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Survival of the fittest

"Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection. The biological concept of fitness is defined as reproductive success. In Darwinian terms the phrase is best understood as "Survival of the form that will leave the most copies of itself in successive generations." Herbert Spencer first used the phrase, after reading Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, in his Principles of Biology, in which he drew parallels between his own economic theories and Darwin's biological ones: "This survival of the fittest, which I have here sought to express in mechanical terms, is that which Mr. Darwin has called'natural selection', or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life."Darwin responded positively to Alfred Russel Wallace's suggestion of using Spencer's new phrase "survival of the fittest" as an alternative to "natural selection", adopted the phrase in The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication published in 1868.

In On the Origin of Species, he introduced the phrase in the fifth edition published in 1869, intending it to mean "better designed for an immediate, local environment". Herbert Spencer first used the phrase – after reading Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species – in his Principles of Biology of 1864 in which he drew parallels between his economic theories and Darwin's biological, evolutionary ones, writing, "This survival of the fittest, which I have here sought to express in mechanical terms, is that which Mr. Darwin has called'natural selection', or the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life."In July 1866 Alfred Russel Wallace wrote to Darwin about readers thinking that the phrase "natural selection" personified nature as "selecting", said this misconception could be avoided "by adopting Spencer's term" Survival of the fittest. Darwin promptly replied. I agree with all that you say on the advantages of H. Spencer's excellent expression of'the survival of the fittest'.

This however had not occurred to me till reading your letter. It is, however, a great objection to this term that it cannot be used as a substantive governing a verb". Had he received the letter two months earlier, he would have worked the phrase into the fourth edition of the Origin, being printed, he would use it in his "next book on Domestic Animals etc.". Darwin wrote on page 6 of The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication published in 1868, "This preservation, during the battle for life, of varieties which possess any advantage in structure, constitution, or instinct, I have called Natural Selection; the term "natural selection" is. He defended his analogy as similar to language used in chemistry, to astronomers depicting the "attraction of gravity as ruling the movements of the planets", or the way in which "agriculturists speak of man making domestic races by his power of selection", he had "often personified the word Nature. In Chapter 4 of the 5th edition of The Origin published in 1869, Darwin implies again the synonym: "Natural Selection, or the Survival of the Fittest".

By "fittest" Darwin meant "better adapted for the immediate, local environment", not the common modern meaning of "in the best physical shape". In the introduction he gave full credit to Spencer, writing "I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term Natural Selection, in order to mark its relation to man's power of selection, but the expression used by Mr. Herbert Spencer of the Survival of the Fittest is more accurate, is sometimes convenient."In The Man Versus The State, Spencer used the phrase in a postscript to justify a plausible explanation of how his theories would not be adopted by "societies of militant type". He uses the term in the context of societies at war, the form of his reference suggests that he is applying a general principle. "Thus by survival of the fittest, the militant type of society becomes characterized by profound confidence in the governing power, joined with a loyalty causing submission to it in all matters whatever".

Though Spencer’s conception of organic evolution is interpreted as a form of Lamarckism, Herbert Spencer is sometimes credited with inaugurating Social Darwinism. The phrase "survival of the fittest" has become used in popular literature as a catchphrase for any topic related or analogous to evolution and natural selection, it has thus been applied to principles of unrestrained competition, it has been used extensively by both proponents and opponents of Social Darwinism. Evolutionary biologists criticise the manner in which the term is used by non-scientists and the connotations that have grown around the term in popular culture; the phrase does not help in conveying the complex nature of natural selection, so modern biologists prefer and exclusively use the term natural selection. The biological concept of fitness refers to reproductive success, as opposed to survival, is not explicit in the specific ways in which organisms can be more "fit" as having phenotypic characteristics that enhance survival and reproduction.



A deckchair is a folding chair with a frame of treated wood or other material. The term now denotes a portable folding chair, with a single strip of fabric or vinyl forming the backrest and seat, it is meant for leisure on the deck of an ocean liner or cruise ship. It is transportable and stackable, although some styles are notoriously difficult to fold and unfold. Different versions may have an extended seat, meant to be used as a leg rest, whose height may be adjustable. In Northern Europe, the remains of folding chairs have been found dating back to the Bronze Age. Foldable chairs were used in Ancient Egypt and Rome. During the Middle Ages, the folding chair was used as a liturgical furniture piece. In the United States, an early patent for a folding chair was by John Cham in 1855. Folding wooden chairs with woven or cane seats and backs, of the type now known in the UK as "steamer chairs", began to be used on ocean liner decks from about the 1860s, were known at the time as "deck chairs", it is unclear whether they were first made in the Britain.

