Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Jeff King (mushing)
King moved to Alaska in 1975 and began racing in 1976. A successful sled dog racer, he won the Yukon Quest in 1989, the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race in 1993, 1996, 1998, most in the 2006 Iditarod. Five other mushers have won the Iditarod four times and only one, Rick Swenson has won it more often. King was 50 years old when he won the 2006 Iditarod, which made him the oldest musher to win the event, a distinction he held until 2013 when Mitch Seavey won at age 53; as of 2015, he has competed in 26 Iditarods. His "Idita-Rider" for the 2005 Iditarod was a child sponsored by the Make-a-Wish Foundation. King has won many other sled dog races, he has a kennel near the entrance of Denali National Park. Jeff King likes to invent. Several years ago, he added a comfortable seat to his sled. After falling asleep and falling off the sled, King added a seat belt: "Musher Jeff King has developed a new, sit-down sled that some have labeled the Iditarod Barcalounger. King said it helps him get more rest, although he lost his team this year when he got to resting so well he went to sleep and fell off.
He's since added a seat belt." In 2006, King added a heated handlebar to warm his hands and his food, which heats up to 200 degrees. While on a training run in Denali National Park in 1980, Jeff's team became entangled with that of a new volunteer ranger, thus he met his future wife and mother of his three daughters, award-winning artist Donna Gates, they divorced in 2011. Jeff King was inducted into the Iditarod Hall of Fame in 1999. King is the author of "Cold Hands, Warm Heart: Alaskan Adventures of an Iditarod Champion", a children's book "Zig, The Princess Warrior". Iditarod: 1993, 1996, 1998, 2006. Yukon Quest: 1989. Kuskokwim 300: 1991, 1992, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2013. Copper Basin 300: 1995, 2010. Tustumena 200: 2000. St. George, Chas.. King makes it number four. Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race. Anchorage, Alaska. Retrieved on March 15, 2006 from Official Site of the Iditarod, For Press. Medred,Craig & Caldwell, Suzanna. Mitch Seavey claims victory in Iditarod 2013. "Alaska Dispatch" Official website
Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race
The Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race is an annual long-distance sled dog race run in early March from Anchorage to Nome within the US state of Alaska. Mushers and a team of 14 dogs, of which at least 5 must be on the towline at the finish line, cover the distance in 8–15 days or more; the Iditarod began in 1973 as an event to test the best sled dog mushers and teams but evolved into today's competitive race. A record, the second fastest winning time was recorded in 2016 by Dallas Seavey with a time of 8 days, 11 hours, 20 minutes, 16 seconds; as of 2012, Dallas Seavey was the youngest musher to win the race at the age of 25. In 2017, at the age of 57, Dallas's father, Mitch Seavey, is the oldest and fastest person to win the race, crossing the line in Nome in 8 days, 3 hours, 40 minutes and 13 seconds. Dallas finished two hours and 44 minutes behind. Teams race through blizzards causing whiteout conditions, sub-zero temperatures and gale-force winds which can cause the wind chill to reach −100 °F.
A ceremonial start occurs in the city of Anchorage and is followed by the official restart in Willow, a city 80 mi north of Anchorage. The restart was in Wasilla through 2007, but due to little snow, the restart has been at Willow since 2008; the trail runs from Willow up the Rainy Pass of the Alaska Range into the sparsely populated interior, along the shore of the Bering Sea reaching Nome in western Alaska. The trail is through a harsh landscape of tundra and spruce forests, over hills and mountain passes, across rivers. While the start in Anchorage is in the middle of a large urban center, most of the route passes through separated towns and villages, small Athabaskan and Iñupiat settlements; the Iditarod is regarded as a symbolic link to the early history of the state and is connected to many traditions commemorating the legacy of dog mushing. The race is a important and popular sporting event in Alaska, the top mushers and their teams of dogs are local celebrities. While the yearly field of more than fifty mushers and about a thousand dogs is still Alaskan, competitors from fourteen countries have completed the event including the Swiss Martin Buser, who became the first foreign winner in 1992.
The Iditarod received more attention outside of the state after the 1985 victory of Libby Riddles, a long-shot who became the first woman to win the race. The next year, Susan Butcher became the second woman to win the race and went on to win three more years. Print and television journalists and crowds of spectators attend the ceremonial start at the intersection of Fourth Avenue and D Street in Anchorage and in smaller numbers at the checkpoints along the trail; the race's namesake is the Iditarod Trail, designated as one of the first four US National Historic Trails in 1978. The trail in turn is named for the town of Iditarod, an Athabaskan village before becoming the center of the Inland Empire's Iditarod Mining District in 1910, becoming a ghost town at the end of the local gold rush; the name Iditarod may be derived from the Athabaskan iditarod, meaning "far distant place". Portions of the Iditarod Trail were used by the Native Alaskan Eskimo Inupiaq and Athabaskan peoples hundreds of years before the arrival of Russian fur traders in the 1800s, but the trail reached its peak between the late 1880s and the mid-1920s as miners arrived to dig coal and gold after the Alaska gold rushes at Nome in 1898, at the "Inland Empire" along the Kuskokwim Mountains between Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers, in 1908.
