Great Western Railway
The Great Western Railway was a British railway company that linked London with the south-west and west of England, the Midlands, most of Wales. It was founded in 1833, received its enabling Act of Parliament on 31 August 1835 and ran its first trains in 1838, it was engineered by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who chose a broad gauge of 7 ft —later widened to 7 ft 1⁄4 in —but, from 1854, a series of amalgamations saw it operate 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard-gauge trains. The GWR was the only company to keep its identity through the Railways Act 1921, which amalgamated it with the remaining independent railways within its territory, it was merged at the end of 1947 when it was nationalised and became the Western Region of British Railways; the GWR was called by some "God's Wonderful Railway" and by others the "Great Way Round" but it was famed as the "Holiday Line", taking many people to English and Bristol Channel resorts in the West Country as well as the far south-west of England such as Torquay in Devon, Minehead in Somerset, Newquay and St Ives in Cornwall.
The company's locomotives, many of which were built in the company's workshops at Swindon, were painted a Brunswick green colour while, for most of its existence, it used a two-tone "chocolate and cream" livery for its passenger coaches. Goods wagons were painted red but this was changed to mid-grey. Great Western trains included long-distance express services such as the Flying Dutchman, the Cornish Riviera Express and the Cheltenham Spa Express, it operated many suburban and rural services, some operated by steam railmotors or autotrains. The company pioneered the use of more economic goods wagons than were usual in Britain, it operated a network of road motor routes, was a part of the Railway Air Services, owned ships and hotels. The Great Western Railway originated from the desire of Bristol merchants to maintain their city as the second port of the country and the chief one for American trade; the increase in the size of ships and the gradual silting of the River Avon had made Liverpool an attractive port, with a Liverpool to London rail line under construction in the 1830s Bristol's status was threatened.
The answer for Bristol was, with the co-operation of London interests. The company was founded at a public meeting in Bristol in 1833 and was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1835. Isambard Kingdom Brunel aged twenty-nine, was appointed engineer; this was by far Brunel's largest contract to date. He made two controversial decisions. Firstly, he chose to use a broad gauge of 7 ft to allow for the possibility of large wheels outside the bodies of the rolling stock which could give smoother running at high speeds. Secondly, he selected a route, north of the Marlborough Downs, which had no significant towns but which offered potential connections to Oxford and Gloucester; this meant. From Reading heading west, the line would curve in a northerly sweep back to Bath. Brunel surveyed the entire length of the route between London and Bristol himself, with the help of many, including his solicitor Jeremiah Osborne of Bristol law firm Osborne Clarke who on one occasion rowed Brunel down the River Avon himself to survey the bank of the river for the route.
George Thomas Clark played an important role as an engineer on the project, reputedly taking the management of two divisions of the route including bridges over the River Thames at Lower Basildon and Moulsford and of Paddington Station. Involvement in major earth-moving works seems to have fed Clark's interest in geology and archaeology and he, authored two guidebooks on the railway: one illustrated with lithographs by John Cooke Bourne; the first 22 1⁄2 miles of line, from Paddington station in London to Maidenhead Bridge station, opened on 4 June 1838. When Maidenhead Railway Bridge was ready the line was extended to Twyford on 1 July 1839 and through the deep Sonning Cutting to Reading on 30 March 1840; the cutting was the scene of a railway disaster two years when a goods train ran into a landslip. This accident prompted Parliament to pass the 1844 Railway Regulation Act requiring railway companies to provide better carriages for passengers; the next section, from Reading to Steventon crossed the Thames twice and opened for traffic on 1 June 1840.
