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Surya

Surya is a Sanskrit word that means the Sun. Synonyms of Surya in ancient Indian literature include Aaditya, Bhanu, Pushan, Martanda, Mitra and Vivasvan. Surya connotes the solar deity in Hinduism in the Saura tradition found in states such as Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Odisha. Surya is one of the five deities considered as equivalent aspects and means to realizing Brahman in the Smarta Tradition. Surya's iconography is depicted riding a chariot harnessed by horses seven in number which represent the seven colours of visible light, seven days in a week. In medieval Hinduism, Surya is an epithet for the major Hindu gods Shiva and Vishnu. In some ancient texts and arts, Surya is presented syncretically with Ganesha or others. Surya as a deity is found in the arts and literature of Buddhism and Jainism. Surya is depicted with a Chakra, interpreted as Dharmachakra. Surya is one of the nine heavenly houses in the zodiac system of Hindu astrology. Surya or Ravi is the basis of Sunday, in the Hindu calendar.

Major festivals and pilgrimages in reverence of Surya include Makar Sankranti, Ratha Sapthami, Chath puja and Kumbh Mela. Having survived as a primary deity in Hinduism arguably better and longer than any other of the original Vedic deities apart from Vishnu, the worship of Surya declined around the 13th century as a result of the Muslim conquest of north India. New Surya temples ceased to be built, some were converted to a different dedication Shiva. A number of important Surya temples remain. In various respects, Surya has tended to be seen as subsidiary to him; the oldest surviving Vedic hymns, such as the hymn 1.115 of the Rigveda, mention Sūrya with particular reverence for the "rising sun” and its symbolism as dispeller of darkness, one who empowers knowledge, the good and all life. However, the usage is context specific. In some hymns, the word Surya means sun as an inanimate object, a stone or a gem in the sky; the Vedas assert Sun to be the creator of the material universe. In the layers of Vedic texts, Surya is one of the several trinities along with Agni and either Vayu or Indra, which are presented as an equivalent icon and aspect of the Hindu metaphysical concept called the Brahman.

In the Brahmanas layer of Vedic literature, Surya appears with Agni in the same hymns. Surya is revered for the day during the night; the idea evolves, states Kapila Vatsyayan, where Surya is stated to be Agni as the first principle and the seed of the universe. It is in the Brahmanas layer of the Vedas, the Upanishads that Surya is explicitly linked to the power of sight, to visual perception and knowledge, he is interiorized to be the eye as ancient Hindu sages suggested abandonment of external rituals to gods in favor of internal reflections and meditation of gods within, in one's journey to realize the Atman within, in texts such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Chandogya Upanishad, Kaushitaki Upanishad and others. The Mahabharata epic opens its chapter on Surya that reverentially calls him as the "eye of the universe, soul of all existence, origin of all life, goal of the Samkhyas and Yogis, symbolism for freedom and spiritual emancipation. In the Mahabharata, Karna is the son of unmarried princess Kunti.

The epic describes Kunti's trauma as an unmarried mother abandonment of Karna, followed by her lifelong grief. Baby Karna is found and adopted by a charioteer but he grows up to become a great warrior and one of the central characters in the great battle of Kurukshetra where he fights his half brothers. Surya is celebrated as a deity such as the ancient works attributed to Ashoka, he appears in a relief at the Mahabodhi temple in Bodhgaya, riding in a chariot pulled by four horses, with Usha and Prattyusha on his sides. Such artwork suggests that the Surya as symbolism for the victory of good over evil is a concept adopted in Buddhism from an earlier Indic tradition. Sun is a common deity in ancient and medieval cultures found in South America, Europe and Asia; the features and mythologies of Surya share resemblances with Hvare-khshaeta of pre-Islam Persia, the Helios-Sol deity in the Greek-Roman culture. Surya is a Vedic deity, states Elgood, but its deity status was strengthened from the contacts between ancient Persia and India during the Kushan era, as well as after the 8th-century when Sun-worshipping Parsees moved to India.

Some Greek features were incorporated into Surya iconography in post-Kushan era, around mid 1st millennium, according to Elgood. The iconography of Surya in Hinduism varies with its texts, he is shown as a resplendent standing person holding lotus flower in both his hands, riding a chariot pulled by one or more horses seven. The seven horses are named after the seven meters of Sanskrit prosody: Gayatri, Ushnih, Trishtubha and Pankti; the Brihat Samhita, a Hindu text that describes architecture and design guidelines, states that Surya should be shown with two hands and wearing a crown. In contrast, the Vishnudharmottara, another Hindu text on architecture, states Surya iconography should show him with four hands, with flowers in two hands, a staff in third, in fourth he should be shown to be holding writing equipment, his chariot driver in both books is stated to be Aruṇa, seated. Two females flank

