warburton Rail Trail which follows the course of the Lilydale-Warburton railway line, built in 1901 but closed in 1964. Coldstream Airport is located 5 km north east in Coldstream which has a sealed, all-weather strip to service the area with recreation and fire bombing flying facilities for the local community. Coldstream Airport is home to Yarra Valley Flight Training, Coldstream Flyers Club and ACMA - Australian Centre for Mission Aviation. Lilydale Airport is located in Yering 5 km north of Lilydale, it is for use by local pilots.
There was a campus of Swinburne University of Technology, which offered TAFE and university courses, since announcing closure other institutes have come forward wanting to run the facilities. Box Hill Institute and the Centre for Adult Education opened their John St Lilydale Community Campus in 2015 offering the people of Lilydale and surrounding districts access to more than 20 quality accredited, short courses and pre-accredited pathway programs. On 15 February 2016 Box Hill Institute reopened the much larger former Swinburne campus as the Lilydale Lakeside Campus offering vocational training, TAFE and higher education. Lilydale has four main secondary schools: Lilydale High School, Mount Lilydale Mercy College, Lilydale Heights College, Lilydale Adventist Academy. Many primary schools are located in the suburb as well. Other institutions based in Lilydale include the Yarra Ranges Regional Museum, Australia offices for Institute in Basic Life Principles and Advanced Training Institute. Olinda Creek runs through Lilydale having its source in the nearby Dandenong Ranges and is a tributary of the Yarra River.
Lilydale is well known for Lillydale Lake, a recreational area where children play and learn about the wetlands environment. Surrounding the lake are modern housing estates, such as Lakeview Estate. A popular ground covering product from the long established quarry on the edge of the town, used in pathways, driveways and composed of crushed limestone of varying grades, is commercially and popularly known as "Lilydale Toppings"; the town is mentioned in the Augie March song The Cold Acre. In Miss Fisher's Murder Mysteries Series 3 episode Death at the Grand, Phryne arranges to have her troublesome father, housed there until leaving the country, saying "Even you can't get yourself into trouble in Lilydale." The suburb has an Australian Rules football team, The Lilydale Falcons, competing in the Eastern Football League. It has a cricket team, competing in the Ringwood District Cricket Association. Notable people from or having lived in Lilydale include: Elizabeth Catherine Usher AO, pioneering speech therapist Lilydale Airport
Middlesex is an ancient county in southeast England. It is now within the wider urbanised area of London, its area is now mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in other neighbouring ceremonial counties. It was established in the Anglo-Saxon system from the territory of the Middle Saxons, existed as an official unit until 1965; the historic county includes land stretching north of the River Thames from 17 miles west to 3 miles east of the City of London with the rivers Colne and Lea and a ridge of hills as the other boundaries. The low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, was the second smallest county by area in 1831; the City of London was a county in its own right from the 12th century and was able to exert political control over Middlesex. Westminster Abbey dominated most of the early financial and ecclesiastical aspects of the county; as London grew into Middlesex, the Corporation of London resisted attempts to expand the city boundaries into the county, which posed problems for the administration of local government and justice.
In the 18th and 19th centuries the population density was high in the southeast of the county, including the East End and West End of London. From 1855 the southeast was administered, with sections of Kent and Surrey, as part of the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works; when county councils were introduced in England in 1889 about 20% of the area of Middlesex, along with a third of its population, was transferred to the new County of London and the remainder became an administrative county governed by the Middlesex County Council that met at the Middlesex Guildhall in Westminster, in the County of London. The City of London, Middlesex, became separate counties for other purposes and Middlesex regained the right to appoint its own sheriff, lost in 1199. In the interwar years suburban London expanded further, with improvement and expansion of public transport, the setting up of new industries. After the Second World War, the population of the County of London and inner Middlesex was in steady decline, with high population growth continuing in the outer parts.
After a Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London all of the original area was incorporated into an enlarged Greater London in 1965, with the rest transferred to neighbouring counties. Since 1965 various areas called. Middlesex was the former postal county of 25 post towns; the name refers to the tribal origin of its inhabitants. The word is formed from the Old English,'middel' and'Seaxe'. In 704, it is recorded as Middleseaxon in an Anglo-Saxon chronicle, written in Latin, about land at Twickenham; the Latin text reads: "in prouincia quæ nuncupatur Middelseaxan Haec". The Saxons derived their name from a kind of knife for which they were known; the seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem. Their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word "Saxon". There were settlements in the area of Middlesex that can be traced back thousands of years before the creation of a county.
Middlesex was part of the Kingdom of Essex It was recorded in the Domesday Book as being divided into the six hundreds of Edmonton, Gore, Hounslow and Spelthorne. The City of London has been self-governing since the thirteenth century and became a county in its own right, a county corporate. Middlesex included Westminster, which had a high degree of autonomy. Of the six hundreds, Ossulstone contained the districts closest to the City of London. During the 17th century it was divided into four divisions, along with the Liberty of Westminster took over the administrative functions of the hundred; the divisions were named Finsbury, Holborn and Tower. The county had parliamentary representation from the 13th century; the title Earl of Middlesex was created twice, in 1622 and 1677, but became extinct in 1843. The economy of the county was dependent on the City of London from early times and was agricultural. A variety of goods were provided for the City, including crops such as grain and hay and building materials.
Recreation at day trip destinations such as Hackney, Islington and Twickenham, as well as coaching, inn-keeping and sale of goods and services at daily shops and stalls to the considerable passing trade provided much local employment and formed part of the early economy. However, during the 18th century the inner parishes of Middlesex became suburbs of the City and were urbanised; the Middlesex volume of John Norden's Speculum Britanniae of 1593 summarises: This is plentifully stored, as it seemeth beautiful, with many fair and comely buildings of the merchants of London, who have planted their houses of recreation not in the meanest places, which they have cunningly contrived, curiously beautified with divers devices, neatly decked with rare inventions, environed with orchards of sundry, delicate fruits, gardens with delectable walks, alleys and a great variety of pleasing dainties: all of which seem to be beautiful ornaments unto this country. Thomas Cox wrote in 1794: We may call it all London, being chiefly inhabited by the citizens, who fill the towns in it with their country houses, to which they resort that they may breathe a little sweet air, free from the fogs and smoke of the City.
In 1803 Sir John Sinclair, president of the Board of Agr