In England, John Thomas Moore took out a patent for adjustable and portable folding chairs in 1886, started manufacturing them in Macclesfield. Moore made two types: the Waverley, described as "the best ship or lawn tennis chair", the Hygienic, a rocking chair "valuable for those with sluggish and constipated bowels". Early versions of the deck chair were made of two rectangular wooden frames hinged together, with a third rectangle to maintain it upright. A rectangular piece of canvas, of the type used in hammocks, was attached to two of the wooden rectangles to provide a seat and support; the use of a single broad strip of canvas olive green in colour but usually of brightly coloured stripes, has been credited to a British inventor named Atkins in the late 19th century, although advertisements of 1882 for a similar design refer to it as "The Yankee Hammock Chair", implying an American origin. Other sources refer to it as the "Brighton beach chair" or "chaise transatlantique"; the term'deck' chair was used in the novels of E. Nesbit in the 1880s, passengers on P & O liners in the 1890s were encouraged to take their own on board.

The classic deckchair can only be locked in one position. The strips of wood going toward the back were lengthened and equipped with supports so that there were several possible sitting positions. A removable footrest can add to the comfort of the user. Folding deckchairs became popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During the golden age of ocean liner travel, the deckchairs upon ships' decks were sometimes reserved for particular passengers for whom crew would attach a paperboard name tag to the wicker seat-back; such a tag is visible on an empty deckchair near the center in a famous 1912 photo showing survivors of the RMS Titanic disaster after rescue while they rest on the deck of RMS Carpathia. The same system was in use aboard Carpathia two years later; the deckchairs shown on some of those photographs are of the more solid "steamer chair" type, rather than the portable canvas-seated chairs. The Titanic carried 600 such wooden chairs; the hiring out of deckchairs, on an hourly or daily basis, became established in British seaside resorts for use on piers and promenades, in the early 20th century.

They were often used in large public parks such as Hyde Park, for spectators at informal sporting events such as local cricket matches. With the widespread availability of lighter and more portable forms of seating in the century, the use of deckchairs declined. In one of the largest English resorts, Blackpool, 68,000 deckchairs were rented out in 2003, at £1.50 a day, but tourism officers suggested that they should be phased out, except on the piers themselves, because they were a reminder of the era of "cloth caps", had "had their time in the 50s and 60s". A sunlounger is somewhat like a deckchair, bed-like in nature; the rear surface can be tilted up to allow the user to sit up and read, or it can be reclined to a flat surface to allow sleeping in the horizontal position. To "rearrange the deck chairs" is a popular saying meaning that things have changed only apparently; the phrase, "rearrange the deck chairs on the Titanic" amplifies on it by implying that someone is overly concerned with unimportant minutiae during a crisis.

Chapelton v Barry Urban District Council Folding chair List of chairs

Ivana Hirschmann

Ivana Hirschmann was a Croatian gymnastics professor and the first female physical education teacher in Croatia. Hirschmann was born on May 1866 in Donja Zelina to a Croatian Jewish merchant family. From 1873 to 1885, Hirschmann was educated in Zagreb, she finished four grades of public school, four grades of higher girls' school and three grades at monastery preparatory school. Her mentor was gymnastics professor. On October 18, 1885, with 19 years of age, she received her teacher's certificate. At the time she was known for her short haircut which she wore because of exercise and sweating. In 1888, Hirschmann passed the exam for teaching at the higher elementary schools, in 1894 the exam for teaching at the higher girls schools. On February 25, 1896, she finished the course for teachers in Zagreb, passed the exam for gymnastics teacher at high schools and so finished her education. Hirschmann worked all her career in Zagreb, she worked at the girls lyceum from 1892 to 1920. Among others, Hirschmann worked at the Royal vocational school, Higher girls school, Terrestrial higher girls school, Royal teachers school and Girls gymnasium.