The primary communication and transportation link to the rest of the world during the summer was the steamship. Roadhouses where travelers could spend the night sprang up every 14 to 30 miles until the end of the 1920s, when the mail carriers were replaced by bush pilots flying small aircraft and the roadhouses vanished. Dog sledding persisted in the rural parts of Alaska, but was driven into extinction by the spread of snowmobiles in the 1960s. During its heyday, mushing was a popular sport during the winter, when mining towns shut down; the first major competition was the tremendously popular 1908 All-Alaska Sweepstakes, started by Allan "Scotty" Alexander Allan, ran 408 miles from Nome to Candle and back. The event introduced the first Siberian huskies to Alaska in 1910, where they became the favored racing dog, replacing the Alaskan malamute and mongrels bred from imported huskies and other large breeds, like setters and pointers. In 1914, the Norwegian immigrant Leonhard Seppala first appeared, went on to win the race in 1915, 1916, 1917, before the race was discontinued in 1918 during World War I The most famous event in the history of Alaskan mushing is the 1925 serum run to Nome known as the "Great Race of Mercy."
It occurred. Because Nome's supply of antitoxin had expired, Dr. Curtis Welch refused to use it and instead sent out telegrams seeking a fresh supply of antitoxin; the nearest antitoxin was found to be in Anchorage, nearly one thousand miles away. The only way to get the antitoxin to Nome was by sled dog as planes could not be used and ships would be too slow. Governor Scott Bone approved a safe route and the 20-pound cylinder of serum was sent by train 298 miles from the southern port of Sewa
Fairbanks International Airport
Fairbanks International Airport is a state-owned public-use airport located three miles southwest of the central business district of Fairbanks, a city in the Fairbanks North Star Borough of the United States state of Alaska. Fairbanks is the smallest city in the United States with non-stop service to Europe, as Condor offers weekly flights to Frankfurt during the summer tourist season. In addition, Air North is another international airline with flights and Antonov Airlines offers cargo flights to South Korea; the airport opened in 1951 and took over existing scheduled airline traffic to Fairbanks, which had used Ladd Army Airfield. Alaska Airlines used Fairbanks as its main hub in the 1950s, with service to Seattle and Portland as well as intrastate service to Anchorage and other destinations. By 1967, the airline shifted its Alaska hub to Anchorage. In the mid-1970s, following the development of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, Alaska Airlines and Braniff International offered "interchange service" between Fairbanks and Houston via Anchorage and Dallas.
In 1982, following airline deregulation, Alaska Airlines and American Airlines began a similar interchange service using Boeing 727s. Pan American World Airways had served Fairbanks since 1932; the station was opened after the acquisition of Pacific International Airways and used for short-haul services to Juneau, Ketchikan and other destinations. Pan Am intended to use Fairbanks as a stop for service to Asia as early as 1931, but initial difficulty in negotiating landing rights with the Soviet Union, followed by the outbreak of World War II, delayed these plans until decades later. Pan Am service to Fairbanks continued through the opening of FAI until 1965, when the Civil Aeronautics Board terminated Pan Am's rights to serve Alaska. Pan American World Airways used Fairbanks as a stopover for transpacific service from New York and Seattle to Tokyo starting in September 1969. In 1974, Pan Am agreed to transfer its Fairbanks-Seattle service to Western Airlines, requested that the CAB allow its New York-Tokyo service to be suspended from April 1975.
Other carriers such as Japan Airlines and Korean Air began to use Fairbanks as a technical stop for transpacific cargo flights in the late 1970s. On October 11, 2009, the airport constructed a new terminal and demolished the old terminal, built in 1948; the new terminal is built around the modern TSA standards. In addition to architectural design and better security, the main terminal now has six jet-bridges; the 2,700 m2 of custom unitised curtain wall was supplied by Overgaard Ltd.. Hong Kong; the special design incorporated double low-e triple glazing. The new building's footprint is smaller than the old building. For the 12-month period ending February 28, 2018, the airport had 119,898 aircraft operations, an average of 328 per day: 58% general aviation, 31% air taxi, 9% scheduled commercial, 2% military. At that time there were 569 aircraft based at this airport: 91% single-engine, 8% multi-engine, <1% jet and <1% helicopter. The terminal building, situated on the southwest side of the airport, contains seven gates: two for commuter carriers and five for larger carriers.