A 7 1⁄4-mile extension took the line to Faringdon Road on 20 July 1840. Meanwhile, work had started at the Bristol end of the line, where the 11 1⁄2-mile section to Bath opened on 31 August 1840. On 17 December 1840, the line from London reached a temporary terminus at Wootton Bassett Road west of Swindon and 80.25 miles from Paddington. The section from Wootton Bassett Road to Chippenham was opened on 31 May 1841, as was Swindon Junction station where the Cheltenham and Great Western Union Railway to Cirencester connected; that was an independent line worked by the GWR, as was the Bristol and Exeter Railway, the first section of which from Bristol to Bridgwater was opened on 14 June 1841. The GWR main line remained incomplete during the construction of the 1-mile-1,452-yard Box Tunnel, ready for trains on 30 June 1841, after which trains ran the 152 miles from Paddington through to Bridgwater. In 1851, the GWR purchased the Kennet and Avon Canal, a competing carrier between London, Reading and Bristol.
The Dark Is Rising Sequence
The Dark Is Rising is a series of five contemporary fantasy novels for older children and young adults, written by the British author Susan Cooper and published 1965 to 1977. The Dark Is Rising, the second novel in the series, was published in 1973; the series is sometimes called The Dark Is Rising Sequence, the title of its UK omnibus edition and its US boxed set edition. It depicts a struggle between forces of good and evil called the Light and the Dark and is based on Arthurian legends, Celtic mythology, Norse mythology and English Folklore. Both magical and ordinary children are prominent throughout the series, it was inaugurated in 1965 with the U. K. publication of Over Sea, Under Stone by Jonathan Cape. The sequels were published 1973 to 1977 simultaneously in the U. K. and the U. S. Volume four, The Grey King, won both the Newbery Medal, recognizing the year's "most distinguished contribution to American literature for children", the inaugural Welsh Tir na n-Og Award for English-language books with Welsh background.
The concluding Silver on the Tree won the annual Tir na n-Og Award. The novel The Dark Is Rising features Will Stanton, age 11, who learns on that birthday that he is an "Old One" and thus destined to wield the powers of The Light in the ancient struggle with The Dark. In the U. S. it was a Newbery Honor Book. Its 2007 film adaptation, titled The Seeker in America and The Dark Is Rising in Britain, made significant plot and character divergences from the book. Simon and Barney Drew: The main characters of the first novel, the Drew siblings, are human children who have known Merriman Lyon as their "Great Uncle Merry" for years. While on holiday in Cornwall, they get caught up in the battle between the Light and the Dark and join the search for the Things of Power. In the first novel, Over Sea, Under Stone, they search for the legendary Grail of King Arthur, they appear in the third book and the last book in the series, Silver on the Tree. In the poem featured prominently throughout The Dark Is Rising, they are the ones referred to as "three from the track".
Their last name is linked with Will Stanton's in British paleohistory. Simon Drew: Simon is the eldest of the Drews. In Over Sea, Under Stone and Barney are the two to go into the cave and retrieve the Grail. In Greenwitch, he is jealous of Will because Merriman brought him to Cornwall for "unnecessary" reasons, but warms up to him, he loves anything to do with ships. Jane Drew: Jane is the middle Drew. In Greenwitch, Jane is allowed to attend the Greenwitch ceremony, traditionally for female locals only, through her compassion develops a special bond with the entity which constitutes the magical aspect of the Greenwitch, she subsequently receives from the entity the case containing the coded manuscript for deciphering the runes on the Grail. She develops a special bond with the Lady of the Light in Silver on the Tree. Barnabas Drew: Barney is the youngest of the Drews, he loves King Arthur legends and, although he is quite wary of his talent at paints. In Greenwitch, Barney sketches a picture of the bay, stolen by an agent of the Dark, but Merriman recovers it and presents it to Tethys as a gift.
Old Ones: Ancient and immortal, the Old Ones are mystical beings who possess great magical power. They are of many races and cultures. Capable of performing many impossible feats, including freezing time and controlling the elements, they serve the Light in the war against the Dark; the Great Lords of the Dark are not Old Ones. The two factions struggle to determine the destiny of mankind. Will Stanton: The main character of the second novel, a major character in the entire series, he is the seventh son of a seventh son, in a large, close human family, his eleventh birthday marks the beginning of his magical awakening and rise to power as the last of the Old Ones. The Dark Is Rising tells how he came to power, met Merriman Lyon, accumulated the six "signs" to help fight the Dark. Will is the last of the Old Ones. In Greenwitch, he is invited to come to Cornwall by Merriman in order to help recover the Grail and cypher that reveals how to read the runes on the Grail, he gives Jane a bracelet of gold engraved with the words, "power from the Greenwitch", which she throws into the sea as an offering to the Greenwitch in appreciation for its help.
