click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Surveyor 4

Surveyor 4 was the fourth lunar lander in the American uncrewed Surveyor program sent to explore the surface of the Moon. This spacecraft crashed after an otherwise flawless mission; the planned landing target was Sinus Medii at 1.33 ° west longitude. Surveyor 6 landed near the crash site of Surveyor 4 a few months in November of 1967; this spacecraft was the fourth in a series designed to achieve a soft landing on the Moon and to return photography of the lunar surface for determining characteristics of the lunar terrain for Apollo lunar landing missions. Equipment on board included a television camera and auxiliary mirrors, a soil mechanics surface sampler, strain gauges on the spacecraft landing legs, numerous engineering sensors. Like Surveyor 3, Surveyor 4 was equipped with a surface claw to detect and measure ferrous elements in the lunar surface. After a flawless flight to the Moon, radio signals from the spacecraft ceased during the terminal-descent phase at 02:03 UT on 17 July 1967 2.5 minutes before touchdown.

Contact with the spacecraft was never reestablished, the mission was unsuccessful. The solid-fuel retrorocket may have exploded near the end of its scheduled burn. 1967 in spaceflight List of artificial objects on the Moon Surveyor Program Results 1969

Sound Effects No. 13 – Death & Horror

Sound Effects No. 13 – Death & Horror is an album produced by Mark Harding of the BBC Radiophonic Workshop and released in 1977 by BBC Records & Tapes. It is the thirteenth instalment in the label's Sound Effects series and contains over 80 sound effects related to horror and death, so that producers may use them in amateur film and stage productions. Mark Harding and label staff man Ian Richardson picked numerous "classics" from the BBC Effects Library and from the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, but created many new sound effects for the album themselves, many of which were created by "mistreating large white cabbages." The effects are arranged throughout the album into six distinct themed sections. The original release was pressed onto a black vinyl that changed to a translucent blood red colour when held up to strong light. Upon release, the album drew controversy regarding its violent content from anti-obscenity campaigner Mary Whitehouse, who criticised what she felt was an "utter lack of responsibility" on behalf of the BBC.

While this meant the album was pulled from sale, it soon returned to stock, the controversy encouraged it to sell some 20,000 extra copies, making it the first sound effects album to chart within the Top 100 of the UK Albums Chart. The album has been described as one of BBC Records' most memorable releases and writers have described its sounds as sounding authentic, it was re-released as a "blood-splattered" vinyl LP by Demon Records in 2016. Two sequels to the album had been released in 1978 and 1981. Sound Effects No. 13 – Death & Horror is the thirteenth release in BBC Records & Tapes LP series Sound Effects, which brought together numerous sound effects for amateur drama and film producers to use in their productions. The series had begun with the first edition in 1969, the most recent edition prior to Death & Horror was 1976's Out of this World, which contained atmospheric sound effects recorded by members of the BBC Radiophonic Workshop. Over the run of the series, the makers received numerous requests for eerie and horrific sound effects for usage in stage thrillers, which led to the Death & Horror edition being commissioned by BBC staff man Ian Richardson, who decided which effects would be used on the album.

His liner notes for the album enforced that the usage of sound effects in horror productions is crucial to create an eerie atmosphere: "A recording of horror sound effects? Who needs sound effects for executions and gory things like that? It's the visual aspect of any horror film which sends tingles down your back and makes your hair stand on end. Not true. Next time you stay up to watch the late night film on the T. V. turn the sound down and you'll find that not only does the speech disappear but those all-important sound effects. So spare a thought for the men who make them, they deafen themselves banging tin sheets making thunder, soak themselves with water for a Chinese water torture effect and tramp up and down gravel pits for hours providing necessary creepy footsteps." Of the sounds on the album, Richardson worked with producer Mike Harding of the BBC Radiophonic Workshop in gathering many "classic" gruesome sound effects, many of which came from the BBC Effects Library and the Radiophonic Workshop, but most sounds were recorded by the pair for the album.

