Susan B. Anthony was an American social reformer and women's rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement. Born into a Quaker family committed to social equality, she collected anti-slavery petitions at the age of 17. In 1856, she became the New York state agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society. In 1851, she met Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who became her lifelong friend and co-worker in social reform activities in the field of women's rights. In 1852, they founded the New York Women's State Temperance Society after Anthony was prevented from speaking at a temperance conference because she was female. In 1863, they founded the Women's Loyal National League, which conducted the largest petition drive in United States history up to that time, collecting nearly 400,000 signatures in support of the abolition of slavery. In 1866, they initiated the American Equal Rights Association, which campaigned for equal rights for both women and African Americans. In 1868, they began publishing.
In 1869, they founded the National Woman Suffrage Association as part of a split in the women's movement. In 1890, the split was formally healed when their organization merged with the rival American Woman Suffrage Association to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association, with Anthony as its key force. In 1876, Anthony and Stanton began working with Matilda Joslyn Gage on what grew into the six-volume History of Woman Suffrage; the interests of Anthony and Stanton diverged somewhat in years, but the two remained close friends. In 1872, Anthony was arrested for voting in her hometown of Rochester, New York, convicted in a publicized trial. Although she refused to pay the fine, the authorities declined to take further action. In 1878, Anthony and Stanton arranged for Congress to be presented with an amendment giving women the right to vote. Introduced by Sen. Aaron A. Sargent, it became known colloquially as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment, it was ratified as the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.
S. Constitution in 1920. Anthony traveled extensively in support of women's suffrage, giving as many as 75 to 100 speeches per year and working on many state campaigns, she worked internationally for women's rights, playing a key role in creating the International Council of Women, still active. She helped to bring about the World's Congress of Representative Women at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893; when she first began campaigning for women's rights, Anthony was harshly ridiculed and accused of trying to destroy the institution of marriage. Public perception of her changed radically during her lifetime, however, her 80th birthday was celebrated in the White House at the invitation of President William McKinley. She became the first female citizen to be depicted on U. S. coinage. Susan Anthony was born on February 15, 1820, to Daniel Anthony and Lucy Read in Adams, the second oldest of seven children, she was named for her mother's mother Susanah, for her father's sister Susan.
In her youth and her sisters responded to a "great craze for middle initials" by adding middle initials to their own names. Anthony adopted "B." as her middle initial because her namesake aunt Susan had married a man named Brownell. Anthony never used the name Brownell herself, did not like it, her family shared a passion for social reform. Her brothers Daniel and Merritt moved to Kansas to support the anti-slavery movement there. Merritt fought with John Brown against pro-slavery forces during the Bleeding Kansas crisis. Daniel owned a newspaper and became mayor of Leavenworth. Anthony's sister Mary, with whom she shared a home in years, became a public school principal in Rochester, a woman's rights activist. Anthony's father was a temperance advocate. A Quaker, he had a difficult relationship with his traditionalist congregation, which rebuked him for marrying a non-Quaker and disowned him for allowing a dance school to operate in his home, he continued to attend Quaker meetings anyway and became more radical in his beliefs.
Anthony's mother was a Methodist and helped raise their children in a more tolerant version of her husband's religious tradition. Their father encouraged them all, girls as well as boys, to be self-supporting, teaching them business principles and giving them responsibilities at an early age; when Anthony was six years old, her family moved to Battenville, New York, where her father managed a large cotton mill. He had operated his own small cotton factory; when she was seventeen, Anthony was sent to a Quaker boarding school in Philadelphia, where she unhappily endured its severe atmosphere. She was forced to end her studies after one term because her family was financially ruined during an economic downturn known as the Panic of 1837, they were forced to sell everything they had at an auction, but they were rescued by her maternal uncle, who bought most of their belongings and restored them to the family. To assist her family financially, Anthony left home to teach at a Quaker boarding school.
In 1845, the family moved to a farm on the outskirts of Rochester, New York, purchased with the inheritance of Anthony's mother. There they associated with a group of Quaker social reformers who had left their congregation because of the restrictions it placed on reform activities, who in 1848 formed a new organization called the Congregational Friends; the Anthony farmstead soon became the Sunday afternoon gathering place for local activists, including Frederick Douglass, a former slave and a prominent abolitionist who became Anthony's lifelong friend. As several others in
The 2011 San Fernando massacre known as the second massacre of San Fernando, was the mass murder of 193 people by Los Zetas drug cartel at La Joya ranch in the municipality of San Fernando, Mexico in March 2011. Authorities investigating the massacre reported numerous hijackings of passenger buses on Mexican Federal Highway 101 in San Fernando, the kidnapped victims were killed and buried in 47 clandestine mass graves; the investigations began after several suitcases and other baggage went unclaimed in Reynosa and Matamoros, Tamaulipas. On 6 April 2011, Mexican authorities exhumed 59 corpses from eight mass graves. By 7 June 2011, after a series of multiple excavations, a total of 193 bodies were exhumed from mass graves in San Fernando. Reports mentioned that female kidnapping victims were raped and able-bodied male kidnapping victims were forced to fight to the death with other hostages, where they were given knives, hammers and clubs to find recruits who were willing to kill for their lives.