In The Grey King, Will goes to Wales to recover from sickness, where he meets Bran and awakens the Sleepers. In Silver on the Tree, Will travels with Bran to the Lost Land to recover the crystal sword Eirias, helps to vanquish the Dark. Will is the only Old One to remain on Earth afterward, the only one of the Light's allies who remembers the struggle against the Dark. Cooper named Will for William Shakespeare. Merriman Lyon: Merriman is the first Old One, he and Will Stanton have a special bond. A friend of the Drew family for over a generation, he assisted Barney and Simon in their quest for the Grail, in addition to protecting them until their task was completed. Throughout the series Merriman is portrayed in numerous historical periods, but as King Arthur's chief adviser, the mythical Merlin, as Arthur calls him "Mer Lion"
In Scottish mythology, Selkies or Selkie folk meaning "Seal Folk" are mythological beings capable of therianthropy, changing from seal to human form by shedding their skin. They are found in folktales and mythology originating from Orkney and Shetland; the folk-tales revolve around female selkies being coerced into relationships with humans by someone stealing and hiding their sealskin, thus exhibiting the tale motif of the swan maiden type. There are Icelandic folklore that speak of seal-women and seal-skin. In some instances the Irish mermaid is regarded as a half-human being; the Scots word selkie is diminutive for selch which speaking means "grey seal". Alternate spellings for the diminutive include: selky, sejlki, silkey, sylkie, etc; the term "selkie" according to Alan Bruford should be treated as meaning any seal with or without the implication of transformation into human form. W. Traill Dennison insisted "selkie" was the correct term to be applied to these shapeshifters, to be distinguished from the merfolk, that Samuel Hibbert committed an error in referring to them as "mermen" and "mermaids".
However, when other Norse cultures are examined, Icelandic writers refer to the seal-wives as merfolk. There seems to be some conflation between the selkie and finfolk; this confounding only existed in Shetland, claimed Dennison, that in Orkney the selkie are distinguished from the finfolk, the selkies' abode undersea is not "Finfolk-a-heem". There is further confusion with the Norse concept of the Finns as shapeshifters, "Finns" being the Shetlandic name for dwellers of the sea who could remove their seal-skin and transform into humans according to one native correspondent. Gaelic termsIn Gaelic stories, specific terms for selkies are used, they are differentiated from mermaids. They are most referred to as maighdeann-mhara in Scottish Gaelic, maighdean mhara in Irish, moidyn varrey in Manx and have the seal-like attributes of selkies; the only term which refers to a selkie but, only encountered is maighdeann-ròin, or "seal maiden". Many of the folk-tales on selkie folk have been collected from the Northern Isles.
In Orkney lore, selkie is said to denote various seals of greater size than the grey seal. The type of large seals that might have been seen on the islands include the Greenland seal and the crested seal. Something similar is stated in Shetland tradition, that the mermen and mermaids prefer to assume the shape of larger seals, referred to as "Haaf-fish". A typical folk-tale is that of a man who steals a female selkie's skin, finds her naked on the sea shore, compels her to become his wife, but the wife will spend her time in captivity longing for the sea, her true home, will be seen gazing longingly at the ocean. She may bear several children by her human husband, but once she discovers her skin, she will return to the sea and abandon the children she loved. Sometimes, one of her children knows the whereabouts of the skin. Sometimes it is revealed she had a first husband from her own kind. Although in some children's story versions, the selkie revisits her family on land once a year, in the typical folktale she is never seen again by them.