Fairbanks International Airport covers an area of 3,470 acres at an elevation of 439 feet above mean sea level. It has four runways: Runway 2L/20R: 11,800 by 150 feet, Surface: Asphalt Runway 2R/20L: 6,501 by 100 feet, Surface: Asphalt Runway 2/20: 2,900 by 75 feet, Surface: Gravel/Ski Strip Runway 2W/20W: 5,400 by 100 feet, Surface: Water/Winter Ski Strip In September 2013 there were two incidents of vehicular trespass onto its taxiway and runways, by users unknowingly following Apple Map's errant directions to Fairbanks International Airport; the directions indicated access to the Main Terminal via Taxiway B, which connects the East Ramp to the passenger terminal on the West Ramp. No one were any flights were delayed; the Airport has since complained to Apple Inc, through the local attorney office and erected barricades along the final stretch of the runway to prevent future occurrences. Fairbanks International Airport FAI Terminal Area Development Project FAA Alaska airport map FAA Alaska airport diagram FAA Airport Diagram for Fairbanks International, effective March 28, 2019 FAA Terminal Procedures for Fairbanks International, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for FAI AirNav airport information for PAFA ASN accident history for FAI FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations for PAFA SkyVector aeronautical chart for FAI Check current FAA delays for this airport
Husky is a general name for a sled-type of dog used in northern regions, differentiated from other sled-dog types by their fast pulling style. They are an ever-changing cross-breed of the fastest dogs; the Alaskan Malamute, by contrast, was used for pulling heavier loads. Huskies are used in sled dog racing. In recent years, companies have been marketing tourist treks with dog sledges for adventure travelers in snow regions as well. Huskies are today kept as pets, groups work to find new pet homes for retired racing and adventure trekking dogs; the word husky originated from the word referring to aboriginal Arctic people, in general, Eskimo, "...known as'huskies', a contraction of'Huskimos', the pronunciation given to the word'Eskimos' by the English sailors of trading vessels." The use of husky is recorded from 1852 for dogs kept by Inuit people. Nearly all dogs' genetic closeness to the gray wolf is due to admixture. However, several Arctic breeds show a genetic closeness with the now-extinct Taimyr wolf of North Asia due to admixture: the Siberian Husky and Greenland dog and to a lesser extent, the Shar Pei and Finnish spitz.
An admixture graph of the Greenland dog indicates a best-fit of 3.5% shared material. This introgression could have provided early dogs living in high latitudes with phenotypic variation beneficial for adaption to a new and challenging environment, contributing to the development of the husky, it indicates that the ancestry of present-day dog breeds descends from more than one region. Huskies are athletic, they have a thick double coat that can be gray, copper red, or white. Their eyes are pale blue, although they may be brown, blue, yellow, or heterochromic. Huskies are more prone to some degree of uveitis than most other breeds. Husky type dogs were landrace breeds kept by Arctic indigenous peoples. Examples of these landraces in modern times have been selectively bred and registered with various kennel clubs as modern purebred breeds, including the Siberian Husky and the Labrador Husky; the Sakhalin Husky is a Japanese sled dog related to the Akita Inu. The Mackenzie River husky is a subtype referring to different dog populations in the subarctic regions of the American state of Alaska and Canada.
Since many owners now have husky dogs as pets in settings that are not ideal for sledding, other activities have been found that are good for the dog and fun for the owner. Skijoring is an alternative to sled pulling, but used in somewhat the same environment as sledding with the exception that the owner does not need a full pack in order to participate. Dog hiking is an alternative for owners; the owner travels with their dogs along trails in the wilderness. This activity allows the owner and dog to gain exercise without using the huskies' strong sense of pulling; some companies make hiking equipment for dogs in which they may carry their own gear including water and bowls for each. Carting known as dryland mushing or sulky driving, is an urban alternative to dog sledding. Here, the dog can pull a cart which contains an individual; these carts can hand-made by the individual. Bikejoring is an activity where the owner bikes along with their dog while they are attached to their bike through a harness which keeps both the dog and owner safe.