They recorded most of the grisly effects, such as the chopping of heads and breaking necks, by "mistreating" large white cabbages, which they cut with knives and cleavers and stabbed with pokers. Richarsdon wrote that "he results were realistic and we had some coleslaw left for dinner." The gullotine sound effect was achieved by sliding a metal bar down a coat rack and editing this to the sound of a cabbage being chopped into a basket containing straw. There are over 80 sound effects on the album, ordered into six sections: "Execution and Torture", "Monsters and Animals", "Creaking Doors and Grave Digging", "Musical Effects and Footsteps", "Vocal Effects and Heartbeats" and "Weather and Bells." Sound effects on the album noted in commentaries for their violence include "Neck Twisted and Broken", "Red Hot Poker in the Eye" and "Strangulation". Most of the effects were recorded in mono, while stereo echo was applied to some them to enhance the effect, the liner notes instruct users to add their own stereo to the mono sounds to suit varied requirements, as well as suggesting that users dub sounds they find too short onto tape and edit the sounds to achieve a continuous effect.

The cover illustration was designed by Andrew Prewett. Sound Effects No. 13 – Death & Horror was released by BBC Records and Tapes in spring 1977 as a black LP which turned translucent blood red in colour when held up to a strong light. Some of the selections from the album were released as one side of a hi-fi test single. Upon the album's release, it was condemned by moral guardians for its violent content. In particular, noted anti-obscenity campaigner Mary Whitehouse complained about the album, announcing she was horrified at the BBC's "utter lack of responsibility" by deciding to release it. Alan Bilyard, who at the time was in charge of BBC Records' business affairs and finance, noted that the controversy "shook us a bit to start with." The controversy meant the album was suspended for a short time, until Bilyard got approval to put the album back on the market. Roy Tempest, managing director of BBC Records, was pleased with Whitehouse's dissenting comments as he suspected they would help boost sales of the album.

Indeed, sales figures for the album rose after her comments. Bilyard suspected that her intervention helped sell some 20,000 copies of the album, while Billboard wrote that the album was selling 100,000 copies a week, became the first sound effects album to enter the Top 100 of the UK Alb

Hongsa

Hongsa is a town in northwestern Laos. It is located in Hongsa District in Sainyabuli Province; the town is 81 kilometres northwest of the provincial capital Sainyabuli. Nearby Ban Viengkeo is a rotating host to a major elephant festival; the district is the site of a controversial coal-fired power plant to begin operation in 2015. The economy of Hongsa based around agriculture and some tourism, is being transformed by the Hongsa power plant. Plant construction is providing about 3,000 jobs and average local incomes have risen sharply. Once the plant goes online, local officials anticipate further employment growth with the creation of factories to export to Thailand and other ASEAN nations; the annual Elephant Festival, held in February each year, has attracted increasing numbers of visitors to the province. In 2008, the festival attracted more than 50,000 visitors; the venue of the festival rotates between Pak Lay and Sainyabuli. The festival is one of a number of projects by organiser Elefantasia to conserve and raise awareness of Laos's elephant population.

One of the town's monasteries, Wat Simungkhun, contains a stone platform covering a hole "leading to the end of the world". The area's most visible man-made structure is the 250 metres tall chimney stack of the Hongsa power plant; the Hongsa power plant will be a lignite-fired plant supplying the majority of its electricity to neighbouring Thailand. The project cost is estimated at US$3.7 billion with scheduled completion in 2015. The plant is 80 percent Thai-owned, with the remaining 20 percent held by the Lao government; when it goes online, capacity will be 1,878 megawatts, of which 1,500 MW will be exported to Thailand. The plant, associated lignite mine, will be Laos's largest. While project officials have highlighted the economic benefits of the plant, environmental groups have raised concerns about the impact of the project on the local people and environment. Concerns include: The air pollution arising from coal-fired power generation and harmful effects on the health of local people Diminished clean water resources as streams are dammed for reservoirs to supply the plant Destruction of forested areas to clear land for open surface lignite mining

Judiciary of Indonesia

The Judiciary of Indonesia comprises the Supreme Court of Indonesia and the Constitutional Court of Indonesia together with public courts, religious courts, administrative courts and military courts. The Supreme Court is Indonesia's highest court, it is the final court of appeal for civil verdicts. It resolves disputes between courts, it is led by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Indonesia Muhammad Hatta Ali. There are two separate officeholders for the title of Deputy Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Indonesia: Muhammad Syarifuddin for judicial affairs and Suwardi for non-judicial affairs; the Constitutional Court rules over disputes concerning the Constitution of Indonesia as well as matters involving elections and political parties. The current Chief Justice of the Constitutional Court of Indonesia is Arief Hidayat, who replaced Hamdan Zoelva in 2015. Zoelva's predecessor, Akil Mochtar, was stripped of his powers following allegations of accepting bribes; the current Deputy Chief Justice of the Constitutional Court of Indonesia is Anwar Usman.