She was a vocal supporter of the necessity of physical sport among the women. Hirschmann wrote and published articles in the magazines such as "Gymnastics", "Hawk" and "Domesticity". In 1885, Hirschmann began introducing to her students the sports games of cricket and croquet, as in classes, as in the articles she wrote; some of here published articles are. In 1906, Hirschmann published the booklet about the history of gymnastics in Croatia. Second edition of the booklet and expanded, was published in 1913. Hirschmann wrote about Sinjska alka. In 1923 Hirschmann retired. During her retirement she read a lot, visited the theaters and symphony concerts. During World War II, as a Jew, Hirschmann was arrested by Ustaše on May 5, 1943, she was taken to the prison at Savska cesta. From there, Hirschmann was deported to Auschwitz where she was killed in the gas chambers upon arrival on May 8, 1943

Stefano Caldoro

Stefano Caldoro is an Italian politician. He is the current leader of the New PSI. Stefano Caldoro was born on 3 December 1960 in Campobasso, his father was the former socialist deputy Antonio Caldoro. He has a degree in Political Science. In 1985 he was elected in the Regional Council of Campania, where he has held the position of Chairman of the Planning and Territory Commission and the position of Group's leader of the Italian Socialist Party. In the 1992 general election he was elected in the Chamber of Deputies. In 1994, after the dissolution of the Italian Socialist Party, Caldoro joined the centre-right coalition, led by Silvio Berlusconi. In 2001, Caldoro served as Undersecretary and as Deputy Minister of Education and Research in the Berlusconi II Cabinet. Subsequently, he served as Minister for the Implementation of the Government Program in the Berlusconi III Cabinet. On 24 June 2007 Caldoro was appointed secretary of the New Italian Socialist Party, he held office until 2011. In the 2008 general election Caldoro was again elected in the Chamber of Deputies with The People of Freedom.

At the 2010 regional election Caldoro was elected President of Campania with 54.3% of the votes, defeating the Mayor of Salerno Vincenzo De Luca. However, in the following regional election of 2015, he was defeated in turn by De Luca

Community sentence

Community sentence or alternative sentencing or non-custodial sentence is a collective name in criminal justice for all the different ways in which courts can punish a defendant, convicted of committing an offence, other than through a custodial sentence or capital punishment. Traditionally, the theory of retributive justice is based on the ideas of retaliation, valuable in itself, provides deterrent. Before the police, sentences of execution or imprisonment were thought pretty efficient at this, while at the same time removing the threat criminals pose to the public. Alternative sentences add to these goals, trying to reform the offender, put right what he did. Traditionally, victims of a crime only played a small part in the criminal justice process, as this breaching the rules of the society; the restorative approach to justice approach makes it a part of a sentence for the offender to apologize, compensate the damage they have caused or repair it with their own labour. The shift towards alternative sentencing means that some offenders avoid imprisonment with its many unwanted consequences.

This is beneficial for the society, as it may prevent them from getting into the so-called the revolving door syndrome, the inability of a person to go back to normal life after leaving a prison, becoming a career criminal. Furthermore, there are hopes that this could alleviate prison overcrowding and reduce the cost of punishment. Instead of depriving those who commit less dangerous offences of their freedom, the courts put some limitations on them and give them some duties; the list of components that make up a community sentence is of course different in individual countries, will be combined individually by the court. Non-custodial sentences can include: unpaid work house arrest curfew suspended sentence wearing an electronic tag mandatory treatments and programmes apology to the victim specific court orders and injunctions regular reporting to someone judicial corporal punishment Parole Probation

I'll Be There (Tiffany Evans song)

"I'll Be There" is a song recorded by American recording artist Tiffany Evans. It was released on September 29, 2010 as the lead single from her second album, Perfect Imperfection; the music video for "I'll Be There" debuted on December 6, 2010 on Tiffany's official Myspace page, was available for download on iTunes the following day. The video begins with Tiffany in tears, she writes an unknown word on her hand. While singing, images of a domestically abused woman, a child crying, another woman, a man in handcuffs are shown; the woman has the word "despised" written on her hand, the boy has "helpless", the other woman has "betrayed", the man has "flawed". The majority of the video is in black and white, until the song reaches its peak and the color appears. Tiffany is seen in a room with pictures hanging from the ceiling. All of the words are changed with "positive" ones, such as "protected", lovely. Tiffany shows her hand with the words "Faith", "Hope", "Trust". Digital download"I'll Be There" - 4:40