In the blood sport, the survivor was recruited as a hitman for Los Zetas. After the massacre, thousands of citizens from San Fernando fled to other parts of Mexico and to the US; the Mexican government responded by sending 650 soldiers to San Fernando and establishing a military base in the municipality. The troops worked on social programs. In addition, a total of 82 Zeta members were arrested by 23 August 2011. In 2012 tranquility returned to the city, along with the inhabitants who fled because of the violence. Mexican authorities are not certain why Los Zetas decided to abduct people from buses, torture and bury them, they speculate that the Zetas may have forcibly recruited the passengers as foot soldiers for the organization, intending to hold them for ransom or extort them before they crossed into the US. The killers, confessed that they abducted and killed the passengers because they feared their rivals, the Gulf Cartel, were getting reinforcements from other states. One of the leaders confessed that Heriberto Lazcano, the supreme leader of Los Zetas, had ordered the investigation of all buses coming in through San Fernando.
But those that did, they were killed." In addition, the killers claimed to have investigated passengers' cellphones and text messages to determine if they were involved with the Gulf Cartel or not, that they were worried about buses coming in from the states of Durango and Michoacán, two strongholds of the rival La Familia and the Sinaloa Cartels. In early 2010, Los Zetas broke apart from the Gulf Cartel and both organizations turned their weapons against each other; the first clash between the groups happened in Reynosa expanded to Nuevo Laredo and Matamoros. The war spread throughout 11 of Tamaulipas' municipalities, 9 of which border Texas, soon thereafter spread to Tamaulipas' neighboring states: Nuevo León and Veracruz. In the midst of violence and panic and media attempted to downplay the situation. In San Fernando, Gulf Cartel forces led by Antonio Cárdenas Guillén "strung the bodies of fallen Zetas and their associates from light poles." The Gulf Cartel lashed out to attack Los Zetas at their stronghold in San Fernando.
According to The Monitor, the municipality of San Fernando is a "virtual spiderweb" of dirt roads that connect with Monterrey, Nuevo Laredo and Matamoros—making it a prized territory for drug traffickers. In August 2010, Mexican Naval Infantry found 72 dead illegal immigrants—58 men and 14 women—in San Fernando, killed by Los Zetas for their failure to pay their ransom and their refusal to work for the cartel. An Ecuadorian survivor faked his death and made it up to a military checkpoint, subsequently led authorities to the 72 dead inside a warehouse on a ranch; the massacre was internationally condemned. Between 24–29 March 2011, several public transportation buses that were heading to Reynosa, were hijacked in San Fernando. On 6 April 2011 Mexican authorities found 59 bodies in eight clandestine mass graves in San Fernando, Tamaulipas; this discovery led officials to acknowledge that the Mexican drug cartels had begun to inflict fear through a new modus operandi: "stopping buses and removing passengers, some never to be seen again."
Two weeks before the bodies were found, there were reports of buses being hijacked by the cartels near San Fernando, where cartel members would "stop the bus, select passengers, take them hostage." Fourteen cartel members were arrested too. By 8 April 2011, the secretary general of Tamaulipas, Morelos Jaime Canseco, confirmed the finding of 13 more bodies, increasing the body count to 72; when the death toll reached 72, bus lines in Tamaulipas refused to take people to San Fernando until the situation was resolved. Investigators began to mention that those killed were not migrants, but "fellow Mexican citizens."On 10 April 2011, in four other mass graves, 16 more bodies were exhumed, increasing the death toll to 88. Witnesses reported that cartel members had stopped the bus at a fake military checkpoint, that they had ordered the passengers to "pay up to $300 US dollars" for them to continue on their route; the investigation continued, on 12 April 2011 the Mexican military confirmed the finding of 28 more bodies, upping the death toll to 116 and the mass graves up to 15.
It was proven by the PGR that the massacre was carried out by Los Zetas, a drug trafficking organization formed by former military soldiers in Mexico. By 13 April the authorities found six more bodies, making the death toll 122; the next day, on
Colin François Lloyd Austin, FBA was a British scholar of ancient Greek. Colin Austin was born in Melbourne, Australia, in 1941, the second son of Lloyd James Austin and of Jeanne-Françoise. A few years the family moved to France and to Great Britain, he was educated at the Lycée Lakanal, Manchester Grammar School, Jesus College and Christ Church, where Sir Hugh Lloyd-Jones supervised his DPhil on Aristophanes. He won the Hallam Prize in 1961, the Browne Medal in 1961 and the Porson Prize in 1962. In 1969 he was appointed lecturer in the Faculty of Classics at Cambridge University and worked there as the Director of Studies in Classics until 2008. From 1998 to 2008 Austin was a full Professor of Greek. In 1983 he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy He died on 13 August 2010. Colin Austin's main works were related to Thesmophoriazusae by Menander. Austin's commentary on Thesmophoriazusae was published by the Oxford University Press in a 2004 edition co-edited by S. Douglas Olson. Austin was the first publisher of the new portion of Euripides' tragedy Erectheus, extracted from a mummy casing in Paris.
He was the first publisher of the first and third plays from the Bodmer Codex of Menander: Samia "The Woman from Samos", "Aspis", "The Shield". In partnership with Rudolf Kassel, Austin started in 1983 the comprehensive edition of the Greek Comic Dramatists, Poetae Comici Graeci. Volumes published up to 2001 provide some 4,500 pages of surviving texts of more than 250 authors with commentary. Colin Austin obituary in the Guardian Colin Austin obituary in the Independent Richard Hunter and Peter Parsons, "Colin François Lloyd Austin, 1941–2010", Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the British Academy, XIV, 3–12. 2015