The public courts comprise the district courts at the first level and the high courts at the appellate level, after which any appeal goes to the Supreme Court. They can try civil cases involving Indonesian citizens or foreign citizens. State courts have authority at the city and regency level, while high courts function at the provincial level. There are specialised courts formed within the system of public courts: juvenile courts, human rights courts, labour courts, commercial courts, fishery courts and anti-corruption courts. Religious courts are for Muslim citizens to resolve matters such as marriage and property donated for religious purposes. Religious courts are located at the district/municipality level and there are 343 of these courts of first instance at the regency or city level across Indonesia, including 19 Syariah Courts in Aceh. At the appeal level, religious high courts now number 29, including the renamed Mahkamah Syariat in Banda Aceh. Since 2006, a number of districts have issued local ordinances based on Syariah, expanding the domain of religious courts.

Administrative courts were established in 1986 as a consequence of a law intended to ensure that people would not be treated arbitrarily by government officials or organisations. They rule in disputes involving the state officials or bodies, both at the centre and in the regions. There is one specialised court created within the system of the administrative courts - the Tax Court; these deal with cases involving members of the Armed Forces. First-instance military courts consider cases regarding military personnel whose ranks are not higher than a captain. High military courts consider appeals against decisions of the lower Dilmil courts and act as first-instance courts in cases, involving military personnel with ranks of a major and above; the Primary Military Court hears appeals against the decisions of Dilimilti courts and decides upon issues of jurisdiction of the military courts. Judges decide cases based on written law. If there is no applicable written law, Law No. 14/1970 states that judges must apply unwritten law and decide cases with wisdom and full responsibility to God.

Bambang Waluyo, Implementasi Kekuasaan Kehakiman Republik Indonesia, Sinar Grafika, Jakarta, ISBN 979-8061-42-X Denny Indrayana Indonesian Constitutional Reform 1999-2002: An Evaluation of Constitution-Making in Transition, Kompas Book Publishing, Jakarta ISBN 978-979-709-394-5

Winsford

Winsford is a town and civil parish within the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It lies on the River Weaver south of Northwich and west of Middlewich, grew around the salt mining industry after the river was canalised in the 18th century, allowing freight to be conveyed northwards to the Port of Runcorn on the River Mersey; the town falls into the Winsford & Northwich Locality, with an estimated population in 2017 of 103,300. Winsford is split into three neighbourhoods: Over on the western side of the River Weaver, Wharton on the eastern side, Swanlow and Dene. Kings Henry III and Edward I held court at Darnhall near Winsford; the latter king founded Vale Royal Abbey at Darnhall, but moved it in 1277 to near Whitegate. A charter to hold a Wednesday market and an annual fair at Over was granted on 24 November 1280 by Edward I to the Abbot and convent of Vale Royal Abbey. From this charter can be traced the origins of the market, still held in the town.

In 2012, the charter grant was used to revive an annual fair in Winsford, with the name of Winsford Salt Fair. The Government gave permission for artificial improvements to the River Weaver in 1721 to allow large barges to reach Winsford from the port of Liverpool. At first, this was the closest that barges carrying china clay from Cornwall could get to the Potteries district of north Staffordshire, rapidly developing as the major centre of ceramic production in Britain. Cornish china clay was used in the production of stoneware; the clay was taken overland from Winsford by pack horse to manufacturers in the Potteries, a distance of about 30 miles. Locally produced salt was transported to the Potteries, for use in the manufacture of salt-glazed stoneware. Finished ceramics from the Potteries were brought back to Winsford, for export through the Port of Liverpool; that trade ended in the 1780s when the Trent and Mersey Canal opened and carried the goods through Middlewich, bypassing Winsford. The canalised River Weaver was the inspiration for the Duke of Bridgewater's canals, the engineer for the Weaver Navigation, Edwin Leader Williams and built the Manchester Ship Canal.