The dog, or team of dogs can be attached to a towline to pull the biker. The phrase three dog night, meaning it is so cold you would need three dogs in bed with you to keep warm, originated with the Chukchi people of Siberia, who kept the Siberian husky landrace dog that became the modern purebred breed of Siberian Husky. Huskies are the mascots of several post-secondary institutions in the United States, including the University of Washington, the University of Connecticut, the Houston Baptist University, Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania, Northeastern University, Michigan Technological University, Northern Illinois University, St. Cloud State University, University of Southern Maine, the University of Wisconsin-Marathon County, they are the mascots for Saint Mary's University, George Brown College, the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. The World War II Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943 was called "Operation Husky". Huskies have been the subject of several motion pictures in the context of sledding, including Balto, Iron Will, Snow Dogs, Eight Below.
The Twilight Saga, which features werewolves, the TV series Game of Thrones, which featured dire wolves during season one, are thought to have inspired a surge in popularity for husky breeds. The television series Due South features a half husky, half wolf named "Diefenbaker" as a major character on the show
Mushing is a sport or transport method powered by dogs. It includes carting, dog scootering, sled dog racing, skijoring and weight pulling. More it implies the use of one or more dogs to pull a sled on snow or a rig on dry land. France was the first European power established in the Canadian Shield. Marche! became "mush!" for English Canadians. "Mush!" is used in modern parlance. The practice of using dogs to pull sleds dates back to at least 2000 BC, it originated in Siberia or North America, where many American Indian cultures used dogs to pull loads. In 1534, Jacques Cartier discovered the Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of Francis I of France. For the better part of a century the Iroquois and French clashed in a series of attacks and reprisals; that is why Samuel de Champlain arranged to have young French men live with the natives, to learn their language and customs and help the French adapt to life in North America. These men, known as coureurs des bois, were the first European mushers in North America, extended French influence south and west and in 1609, New France controlled all the Canadian Shield.
In 1680, the intendant of New France, Jacques Duchesneau de la Doussinière et d'Ambault, estimated that there was not one family in New France who did not have a "son, uncle or nephew" among the coureurs des bois. During the winter, sled became the ordinary transportation in the north of New France. In 1760, the British Army completed the conquest of Canada and gained control of the Canadian Shield. Many coureurs des bois continued to use the sled dog; the French term Marche! became Mush! in English. During the Klondike Gold Rush, many prospectors came in the Yukon with sled dogs; this "Last Great Gold Rush" has been immortalized by American author Jack London in The Call of the Wild. Sled-dog became the common mode of transportation in the new US Territory of Alaska. In 1911, Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen used sled dogs in a race to become the first person to reach the South Pole, he succeeded, while his competitor Robert Falcon Scott, who had instead used Siberian ponies, tragically perished.
By the time of the First World War, mushing had spread to European countries such as Norway, where dog sleds were used for nature tours, as ambulances in the woodlands and mountains, to bring supplies to soldiers in the field. During the 1925 serum run to Nome, 20 mushers and about 150 sled dogs relayed diphtheria antitoxin 674 miles by dog sled across the U. S. territory of Alaska in five and a half days, saving the small city of Nome and the surrounding communities from an incipient epidemic. Mushing can be recreational, or competitive. Mushing as a sport is practiced worldwide, but in North America, northern Europe and the Alps. Racing associations such as the International Federation of Sleddog Sports and the International Sled Dog Racing Association are working toward organizing the sport and in gaining Olympic recognition for mushing, it is the state sport of Alaska. The most famous sled dog races in the world are: Finnmarksløpet in Norway Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race in Alaska La Grande Odyssée in France and Switzerland Yukon Quest in Alaska and the YukonAlthough dogsled racing gets more publicity and is seen now as the primary form of mushing, recreational mushing thrives as an unorganized sport providing healthy outdoor form of winter exercise for families.
Mushing for utilitarian purposes includes anything from hauling wood or delivering milk or the mail to rural travel and equipment hauling. Dogs have been replaced by snowmobiles in many places, but some trappers and other isolated users have gone back to sled dogs, finding them safer and more dependable in extreme weather conditions. Dog team members are given titles according to their position in the team relative to the sled; these include leaders or lead dogs, swing dogs, team dogs, wheelers or wheel dogs. Lead dogs set the pace. Leaders may be double. Sometimes a leader may be unhitched to find the trail for the rest of the team, but the practice is uncommon and is not allowed at races. Qualities for a good lead dog are intelligence, common sense, the ability to find a trail in bad conditions. Swing dogs or point dogs are directly behind the leader, they swing the rest of the team behind them in curves on the trail. Team dogs are those between the wheelers and the swing dogs, add power to the team.
