Miami Beach, Florida
Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, United States. It was incorporated on March 26, 1915; the municipality is located on natural and man-made barrier islands between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay, the latter of which separates the Beach from Miami. The neighborhood of South Beach, comprising the southernmost 2.5 square miles of Miami Beach, along with downtown Miami and the Port of Miami, collectively form the commercial center of South Florida. Miami Beach's estimated population is 92,307 according to the most recent United States census estimates. Miami Beach is the 26th largest city in Florida based on official 2017 estimates from the US Census Bureau, it has been one of America's pre-eminent beach resorts since the early 20th century. In 1979, Miami Beach's Art Deco Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Art Deco District is the largest collection of Art Deco architecture in the world and comprises hundreds of hotels and other structures erected between 1923 and 1943.
Mediterranean, Streamline Moderne and Art Deco are all represented in the District. The Historic District is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the East, Lenox Court on the West, 6th Street on the South and Dade Boulevard along the Collins Canal to the North; the movement to preserve the Art Deco District's architectural heritage was led by former interior designer Barbara Baer Capitman, who now has a street in the District named in her honor. Miami Beach is governed by six commissioners. Although the mayor runs commission meetings, the mayor and all commissioners have equal voting power and are elected by popular election; the mayor serves for terms of two years with a term limit of three terms and commissioners serve for terms of four years and are limited to two terms. Commissioners are voted for citywide and every two years three commission seats are voted upon. A city manager is responsible for administering governmental operations. An appointed city manager is responsible for administration of the city.
The City Clerk and the City Attorney are appointed officials. In 1870, a father and son and Charles Lum, purchased the land for 75 cents an acre; the first structure to be built on this uninhabited oceanfront was the Biscayne House of Refuge, constructed in 1876 by the United States Life-Saving Service at 72nd Street. Its purpose was to provide food, a return to civilization for people who were shipwrecked; the next step in the development of the future Miami Beach was the planting of a coconut plantation along the shore in the 1880s by New Jersey entrepreneurs Ezra Osborn and Elnathan Field, but this was a failed venture. One of the investors in the project was agriculturist John S. Collins, who achieved success by buying out other partners and planting different crops, notably avocados, on the land that would become Miami Beach. Meanwhile, across Biscayne Bay, the City of Miami was established in 1896 with the arrival of the railroad, developed further as a port when the shipping channel of Government Cut was created in 1905, cutting off Fisher Island from the south end of the Miami Beach peninsula.
Collins' family members saw the potential in developing the beach as a resort. This effort got underway in the early years of the 20th century by the Collins/Pancoast family, the Lummus brothers, Indianapolis entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher; until the beach here was only the destination for day-trips by ferry from Miami, across the bay. By 1912, Collins and Pancoast were working together to clear the land, plant crops, supervise the construction of canals to get their avocado crop to market, set up the Miami Beach Improvement Company. There were bath houses and food stands, but no hotel until Brown's Hotel was built in 1915. Much of the interior land mass at that time was a tangled jungle of mangroves. Clearing it, deepening the channels and water bodies, eliminating native growth everywhere in favor of landfill for development, was expensive. Once a 1600-acre, jungle-matted sand bar three miles out in the Atlantic, it grew to 2,800 acres when dredging and filling operations were completed. With loans from the Lummus brothers, Collins had begun work on a 2½-mile-long wooden bridge, the world's longest wooden bridge at the time, to connect the island to the mainland.
When funds ran dry and construction work stalled, Indianapolis millionaire and recent Miami transplant Fisher intervened, providing the financing needed to complete the bridge the following year in return for a land swap deal. That transaction kicked off the island's first real estate boom. Fisher helped by organizing an annual speed boat regatta, by promoting Miami Beach as an Atlantic City-style playground and winter retreat for the wealthy. By 1915, Collins and Fisher were all living in mansions on the island, three hotels and two bath houses had been erected, an aquarium built, an 18-hole golf course landscaped; the Town of Miami Beach was chartered on March 26, 1915. After the town was incorporated in 1915 under the name of Miami Beach, many visitors thought of the beach strip as Alton Beach, indicating just how well Fisher had advertised his interests there; the Lummus property was called Ocean Beach, with only the Collins interests referred to as Miami Beach. Carl Fisher was the main promoter of Miami Beach's development in the 1920s as the site for wealthy industrialists from the north and Midwest to and build their winter homes here.