From the 1830s, salt became important to Winsford because the salt mines under Northwich had begun to collapse and another source of salt near the River Weaver was needed. A new source was discovered in Winsford, leading to the development of a salt industry along the course of the River Weaver, where many factories were established; as a result, a new town developed within 1 mi of the old Borough of Over, focused on Delamere Street. Most of the early development took place on the other side of the river, with new housing, pubs, chapels and a new church being built in the former hamlet of Wharton; as the prevailing winds blew the smoke away from Over, it became the place for the wealthier inhabitants to live. However, barge workers and others working in Winsford started to develop the area along the old Over Lane, now the High Street; the old borough had been connected by the 1860s. By the Second World War, employment in the salt trade had declined as one company took control of all the salt works and introduced methods of manufacture that needed much less labour.

Slum clearance started in the 1930s and, by the 1950s three new housing estates had been built on both sides of the river to replace sub-standard homes. However in the 1960s, Winsford could be described as "one long line of terraced houses from the station to Salterswall"; the town experienced a major expansion in the late 1960s and 1970s with its designation as an Expanded Town under the Town Development Act 1952 to take overspill from Liverpool. This saw the development of two new industrial areas on both sides of the town, new estates of council and private housing and a new shopping centre with a library, sports centre, civic hall and doctors' surgeries, but the town's population did not grow as much as planned, so the new civic buildings were too large for the population. The expansion led to a mix of people in the town, comprising the original Cheshire residents and a large wave of migrants from Liverpool. There was some friction between "Old" and "New" Winsfordians; the term "Woolyback" for "Old" Winsfordians was a common term of abuse related to their supposed rural roots.

These tensions have now subsided. Vale Royal Borough Council was formed in 1974, covering Winsford, Northwich and a large rural area of mid-Cheshire. In 1991, the council moved its main office from Northwich to a purpose-built headquarters in Winsford, which since April 2009 has been used by its successor authority Cheshire West and Chester Council; the same building houses Winsford Town Council. Since both Cheshire Fire Service and Cheshire Police have moved headquarters from the county town of Chester to Winsford; the local hamlets and villages of Moulton, Stanthorne, Wettenhall are all within the town's limits and use the town's resources. There are two layers of local government with responsibility for Winsford, Cheshire West and Chester Council, the town council. There used to be three tiers, however Vale Royal Borough Council and Cheshire County Council were abolished on 31 March 2009; the town falls within the Eddisbury constituency in Parliament, has been represented by Edward Timpson since 2019.

Winsford is served by two Cheshire Police teams. Winsford Neighbourhood Policing Team covers the town centre and Wharton, the Western Rural Neighbourhood Policing Team covers St Chads and Darnhall. A small area in

Somers Solar Center

The Somers Solar Center is a 5 megawatt solar photovoltaic power plant in Somers, Connecticut. The project is owned by Dominion Energy, Prime Solutions was the contractor and technology provider; the project was constructed on 50 acres of former pasture land. The Project Provides enough energy to power 5,000 homes annually; the origins of the center, which Dominion acquired from Kyocera in October,2013 are traced to an energy law enacted by the Connecticut legislature in 2011. Based on that law, the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection issued a request for proposals in December 2011 for the development of 10 megawatts of renewable energy to be sold under contract to the state's two major utilities; the Somers' proposal was one of two that were successful from among 21 entrants. Somers Solar Center is located on 50 leased acres in north-central Connecticut 4 miles south of the Massachusetts state line, it consists of 23,150 Kyocera solar panels that will generate 5 megawatt of alternating current, enough electricity to supply about 5,000 homes annually.

The project began construction in 2011. Prime Solutions Inc. a Connecticut-based company, was the center's engineering and construction contractor. The project provided about 80 jobs during the peak of construction, most of which came from locally owned companies; the electricity goes to the Connecticut Light & Power Co. under a 20-year power purchase agreement. The Project was acquired by Dominion Energy in October, 2013 one month before its completion; the project was completed in November, 2013. Solar power in Connecticut Wind power in Connecticut Solar power in the United States Somers Solar Center