Heather Tanner

Heather Tanner, née Heather Muriel Spackman, was an English writer and campaigner on issues relating to peace, the environment and social justice. She worked in close collaboration with her husband, Robin Tanner, at their home in Kington Langley, Wiltshire. Tanner was born as Heather Spackman at'Rose Cottage', Priory Street, Wiltshire on 14 July 1903, her parents were Daisy Goold and Herbert Spackman, who had three daughters: Sylvia and Faith. Herbert Spackman, an accomplished musician and photographer, ran a grocery and drapery store in Corsham High Street. Heather and her younger sister, Faith Sharp, edited an account of their father’s early life, A Corsham Boyhood: The Diary of Herbert Spackman 1877–1891. Heather Tanner attended Chippenham Grammar School, where she met her future husband, the etcher and teacher Robin Tanner. In his autobiography, Double Harness, Robin recounts how, as school prefects he and Heather would smuggle secret messages to each other in the absentee registers for which they were responsible as their relationship blossomed in the early 1920s.

Heather achieved a First Class degree at King's College London, which she left in 1929 to become an English teacher at The Duchess School for Girls, Alnwick Castle, Northumberland. After a brief geographical separation while Robin studied at Goldsmiths College, they married at Corsham Church on 4 April 1931. Heather and Robin Tanner moved to Kington Langley, after their wedding, the start of a lifelong creative collaboration and residence. In Double Harness, Robin Tanner writes that Heather’s uncle, the architect Vivian Goold,'generously offered as a wedding gift to design a house for us and supervise its building if we could find a piece of land we liked'; the result was Old Chapel Field, completed in 1931. The house, still standing in the village, is a distinctive blend of arts and crafts and modernist styles. Inspired by C. F. A. Voysey, Goold came to regard the house as the finest. Heather and Robin had great affection for the'Voyseyish' Old Chapel Field, where they were to live for the rest of their lives.

The Tanners were thrilled to discover that Francis Kilvert’s great-grandfather was buried in the graveyard of the Chapel from which their home took its name, both Heather and Robin supported the Kilvert Society. In the spring of 1939 the Tanners took in a young Jewish refugee from Germany called Dietrich Hanff. Shortly after the outbreak of the Second World War, Hanff was interned and held as an enemy alien at Bury, Lancashire. Heather campaigned against what she considered his unfair treatment in the press, she was allowed to visit him after his transfer to the Isle of Man, it was learned that his parents and brother were deported from their native Stettin to Piaski and that the Germans murdered them there in gas chambers. After Hanff gained his freedom as the Tanners’ adopted son,'Dieti' was to share their interests, to become a teacher and university lecturer and to live at Old Chapel Field for the rest of his life. After the War, Heather worked as an examiner in English for the University of Cambridge and at the University of London.

Her moral and spiritual outlook as a Quaker was to affect her outlook and support for a range of environmental and social causes. She was an active member of the Chippenham branch of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and supporter of Friends of the Earth and Oxfam. During the 1980s, BBC television producer Margaret Benton made a film called Look Stranger: A Vision of Wiltshire, released in 1987; this documented and celebrated Heather and Dieti’s home life, creativity and love of the Wiltshire countryside. Outliving both her husband and Dietrich Hanff, Heather Tanner died at Kington St Michael on 23 June 1993; the Tanners created four books, that Robin illustrated and for which Heather provided the text, collaborating so together that Robin wrote that'they were the production of two minds working in such close unison that it would be impossible to separate them.' Wiltshire Village is a thinly disguised description of the village life and countryside surrounding the Tanners' home. The subject of the book Kington Borel takes its name from a compound of their own village, Kington Langley, the neighbouring parish of Langley Burrell.

First published in 1939, the book has been the most admired and reprinted fruit of the couple’s creative collaboration. Heather Tanner’s text and Robin Tanner’s etchings and pen drawings distil all, picturesque in the rural landscape of North-West Wiltshire. Featuring history, culture and wildlife, Wiltshire Village embraces much of the Tanners' aesthetic and ethical creed as the celebration of traditional rural crafts and community is underpinned by a rejection of militarism, blood sports and the conservative outlook of feudal England. In many ways a companion volume for Wiltshire Village, the Tanners started to collate the materials for Woodland Plants during the early years of the Second World War, although the completed project was not published until 1981, it has been suggested. The Tanners were keen amateur botanists and counted their original copy of James Sowerby’s 37-volume English Botany as one of their most treasured possessions. Woodland Plants is an account of local plants' uses and presence in literature.