Many other Northerners were targeted to vacation on the island. To accommodate the wealthy tourists, several grand hotels were built, among them: The Flamingo Hotel, The Fleetwood Hotel, The Floridi
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Television in Argentina
Argentine television broadcasting began in 1951 with the inaugural of state-owned Canal 7, developed by Radio Belgrano executive Jaime Yankelevich. Color television broadcasting, was not available until after 1978, when the government launched Argentina Televisora Color, now Televisión Pública Argentina. Argentina is one of only five Latin American countries to use the PAL broadcast television system and is one of the only four Spanish-speaking countries to use PAL; the prevalence of cable television, increasing since the first CATV transmitter opened in the city of Junín in 1965, is now the third-widest in the world, reaching at least 78% of households. Argentina has adopted the Japanese standard ISDB-T, with modifications performed by Brazil. Argentina had selected ATSC standard in 1998, backed by Grupo Clarin over DVB-T promoted by the biggest incumbent telcos and European cellphone manufacturers like Nokia. There had been experimental ATSC broadcasts since 1999. There is an agreement between Brazil and Argentina, signed in the light of the Mercosur trade bloc, where both countries agree to share information and efforts to select the same Digital TV standard.
By August 27, 2009, the Argentine government announced that the Japanese standard was adopted, along with Chile and Perú at the same time. The goal behind this political decision is to achieve a wide, high quality regional TV. Major TV broadcasters, namely El Trece and Telefe had been showing off sample digital broadcasts at electronics and media sector shows like the CAPER exhibition, but Canal 13 still hasn't started to broadcast in the now official Argentine standard. HDTV-ready TV sales are increasing in Argentina, with the first TVs made available since 2005 by local firm Philips; the firm introduced back three HD-ready CRT TVs in 25, 29, 33-inch versions. These tvs were manufactured in Tierra del Fuego and included Pal-N/B and NTSC analogue tuners, plus HD component video inputs. Only a single model, the 25-inch, 16:9 one featured HDMI; as of 2008 the firm has switched to LCDs. In November 2008, local cable TV firm Cablevision, which merged with Multicanal, started offering its "Cablevision HD" service.
This rather expensive offering costs an additional $30 ARS over the standard Digital-TV service price. It uses ATSC and the firm makes mandatory the purchase of its "HD Tuner with DVR" at a cost of around $200 US dollars; as of late 2008 most LCDs advertised. As of December 2013, digital television has reached 80 percent of Argentina. Argentina will end all analogue broadcasts in 2019. Cable television had its origins in the 1960s, when a CATV service started to operate in Junín, Buenos Aires. Cable television is available in 5.5 million homes, the best ratio in Latin America and second in the world. In the 1980s cable operators started operations in the absence of local regulations; those earlier operators started a merged process which evolved toward the merge of Cablevision and Multicanal, the two biggest cable companies. The resultant company, named Cablevision, is owned by Grupo Clarin, the biggest newspaper in Argentina, the owner of LS85-TV TyC the owner of the monopoly of the soccer TV broadcast rights, thus turning into the dominant player.
Some small TV cable companies are operating, but the tendency now is that Cablevision will dominate this market in the future. Telecom Operator, Telefónica and Telecom, the monopoly in the fixed-cellular market is lobbying for opening the market towards the triple play; the Government is opening a window to allow the cable operators to enter in the telephony and extend internet coverage, before deregulating this market. In order to operate as a cable company in Argentina, a license from Comfer is required; this license is difficult to get. América Televisión Pública Argentina Canal 9 Telefe El Trece Viewing shares, October 2013: List of Latin American television channels
Punta del Este
Punta del Este is a city and resort on the Atlantic Coast in the Maldonado Department of southeastern Uruguay. Punta del Este is the name of the municipality to which the city belongs. Although the city has a year-round population of about 9,280, the summer season adds to this number; the city has been referred to as "the Monaco of the South", "The Pearl of the Atlantic", "the Hamptons of South America", "the St. Tropez of South America", being compared to Miami and Cannes. Popular landmarks in the area include the La Mano giant sculpture, the Santorini-styled complex Casapueblo, the Enjoy Punta del Este hotel and casino complex, the chic neighbourhood of La Barra, the iconic Puente Garzón, Gorriti Island, Arboretum Lussich, the Museum of the Sea; the Punta del Este World Trade Center complex is under construction. The city is located on the intersection of Route 10 with Route 39, southeast of the department capital Maldonado and about 140 kilometres east of Montevideo; the first Europeans to set foot in what is now Punta del Este were the Spanish at the beginning of the 16th century.
