The Time Tunnel
The Time Tunnel is an American color science-fiction TV series, written around a theme of time travel adventure and starring James Darren and Robert Colbert. The show was inspired by the 1964 movie The Time Travelers, was creator-producer Irwin Allen's third science-fiction television series, released by 20th Century Fox Television and broadcast on ABC; the show ran for one season of 30 episodes. A pilot for a new series did not proceed to a series. A history of the series by Martin Grams, Jr. was published in 2012. Project Tic-Toc is a top-secret U. S. government effort to build an experimental time machine, known as "The Time Tunnel" due to its appearance as a cylindrical hallway. The base for Project Tic-Toc is a huge, hidden underground complex in Arizona, 800 floors deep and employing more than 12,000 specialized personnel; the directors of the project are Dr. Douglas Phillips, Dr. Anthony Newman, Lt. General Heywood Kirk; the specialists assisting them are Dr. Raymond Swain, a foremost expert in electronics, Dr. Ann MacGregor, an electrobiologist supervising the unit that determines how much force and heat a time traveler is able to withstand.
The series is set in 1968, two years into the future of the actual broadcast season, 1966-67. Project Tic-Toc is in its tenth year when United States Senator Leroy Clark comes to investigate to determine whether the project, which has cost $7.5 billion, is worth continuing. Senator Clark feels; when speaking to Phillips and Newman in front of the Time Tunnel, he delivers an ultimatum: either they send someone into time and return him during the course of his visit or their funding will cease. Tony volunteers for this endeavor. Defying this decision, Tony sends himself into time. Doug follows shortly after to rescue him. Senator Clark returns to Washington with the promise that funding will not be cut off to the project, leaving General Kirk in charge; the stage is set for the progress of the series as Tony and Doug are now "switched" from one period in history to another, allowing episodes to be set in the past and future. Episodes 2-23 begin with the following narration: Two American scientists are lost in the swirling maze of past and future ages, during the first experiments on America's greatest and most secret project, the Time Tunnel.
Tony Newman and Doug Phillips now tumble helplessly toward a new fantastic adventure, somewhere along the infinite corridors of time. Tony and Doug become participants in notable past events such as the sinking of the Titanic, the attack on Pearl Harbor, the eruption of Krakatoa, Custer's Last Stand, the Battle of the Alamo among others. General Kirk and Ann in the control room are able to locate them in time and space, observe them, communicate with them through voice contact, send help; when the series was abruptly cancelled in the summer of 1967 by ABC, they had not filmed an episode in which Tony and Doug are safely returned to the Time Tunnel complex. Time travel is facilitated by time being portrayed as a static continuum, accessible at any point through the Time Tunnel as a corridor spanning its infinite reaches; when Senator Clark sees an image of the Titanic on the image screen in the course of episode one, he is told by Dr. Swain that he is seeing "the living past", Althea Hall is told by Tony Newman that the past and the future are the same.
The Time Tunnel is a portal connecting the Time Tunnel "complex" with the same time periods in which Doug and Tony are located. Other people can be relocated by the Time Tunnel from their time to another time as Machiavelli is switched from his own time to the time of the Gettysburg Campaign of 1863. Bringing people to the present happens in the series, but the only occasion in which Tony and Doug return to their own time occurs in "Merlin the Magician", when the great wizard uses magic to bring them home in suspended animation so that he may instruct them to perform a mission for him. In the course of the series, Doug and the Time Tunnel personnel discover that events of the past can be altered to some extent by the intrusion of the time travelers, in a few cases, their historical research allows for it. Episode 26 explores the scenario of one of the time travelers falling in love with someone from the past: Tony and the Princess Serit, daughter of Kublai Khan. Marco Polo tells Doug, "Can they not touch each other?"
History itself hints at the possibility of Serit marrying Tony as Ann informs General Kirk. The historical information on Billy the Kid's victims alarms Ann and the General, as it records that he killed two strangers near Lincoln, New Mexico, in April 1881—just when Tony and Billy the Kid are brought together; the production used sets, stock footage, props left over from the large number of period dramas made by the 20th Century Fox film company. Black-and-white shots purporting to show the Titanic sinking were tinted for use in this color production. Only a few actors were costumed for a given episode, interspersed with cuts of great masses of people dressed from original features. Only one set was constructed for that of the Time Tunnel main control room. For the pilot episode, a large control room set was built, a longer Time Tunnel was created using optical matte shots. After the pilot episode, location changes occurred for the production of the series.