In one version, the selkie wife was never seen again by the family, but the children would witness a large seal approach them and "greet" them plaintively. Male selkies are described as being handsome in their human form, having great seductive powers over human women, they seek those who are dissatisfied with their lives, such as married women waiting for their fishermen husbands. In one popular tattletale version about a certain "Ursilla" of Orkney, it was rumored that when she wished to make contact with her male selkie would shed seven tears into the sea. Children born between man and seal-folk may have webbed hands, as in the case of the Shetland mermaid whose children had a "a sort of web between their fingers", or "Ursilla" rumored to have children sired by a male selkie, such that the children had to have the webbing between their fingers and toes made of horny material clipped away intermittently; some of the descendants did have these hereditary traits, according to Walter Traill Dennison, related to the family.
Some legends say that selkies could turn human every so when the conditions of the tides were correct, but oral storytellers disagreed as to the time interval. In Ursilla's rumor, the contacted male selkie promised to visit her at the "seventh stream" or springtide. In the ballad The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry, the seal-husband promised to return in seven years. According to one version, the selkie could only assume human form once every seven years because they are bodies that house condemned souls. There is the notion that they are either humans who had committed sinful wrongdoing, or fallen angels, it was only during hard times that the people of the Scottish Isles would kill seals to make use of their skin and blubber. It was thought. Ernest Marwick recounts the tale of crofters who brought their sheep to graze upon a small group of holms within the Orkney Islands. During the sum
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County and part of the Boston metropolitan area. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are in Cambridge, as was Radcliffe College, a college for women until it merged with Harvard on October 1, 1999. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population was 105,162; as of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester and Lowell. Cambridge was one of two seats of Middlesex County until the county government was abolished in Massachusetts in 1997. In December 1630, the site of what would become Cambridge was chosen because it was safely upriver from Boston Harbor, making it defensible from attacks by enemy ships. Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, her husband Simon were among the town's first settlers.
The first houses were built in the spring of 1631. The settlement was referred to as "the newe towne". Official Massachusetts records show the name rendered as Newe Towne by 1632, as Newtowne by 1638. Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newe Towne was one of a number of towns founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under Governor John Winthrop, its first preacher was Thomas Hooker, who led many of its original inhabitants west in 1636 to found Hartford and the Connecticut Colony. The original village site is now within Harvard Square; the marketplace where farmers sold crops from surrounding towns at the edge of a salt marsh remains within a small park at the corner of John F. Kennedy and Winthrop Streets; the town comprised a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Cambridge Village in 1688, Cambridge Farms in 1712 or 1713, Little or South Cambridge and Menotomy or West Cambridge in 1807.
In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge to Boston were pursued and rejected. In 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers. According to Cotton Mather, Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court for its proximity to the popular and respected Puritan preacher Thomas Shepard. In May 1638, The settlement's name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Newtowne's ministers and Shepard, the college's first president, major benefactor, the first schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton were Cambridge alumni, as was the colony's governor John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. In 1650, Governor Thomas Dudley signed the charter creating the corporation that still governs Harvard College. Cambridge grew as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the colony's capital.
By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with most of the town comprising farms and estates. Most inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, made their livings from estates and trade, lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown". Coming north from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3, 1775, now reckoned the birthplace of the U. S. Army. Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston. Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge grew with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792 connecting Cambridge directly to Boston, so that it was no longer necessary to travel eight miles through the Boston Neck and Brookline to cross the Charles River.
A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts. In the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution, it was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires. The Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes—were popular and influential in their day. Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike, the Middlesex Turnpike, what are today's Cambridge and Harvard Streets connected various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, the town was connected to the Boston & Maine Railroad, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring Somerville from the rural parts of Charlestown. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846 despite persistent tensions between East Cambridge and Old Cambridge stemming from differences in culture, sources of income, the national origins of the resident
Burnham is a large village and civil parish that lies north of the River Thames in the South Bucks District of Buckinghamshire, on the boundary with Berkshire, between the towns of Maidenhead and Slough, about 23 miles west of Charing Cross, London. It is best known for the nearby Burnham Beeches woodland; the village is served by Burnham railway station on the main line between London Paddington and Reading. The M4 motorway passes through the south of the parish; the toponym is derived from the Old English for "homestead on a stream". It was first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Burneham, when the manor was held by Walter FitzOther. Burnham was once a important village; the road from London to Bath passed through the extensive parish of Burnham and as a result, in 1271, a Royal charter was granted to hold a market and an annual fair. However, when the bridge crossing the Thames in Maidenhead opened, the road was diverted away from Burnham, which fell into relative decline; the market was transferred to Maidenhead.