A small team may not have dogs in this position. Alternatively, the term may be used to describe any dog in a dog team. Wheel dogs are those nearest the sled and musher, a good wheeler must have a calm temperament so as not to be startled by the sled moving just behind it. Strength and ability to help guide the sled around tight curves are qualities valued in "wheelers." Bikejoring is dog mushing similar to skijoring and dog scootering. A dog or team of dogs attached to a towline a bicycle. Bikejoring dryland, activity. Bikejoring and canicross developed from skijoring and dogsled racing. Bikejoring is sometimes used to train racing sled-dogs out of season. An easier and maybe safer alternative to bikejoring or dog-scootering for use in urban and built up areas, is to attach a dog to the side of a b
University of Washington
The University of Washington is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1861, Washington was first established in downtown Seattle a decade after the city's founding to aid its economic development. Today, the university's 703-acre main Seattle campus is situated in the University District above the Montlake Cut, within the urban Puget Sound region of the Pacific Northwest; the university has two additional campuses in Bothell. Overall, UW encompasses over 500 buildings and over 20 million gross square footage of space, including one of the largest library systems in the world with over 26 university libraries, as well as the UW Tower, lecture halls, art centers, laboratories and conference centers; the university offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees through 140 departments in various colleges and schools, sees about 46,000 in total student enrollment every year, functions on a quarter system. Washington is a member of the Association of American Universities and classified as an R1 Doctoral Research University classification under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.
It is cited as a leading university in the world for scientific performance and research output by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the CWTS Leiden Ranking. In the 2015 fiscal year, the UW received nearly $1.2 billion in research funding, the 3rd largest among all universities in the United States. As the flagship institution of the six public universities in Washington State, it is known for its research in medicine, science, as well as its highly-competitive computer science and engineering programs. Additionally, Washington continues to benefit from its deep historical ties and major collaborations with numerous technology giants in the region, such as Amazon, Boeing and Microsoft. Paul G. Allen, Bill Gates and others spent significant time at Washington computer labs for a prior venture before founding Microsoft, its 22 varsity sports teams are highly competitive, competing as the Huskies in the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA Division I, representing the United States at the Olympic Games, other major competitions.
The University has been affiliated with many notable alumni and faculty, including 20 Nobel Prize laureates and numerous Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars, as well as members of other distinguished institutions. In 1854, territorial governor Isaac Stevens recommended the establishment of a university in the Washington Territory. Prominent Seattle-area residents, including Methodist preacher Daniel Bagley, saw this as a chance to add to the city's potential and prestige. Bagley learned of a law that allowed United States territories to sell land to raise money in support of public schools. At the time, Arthur A. Denny, an early founder of Seattle and member of the territorial legislature, aimed to increase the city's importance by moving the territory's capital from Olympia to Seattle. However, Bagley convinced Denny that the establishment of a university would assist more in the development of Seattle's economy. Two universities were chartered, but the decision was repealed in favor of a single university in Lewis County provided that locally donated land was available.
When no site emerged, Denny petitioned the legislature to reconsider Seattle as a location in 1858. In 1861, scouting began for an appropriate 10 acres site in Seattle to serve as a new university campus. Arthur and Mary Denny donated eight acres, while fellow pioneers Edward Lander, Charlie and Mary Terry, donated two acres on Denny's Knoll in downtown Seattle. More this tract was bounded by 4th Avenue to the west, 6th Avenue to the east, Union Street to the north, Seneca Streets to the south. John Pike, for whom Pike Street is named was the builder. On November 4, 1861, the university opened as the Territorial University of Washington; the legislature passed articles incorporating the University, establishing its Board of Regents in 1862. The school struggled, closing three times: in 1863 for low enrollment and again in 1867 and 1876 due to funds shortage. Washington awarded its first graduate Clara Antoinette McCarty Wilt in 1876, with a bachelor's degree in science. By the time Washington State entered the Union in 1889, both Seattle and the University had grown substantially.
Washington's total undergraduate enrollment increased from 30 to nearly 300 students, the campus's relative isolation in downtown Seattle faced encroaching development. A special legislative committee, headed by UW graduate Edmond Meany, was created to find a new campus to better serve the growing student population and faculty; the committee selected a site on the northeast of downtown Seattle called Union Bay, the land of the Duwamish, the legislature appropriated funds for its purchase and construction. In 1895, the University relocated to the new campus by moving into the newly built Denny Hall; the University Regents tried and failed to sell the old campus settling with leasing the area. This would become one of the University's most valuable pieces of real estate in modern-day Seattle, generating millions in annual revenue with what is now called the Metropolitan Tract; the original Territorial University building was torn down in 1908, its former site now houses the Fairmont Olympic Hotel.
The sole-surviving remnants of Washington's first building are four 24-foot, hand-fluted cedar, Ionic columns. They were salvaged by Edmond S. Meany, one of the University's first graduates and former head of its history dep