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Ian Robert Maxwell, born Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch, was a British media proprietor and Member of Parliament. From Czechoslovakia, Maxwell rose from poverty to build an extensive publishing empire. After his death, huge discrepancies in his companies' finances were revealed, including his fraudulent misappropriation of the Mirror Group pension fund. Early in his life, Maxwell escaped from Nazi occupation, joined the Czechoslovak Army in exile in World War II and was decorated after active service in the British Army. In subsequent years he worked in publishing. After six years as an MP during the 1960s, he again put all his energy into business, successively buying the British Printing Corporation, Mirror Group Newspapers and Macmillan Publishers, among other publishing companies. Maxwell had a flamboyant lifestyle, living in Headington Hill Hall in Oxford, from which he flew in his helicopter, sailing in his luxury yacht, the Lady Ghislaine, he was notably litigious and embroiled in controversy, including about his support for Israel at the time of the 1948 Palestine war.
In 1989, he had to sell successful businesses, including Pergamon Press, to cover some of his debts. In 1991, his body was discovered floating in the Atlantic Ocean, having fallen overboard from his yacht, he was buried in Jerusalem. Maxwell's death triggered the collapse of his publishing empire as banks called in loans, his sons attempted to keep the business together, but failed as the news emerged that the elder Maxwell had stolen hundreds of millions of pounds from his own companies' pension funds. The Maxwell companies applied for bankruptcy protection in 1992. Maxwell was born into a poor Yiddish-speaking Orthodox Jewish family in the small town of Slatinské Doly in the easternmost province of pre-World War II Czechoslovakia, his parents were Hannah Slomowitz. He had six siblings. In 1939, the area was reclaimed by Hungary. Most members of his family died in Auschwitz after Hungary was occupied in 1944 by Nazi Germany, but he had escaped to France. In Marseille, he joined the Czechoslovak Army in exile in May 1940.
After the defeat in France and the retreat to Great Britain, Maxwell took part in a protest against the leadership of the Czechoslovak Army, with 500 other soldiers he was transferred to the Royal Pioneer Corps and to the North Staffordshire Regiment in 1943. He was involved in action across Europe, from the Normandy beaches to Berlin, achieved the rank of sergeant, he was promoted to the rank of captain. In January 1945, he received the Military Cross from Field Marshal Montgomery. Attached to the Foreign Office, he served in Berlin during the next two years in the press section. Maxwell naturalised as a British subject on 19 June 1946 and changed his name by deed of change of name on 30 June 1948. In 1945, he married Elisabeth "Betty" Meynard, a French Protestant, the couple had nine children over the next sixteen years: Michael, Christine, Karine, Ian and Ghislaine. In a 1995 interview, Elisabeth talked of how they were recreating his childhood family, victims of the Holocaust. Five of his children – Christine, Ian and Ghislaine – were employed within his companies.
Daughter Karine died of leukemia at age three, while Michael was injured in a car crash in 1961, at the age of fifteen, when his driver fell asleep at the wheel. Michael never died seven years later. After World War II, Maxwell used various contacts in the Allied occupation authorities to go into business, becoming the British and U. S. distributor for Springer Verlag, a publisher of scientific books. In 1951, he bought three-quarters of a minor publisher, they changed the name of the company to Pergamon Press and built it into a major publishing house. In 1964, representing the Labour Party, Maxwell was elected as Member of Parliament for Buckingham and re-elected in 1966, he gave an interview to The Times in 1968, in which he said the House of Commons provided him with a problem. "I can't get on with men", he commented. "I tried having male assistants at first. But it didn't work, they tend to be too independent. Men like to have individuality. Women can become an extension of the boss." Maxwell lost his seat in 1970 to the Conservative William Benyon.
He contested Buckingham again without success. At the beginning of 1969, it emerged; the Carr family, which owned the title, was incensed at the thought of a Czech immigrant with socialist politics gaining ownership and the board voted against Maxwell's bid without any dissent. The News of the World's editor Stafford Somerfield opposed Maxwell's bid in an October 1968 front page opinion piece, in which he referred to Maxwell's Czech origins and used his birth name, he wrote, "This is a British paper, run by British people...as British as roast beef and Yorkshire pudding... Let us keep it that way"; the tycoon who gained control was the Australian Rupert Murdoch, who that year acquired The Sun, which had previously interested Maxwell. In 1969, Saul Steinberg, head of "Leasco Data Processing Corporation", was interested in a strategic acquisition of Pergamon. Steinberg claimed that during negotiations, Maxwell falsely stated that a subsidiary responsible for publishing encyclopedias was profitable.
At the same time, Pergamon had been forced to reduce its profit forecasts for 1969 from £2.5 million to £2.05
Julie Frances Christie is a British actress. An icon of the "swinging London" era of the 1960s, she has received such accolades as an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, a BAFTA Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, she has appeared in six films that were ranked in the British Film Institute's 100 greatest British films of the 20th century, in 1997 she received the BAFTA Fellowship. Christie's breakthrough film role was in Billy Liar, she came to international attention for her performances in Darling, for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress, Doctor Zhivago, the eighth highest-grossing film of all time after adjustment for inflation. In the following years, she starred in Fahrenheit 451, Far from the Madding Crowd, The Go-Between, McCabe & Mrs. Miller, for which she received her second Oscar nomination, Don't Look Now and Heaven Can Wait. From the early 1980s, her appearances in mainstream films decreased, though she held roles as Thetis in Wolfgang Petersen's historical epic Troy and as Madam Rosmerta in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.