Today the village is nearly contiguous with west Slough. At the 2011 census the civil parish had a population of 11,630 and Burnham is the traditional village nucleus; the Church of England parish church of Saint Peter dates in part from the 12th century but has been expanded and altered, with major restorations in 1863–64 and 1891 and the construction of the Cornerstone Centre in 1986. In 1265 a Benedictine women's abbey was founded near the village by Earl of Cornwall; the community was dispersed under King Henry VIII in the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Since 1916, a contemplative order of Church of England Augustinian nuns has been based in the restored remains of the original abbey; the parish of Burnham included a number of communities: in the 18th century the liberties assessed for the poor rate were Burnham Town, East Burnham, Britwell and Wood. Boveney became a separate civil parish in 1866 Cippenham was transferred to Slough in 1930, therefore became part of Berkshire in 1974. Britwell was transferred to the borough of Slough and to Berkshire in 1974.
The current civil parish now includes Lent Rise, Rose Hill, East Burnham, Hitcham and Littleworth Common. Burnham Grammar School and The E-ACT Burnham Park Academy provide secondary education to the children of Burnham and the surrounding area. Many students, commute to the nearby secondary schools in Slough. Priory School is the largest primary school in the area and provides primary education for many of the local children, although the smaller "Our Lady of Peace" Roman Catholic primary school is next to Priory School; the village has a traditional High Street, with many buildings dating from the 18th and 19th century. There are two small supermarkets and six pubs on or near the High Street, many small independent cafes and shops. At the south end of the High Street is a large park, which contains the community centre of Burnham Park Hall and a small public library. Burnham Football Club is a Non-League football team. Burnham has a Local nature reserve on the eastern border of the village called Haymill Valley.
Burnham Beeches National Nature Reserve, an area of 540 acres of protected ancient woodland, lies just north of the village. Owing to its proximity to Pinewood Film & TV Studios and its surrounding areas feature in films, notably main scenes in Carry On films and for the 1991 film Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves; the major National Trust estate of Cliveden is about three miles northwest, in the neighbouring parish of Taplow. Dorneywood the country home of the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer, is in Burnham parish; the River Thames is about two miles west of the village centre. The major rowing venue of Dorney Lake is nearby. There are three golf courses to the west of the village; the village has good transport links. In addition to Burnham railway station and the nearby M4, the Chiltern Main Line and the M40 are accessible about 4 miles north at Beaconsfield. Heathrow airport is about 8 miles east. Lord Grenville built Dropmore House to the north of the village. Mike Ashley – billionaire businessman Jimmy Carr – comedian attended Burnham Grammar School Susan Cooper – author Armando Iannucci – writer Ulrika Jonsson – TV presenter Will Mellor – Actor Tracey Ullman – comedian Page, W.
H. ed.. "House of Austin Nuns: 14 the Abbey of Burnham". A History of the County of Buckingham. Victoria County History. 1. Archibald Constable & Co. pp. 382–384. Page, W. H. ed.. "Burnham with Lower Boveney". A History of the County of Buckingham. Victoria County History. 3. Pp. 165–184. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Buckinghamshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 77–79. ISBN 0-14-071019-1. Burnham Bucks community website
The Wampanoag rendered Wôpanâak, are an American Indian people in North America. They were a loose confederacy made up of several tribes in the 17th century, but today many Wampanoag people are enrolled in two federally recognized tribes: the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe and the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head in Massachusetts; the Wampanoag lived in southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island in the beginning of the 17th century, at the time of first contact with the English colonists, a territory that included Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket islands. Their population numbered in the thousands due to the richness of the environment and their cultivation of corn and squash. From 1615 to 1619, the Wampanoag suffered an epidemic, long suspected to be smallpox. Modern research, has suggested that it was leptospirosis, a bacterial infection known as Weil's syndrome or 7-day fever, it decimated the Wampanoag population. Researchers suggest that the losses from the epidemic were so large that English colonists were able to establish their settlements in the Massachusetts Bay Colony more easily.