Robin Tanner was

Ecoregions of Zambia

The biomes and ecoregions in the ecology of Zambia are described and mapped here, following the World Wildlife Fund's Global 200 classification scheme for terrestrial ecoregions, the WWF freshwater bioregion classification for rivers and wetlands. Zambia is in the Afrotropic biogeographic realm of the scheme. Three terrestrial biomes are well represented in the country; the distribution of the biomes and ecoregions is governed by the physical environment climate. The main aspects of the physical environment which determine the biomes and ecoregions of Zambia are: climate rainfall amount, length of the dry season, temperature, related to elevation. Rainfall amount is the most important determinant of the distribution of ecoregions. Zambia experiences good rainfall, with extremes of 500 to 1400 mm in a distinct rainy season of four to six months centred on January, when the moist intertropical convergence zone is over the country; the highest rainfall is in the north the north-west, decreasing towards the south.

None of the country is arid. The dry season lasts 6–8 months, divided into the cool dry season or winter from April or May to August, followed by the hot dry season, September to November. Most rivers and swamps are permanent, except in the hotter, drier south. Along the banks of permanent rivers and in the spray of waterfalls are evergreen thickets similar in character to tropical rainforest, relics of a wetter past. In dambos and other marshes, soil water is available throughout the dry season, but they may be rather acidic. Elsewhere and animals are adapted to the long dry season. For plants this includes the deciduous habit deep root systems, water-storing roots and tubers, waxy leaf cuticles, drought-resistant seeds. Succulent plants are widespread in rocky areas. For animals, adaptations to drought are seen in migration and breeding patterns, as well as the ability, found in rodents and reptiles to obtain water requirements from food without the need to drink. Hibernation through the dry season is practiced by some invertebrates.

The latter may survive the dry season through drought-resistant forms. The elevation of the great central African plateau on which Zambia is located between 1000 and 1300 metres, modifies temperatures, which are lower than for coastal areas at the same latitude, pleasant for much of the year. On the plateau mean minimums for June in the cool dry season are in the range 6–12 °C, mean maximums for October, the hot dry season are 28–35 °C. Frost only occurs on a few days in winter on the highest exposed hills, or more in the lower humidity areas of the southern half of the country. Plants susceptible to frost do not grow in the southern half of the country. Otherwise temperature by itself is not a great determinant of animal distribution. Temperatures are higher at lower elevations, such as the Luapula-Mweru and Mweru-Wantipa/Tanganyika valleys in the north, highest in the lower Luangwa and Zambezi valleys in the south experiencing 40 °C in October. One way in which temperature affects the distribution of large mammals is through the distribution of the tsetse fly, within its range is found in hotter valleys rather than the higher, cooler plateau.

Species susceptible to trypanosomiasis are not found in such valleys. The broad types of soil found in Zambia are: red sandveld soils cover most of the country, are not fertile due to weathering and leaching. Grey dambo soils contain more nutrients but are waterlogged in the rainy season and very acidic, restricting the plants which can grow there to sedges and wiry grasses tolerant of marshy conditions. Black soils of floodplains are fertile, grasses grow on them as soon as the annual flood recedes and provide a rich resource for herbivores. If the annual flood is disrupted by dams, woody shrubs of lower nutritional value tend to replace grasses and so reduce the number of herbivores and biodiversity. Kalahari Sands in the south-west of the country are infertile and do not retain moisture, so are dominated by deep-rooted trees with little growth in the understorey. Grasslands both flooded and non-flooded occur there. In areas where soils are waterlogged for all or part of the year, or are infertile, sandy or acidic, they take over from climate as the predominant factor in determining the distribution of plants and animals.

Such communities are said to be edaphic, are found on grey dambo soils, black floodplain soils and Kalahari sands. Bush fires range across most of the country in the dry season, escaping from "chitemene cultivation" and caused by villagers burning off crop residue or hunting, as well as by lightning strikes; the vegetation is adapted to it the grasses, at that time of the year deciduous trees have lost most of their leaves and so do not suffer extensive damage. Prevailing winds are not very strong and a lack of a great deal of dry fuel on the ground means that the fires are not as devastating as in countries such as Australia and the south-western USA. Rough estimates of the percentage of the country covered as given below are for the original or

John Dubh Maclean, 1st Laird of Morvern

John Dubh MacLean, 1st Laird of Morvern was the progenitor of the Macleans of Kinlochaine and Pennycross. Dubh means black in Scottish Gaelic, he was the second son of 12th Clan Chief. John Dubh was married three times, by his second wife, Catherine, he had: Allan Maclean of Ardtornish, father of Lachlan Maclean of Calgary, who by his second wife, had Allan Maclean of Grulin, who by his wife, had Charles of Kilunaig, who by his wife, was father of Alexander Maclean, 1st Laird of Pennycross, bred to the medical profession, was married in 1700 to Una, daughter of Alexander MacGillivray of Pennyghael, by whom he had Archibald, his successor, Catherine, married to Major Donald MacLean of the royal Scots regiment. Alexander's son was Archibald Maclean, 2nd Laird of Pennycross, born in the year 1761, died February 17, 1830, he was much esteemed in the circle of his-acquaintances. He married Alicia, daughter of Hector MacLean of Torren, by whom he had nine sons and three daughters, of whom the following reached maturity: Alexander, his successor.