She has continued to receive significant critical recognition for her work, including Oscar nominations for the independent films Afterglow and Away from Her. Christie was born on 14 April 1940 at Singlijan Tea Estate, Assam, British India, the elder child of Rosemary, a Welsh painter, Francis "Frank" St. John Christie, her father ran the tea plantation. She has a younger brother, an older half-sister, from her father's relationship with an Indian woman, who worked as a tea picker on his plantation. Frank and Rosemary Christie separated, she was baptised in the Church of England, studied as a boarder at the independent Convent of Our Lady school in St. Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex, after being expelled from another convent school for telling a risqué joke that reached a wider audience than anticipated. After being asked to leave the Convent of Our Lady as well, she attended Wycombe Court School, High Wycombe, during which time she lived with a foster mother from the age of six. After her parents' divorce, Christie spent time with her mother in rural Wales.
As a teenager at the all-girls' Wycombe Court School, she played "the Dauphin" in a production of Shaw's Saint Joan. She studied at the Central School of Speech and Drama. Christie made her professional stage debut in 1957, her first screen roles were on British television, her earliest role to gain attention was in BBC serial A for Andromeda. She was a contender for the role of Honey Rider in the first James Bond film, Dr. No, but producer Albert R. Broccoli thought her breasts were too small. Christie appeared in two comedies for Independent Artists: The Fast Lady, her breakthrough role, was as Liz, the friend and would-be lover of the eponymous character played by Tom Courtenay in Billy Liar, for which she received a BAFTA Award nomination. The director, John Schlesinger cast Christie only after another actress, Topsy Jane, had dropped out of the film. Christie appeared as Daisy Battles in Young Cassidy, a biopic of Irish playwright Seán O'Casey, co-directed by Jack Cardiff and John Ford, her role as an amoral model in Darling led to Christie becoming known internationally.
Directed by Schlesinger, co-starring Dirk Bogarde and Laurence Harvey, Christie had only been cast in the lead role after Schlesinger insisted, the studio having wanted Shirley MacLaine. She received the Academy Award for Best Actress and the BAFTA Award for Best British Actress in a Leading Role for her performance. In David Lean's Doctor Zhivago, adapted from the epic/romance novel by Boris Pasternak, Christie's role as Lara Antipova became her best known; the film was a major box-office success. As of 2016, Doctor Zhivago is the 8th highest-grossing film of all time, adjusted for inflation. According to Life magazine, 1965 was "The Year of Julie Christie". After dual roles in François Truffaut's adaptation of the Ray Bradbury novel Fahrenheit 451, starring with Oskar Werner, she appeared as Thomas Hardy's heroine Bathsheba Everdene in Schlesinger's Far from the Madding Crowd. After moving to Los Angeles in 1967, she appeared in the title role of Richard Lester's Petulia, co-starring with George C. Scott.
Christie's persona as the swinging sixties British woman she had embodied in Billy Liar and Darling was further cemented by her appearance in the documentary Tonite Let's All Make Love in London. In 1967, Time magazine said of her: "What Julie Christie wears has more real impact on fashion than all the clothes of the ten best-dressed women combined". In Joseph Losey's romantic drama The Go-Between, Christie had a lead role along with Alan Bates; the film won the Grand Prix the main award at the Cannes Film Festival. She earned a second Best Actress Oscar nomination for her role as a brothel madame in Robert Altman's postmodern western McCabe & Mrs. Miller; the film was the first of three collaborations between Christie and Warren Beatty, who described her as "the most beautiful and at the same time the most nervous person I had known". The couple had a high-profile but intermittent relationship between 1967 and 1974. After the relationship ended, they worked together again in the comedies Shampoo and Heaven Can Wait.
Her other films during the decade were Nicolas Roeg's thriller Don't Look Now, in which she co-starred with Donald Sutherland, and
New Wimbledon Theatre
The New Wimbledon Theatre is situated on the Broadway, London, in the London Borough of Merton. It is a Grade II listed Edwardian theatre built by the theatre lover and entrepreneur, J. B. Mulholland. Built on the site of a large house with spacious grounds, the theatre was designed by Cecil Aubrey Massey and Roy Young, it seems to have been the only British theatre to have included a Victorian-style Turkish bath in the basement. The theatre opened on 26 December 1910 with Jill; the theatre was popular between the wars, with Gracie Fields, Sybil Thorndike, Ivor Novello, Markova and Noël Coward all performing there. Lionel Bart's Oliver! received its world premiere at the theatre in 1960 before transferring to the West End's New Theatre. The theatre hosted the world premiere of Half A Sixpence starring Tommy Steele in 1963 prior to the West End. With several refurbishments, most notably in 1991 and 1998, the theatre retains its baroque and Adamesque internal features; the golden statue atop the dome is Laetitia, the Roman Goddess of Gaiety and was an original fixture back in 1910.