More than 50 years King Philip's War of Indian allies against the English colonists resulted in the death of 40 percent of the surviving tribe. Many male Wampanoag were sold into slavery in Bermuda or the West Indies, some women and children were enslaved by colonists in New England; the tribe disappeared from historical records after the late 18th century, although its people and descendants persisted. Survivors continued to live in their traditional areas and maintained many aspects of their culture, while absorbing other peoples by marriage and adapting to changing economic and cultural needs in the larger society; the last speakers of the Massachusett language Wôpanâak died more than 100 years ago, although some Wampanoag people have been working on a language revival project since 1993. The project is working on curriculum and teacher development. Wampanoag means "Easterners" or "People of the Dawn." The word Wapanoos was first documented on Adriaen Block's 1614 map, the earliest European representation of Wampanoag territory.
Other interpretations include "Wapenock," "Massasoit", the exonym "Philip's Indians." In 1616, John Smith erroneously referred to the entire Wampanoag confederacy as the Pokanoket, one of the tribes. Pokanoket was used in the earliest colonial reports; the Pokanoket tribal seat was located near Rhode Island. The Wampanoag people were semi-sedentary, with seasonal movements between sites in southern New England; the men traveled far north and south along the Eastern seaboard for seasonal fishing expeditions, sometimes stayed in those distant locations for weeks and months at a time. The women cultivated varieties of the "three sisters" as the staples of their diet, supplemented by fish and game caught by the men; each community had authority over a well-defined territory from which the people derived their livelihood through a seasonal round of fishing, planting and hunting. Southern New England was populated by various tribes, so hunting grounds had defined boundaries; the Wampanoag have a matrilineal system, like many indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands, in which women controlled property and hereditary status was passed through the maternal line.
They were matrifocal. Women elders could approve selection of sachems. Men acted in most of the political roles for relations with other bands and tribes, as well as warfare. Women with claims to plots of land used for farming or hunting passed those claims to their female descendants, regardless of their marital status; the production of food among the Wampanoag was similar to that of many American Indian societies, food habits were divided along gender lines. Men and women had specific tasks. Women played an active role in many of the stages of food production, so they had important socio-political and spiritual roles in their communities. Wampanoag men were responsible for hunting and fishing, while women took care of farming and gathering wild fruits, nuts and shellfish. Women were responsible for up to 75 percent of all food production in Wampanoag societies; the Wampanoag were organized into a confederation where a head sachem presided over a number of other sachems. The colonists referred to the sachem as "king," but the position of a sachem differed in many ways from what they knew of a king.
Sachems were bound to consult their own councilors within their tribe, but any of the "petty sachems" in the region. They were responsible for arranging trade privileges, as well as protecting their allies in exchange for material tribute. Both women and men could hold the position of sachem, women were sometimes chosen over close male relatives. Pre-marital sexual experimentation was accepted, although once couples opted to marry, the Wampanoag expected fidelity within unions. Roger Williams stated that "single fornication they count no sin, but after Marriage… they count it heinous for either of them to be false." In addition, polygamy was practiced among the Wampanoag. Some elite men could take several wives for political or social reasons, multiple wives were a symbol of wealth because women were the producers and distributors of corn and other food products. Marriage and conjugal unions were not as important as ties of kinship; the Wampanoag spoke Wôpanâak, a dialect of the Massachusett language which belongs to the Algonquian languages family.
The first Bible published in Ame