Allan Thomas became lieutenant general. Charles James in 1813 entered the service of the 70th Highlanders, was in every engagement of that regiment from the above year to the victory at Waterloo, where he carried the colors. Afterward he became a lieutenant in the 31st regiment of foot, died at Calcutta in May, 1837. Mary died unmarried, in 1837. John was for some time a surgeon, but afterward joined the Second West India Regiment, commanded by his maternal uncle, Alexander MacLean, attained to the rank of lieutenant, he died in Nassau, Bahamas, in 1822. This article incorporates text from A history of the clan Mac Lean from its first settlement at Duard Castle, in the Isle of Mull, to the present period: including a genealogical account of some of the principal families together with their heraldry, superstitions, etc, by John Patterson MacLean, a publication from 1889 now in the public domain in the United States

Minna! ESPer Dayo! (TV series)

Minna! Esper Dayo! is a 2013 Japanese twelve-part science fiction comedy television miniseries adapted from the seinen manga series Minna! Esper Dayo! Written and illustrated by Kiminori Wakasugi, it aired on TV Tokyo from April 12 to July 5, 2013. The show's theme song is Japanese-language song " The Silent Majority?" by the Japanese singer-songwriter Yu Takahashi. It was followed by a 2015 TV special titled All Esper Dayo! SP. Yoshirō Kamogawa, a student at East Mikawa High School in Aichi Prefecture, discovers that he has psychic powers. Over the course of the series he discovers that he and his childhood friend Miyuki both have telepathic powers, Mr. Teru who operates the local Seahorse café has the power of telekinesis, senior Yōsuke Enomoto has the power of teleportation, student outcast Yabe has the power of clairvoyance, Hideo is a psychometer, Ms. Nastume and Mr. Hayashi have telekinesis, Pao can hypnotize people, others in the town have powers as well. Yoshirō finds that many seek to use their newfound powers for perverted and trivial pursuits, but Yoshirō himself dreams of using his powers to protect his crush, the new transfer student Sae Asami who transferred in from Tokyo, save the world.

Meanwhile, a pair of ESP researchers who have been laughed out of Tokyo University visit the town to study the people with these powers and to stop them from being destroyed by evil psychics. The series is the first adaptation of the seinen manga series Minna! Esper Dayo! Written and illustrated by Kiminori Wakasugi, it was followed by a 2015 TV special directed by Sion Sono with much of the same cast but without Kaho. A 2015 theatrical film adaptation of the source material, titled The Virgin Psychics, was directed by Sion Sono but had some changes in casting; the series premiered on TV Tokyo on April 12, 2013, ran weekly episodes until its twelfth and final episode aired on July 5, 2013. The TV series was made available for purchase on DVD and Blu-ray from TV Tokyo on August 23, 2013; the DVD box costs the Blu-ray box costs 19,000 yen. Extras include a special about the making of the series. Minna! ESPer Dayo! on IMDb

Ireland at the 1968 Summer Paralympics

Ireland was one of twenty-eight nations to send a delegation to compete at the 1968 Summer Paralympics in Tel Aviv, Israel from November 4 to 13, 1968. The team won a total of nine medals. Seven Irish athletes competed at five men and two women. Rosaleen Gallagher won a medal in four different sports; the Paralympics groups athletes' disabilities into one of five disability categories. Each Paralympic sport has its own classifications, dependent on the specific physical demands of competition. Events are given a code, made of numbers and letters, describing the type of event and classification of the athletes competing. One Irish archer competed at the Games. Rosaleen Gallagher took part in the St. Nicholas round cervical for women. One of only two athletes in the event she won a silver medal after being beaten by Ruth Brooks of Great Britain; the only dartchery event at the Games was the mixed pairs event. The Irish pair of Kerrigan and Hughes was beaten by Spaniards Llorens and Lorente in the first round.

One snooker event was contested at the men's open event. Jimmy Gibson entered for Ireland. After wins over Keaton of Great Britain and Aroldo Ruschioni of Italy, Gibson faced Britain's Michael Shelton in the final. Shelton defeated Gibson to take gold and the Irishman won the silver medal. Three swimmers competed for Ireland in Tel Aviv. Kerrigan took part in the men's class 2 complete breaststroke and backstroke but did not advance to either final. Ireland's two swimmers in the women's 25 m backstroke class 1 incomplete each won a medal. Five players entered table tennis singles events and pairs in both the women's A2 doubles and men's C doubles. Jimmy Gibson added a bronze medal in the men's C singles to the silver he won in snooker. In the women's A2 singles Ireland won two medals, silver for White and bronze for Rosaleen Gallagher. White and Gallagher were Ireland's entry in the women's A2 doubles. Four pairs entered the event. Ireland at the 1968 Summer Olympics