Laetitia is holding a laurel crown as a symbol of celebration. The statue was removed in World War II as it was thought to be a direction finding device for German bombers, replaced in 1991; the theatre is close to Wimbledon rail and tramlink station, a short walk from South Wimbledon tube station. The theatre has 1,670 seats across three levels, making it the eighth largest theatre in London following the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, the English National Opera's London Coliseum and the major musical venues the London Palladium, Apollo Victoria, Drury Lane and Lyceum; the main auditorium is adjoined by the smaller black box space of the Time and Leisure Studio, a flexible space seating up to 80 people. It is home to small drama and comedy productions prior to West End or Edinburgh Festival runs each summer. Up From Paradise, the only musical written by Arthur Miller, directed by Patrick Kennedy received its London premiere at the Studio in July 2014 following a successful year of musical programming.
Until 2001, the theatre was owned and operated by the Wimbledon Civic Theatre Trust, on behalf of the London Borough of Merton, who still own the freehold of the building. The trust was responsible for overseeing a multimillion-pound refurbishment in the late 1990s, incorporating a brand new backstage area, fly tower and a complete re-seating of the orchestra stalls as well as redecoration of the interior. During this period, the theatre was closed for an entire year; the venue was forced to close. Following lengthy talks between leading producers, local councillors and companies, in autumn 2003 a deal was agreed for the theatre to be managed by the Ambassador Theatre Group. Following a name change to the New Wimbledon Theatre, the venue reopened in February 2004 with Matthew Bourne's production of The Nutcracker followed by a season of touring musicals and ballet culminating in the London revival of Andrew Lloyd Webber's Cats. In November 2005, the theatre saw the launch of a new UK pantomime company, First Family Entertainment with their flagship production being Cinderella starring Susan Hampshire, Richard Wilson, John Barrowman, Naomi Wilkinson, Peter Duncan and Tim Vine.
In 2006, the theatre welcomed its first Hollywood star in the shape of Happy Days' Henry Winkler. Subsequent Christmases have seen global stars including Pamela Anderson, Warwick Davis, Edna Everage, Linda Gray, David Hasselhoff, Priscilla Presley, Jerry Springer and Ruby Wax alongside British household names including Brian Blessed, Jo Brand, Bobby Davro, Anita Dobson, Gareth Gates, Ross Kemp, Alistair McGowan, Paul O'Grady, Joanna Page, Wayne Sleep, Louie Spence, Claire Sweeney and Tim Vine; the theatre has since played host to a large variety of major touring productions, plus the UK launch of Josef Weinberger's UK collection of Disney musicals available to amateur companies throughout the British Isles. In 2010 the national tour of Spamalot, the musical based on the film Monty Python and the Holy Grail, opened at the New Wimbledon; the venue is hired out for television production, with many television series having been shot at the location, including The Bill, The IT Crowd, De-Lovely, Little Britain, Extras and We Are Most Amused, a comedy gala performance to celebrate the 60th birthday of HRH The Prince of Wales, in aid of The Prince's Trust.
Notably, the venue was the home of annual televised Christmas pantomimes, including: Aladdin – starring Cilla Black, Alfred Marks, Roy Castle and Norman Vaughan Dick Whittington and His Cat – starring Dick Emery, Peter Noone, Michael Aspel, Gemma Craven, Robert Dorning and Stratford Johns Robin Hood – starring Terry Scott, Hugh Lloyd, Anita Harris, Billy Dainty, Freddie Davies and Alan Curtis Jack and the Beanstalk – starring Julie Walters, Neil Morrissey, Denise van Outen, Adrian Edmondson, Griff Rhys Jones, Paul Merton, Morwenna Banks and Julian Clary. Aladdin – starring Ed Byrne, Patsy Kensit, John Savident, Roger Moore, Martin Clunes, Ralf Little, Paul Merton, Julian Clary, Billy Murray, Lisa Riley, Meera Syal, Trisha Goddard, Leslie Phillips and S Club 7. Dick Whittington – starring Richard Wilson, Harry Hill, James Fleet, Amanda Barrie, Roger Moore, Kevin Bishop, Julian Clary, Vanessa Feltz, Lee Mack, Tina O'Brien, Paul Merton, Debra Stephenson, Jessica Stevenson, Mark Williams and Hear'Say.
Touring shows that have visited Wimbledon include:Cats, Starlight Express, The Sound of Music, Chitty C