However, the colonization of the area began around Maldonado at the end of the 18th century due to Portuguese expansionism. Punta del Este and its surroundings at the end of the 19th century were kilometers of sand and dunes, but in 1896 Antonio Lussich bought 4,447 acres of uninhabited land and there he started a botanical garden, Arboretum Lussich, planted trees and plants from all over the world; the trees started to spread on their own, now the area is full of Pines, Eucalyptus and various species of bushes. On 5 July 1907, it was declared a "Pueblo" by Act of Ley 3.186. Its status was elevated to "Ciudad" on 2 July 1957 by the Act of Ley Nº 12.397. Punta del Este hosted an American Summit in 1967 attended by U. S. President Lyndon Johnson. In September 1986, Punta del Este played host to the start of the Uruguay Round of international trade negotiations; these negotiations led to the creation of the World Trade Organization in 1994. In 2011 Punta del Este city proper had a population of 23,954 households and apartments.
According to the Intendencia Departamental de Maldonado, the municipality of Punta del Este has an area of 48 km2 and a population of 15,000. Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística de UruguayArgentines and Europeans are choosing Punta del Este as their permanent residence; some of the reasons are peace in the midst of increasing educational offerings. Punta del Este has an oceanic climate, with cool winters; because of the average temperature of the hottest month near 22 °C, the climate is close to a humid subtropical climate. It is similar to southeastern Australia; the precipitation is evenly distributed with an average of 1,010 mm. The hottest month, has an average temperature of 21.7 °C, the coldest month, has an average of 11.5 °C. The average yearly temperature is 16.4 °C. Punta del Este's scenic coastline is divided in two regions: Mansa; the limit between the two marks the end of the Río de la Plata and the beginning of the Atlantic Ocean, split is signaled by the Mano de Punta del Este, which the sculptor designed to warn swimmers about the danger of rough waves.
Beaches on the Mansa side feature thick and golden sand, while on the Brava side the sand is white and fine. Every beach of the peninsula has public access. La Barra is popular for nautical sports and fishing during the day. At hours, La Barra becomes a central attraction for the younger generation. Starting from the end of December through to the second week of January, this location becomes a place for the local people as well as tourists to gather at the night life festivities. Other areas include the resort of Montoya beach, Bikini beach and Manantiales beach; these beaches are a favourite spot for younger people as well as for many celebrities from both Uruguay and Argentina. Once abundant, southern right whales are re-colonizing in the area, which helped create a whale sanctuary off Latin America, whose establishment had been prevented for near a decade by whaling nations like Japan. Unlike the majority of Uruguayan coasts, appearances of orcas have been documented in the area; the city has much colonial architecture contrasting with more modern buildings.
Nowadays it has a scenic shore, typical resort houses, modern buildings, a port with mooring capacity, department stores and pubs. There are several large houses, gardens lined with plants. An iconic and historic building rises on the 19th stop of the Brava Beach, the famous Hotel L'Auberge with its 70 year old water tower, continues to be a leader in hospitality and gastronomy with its unique rooms and still serving its traditional Belgian waffles with home made sauces. Punta del Este is home to the only Conrad Hotel in South America famous for its casino. Gorlero Avenue, the main avenue of Punta del Este has commercial galleries, cinemas, shops. Artigas square, over Gorlero Ave is the place. Punta del Este is well known for organizing the summit; the Formula E has hosted several races, broadcast worldwide, in the city, based on its "absolutely landmark cityscape". In 2017, the China-Latin America Forum took place in the Punta del Este Convention Center. Enjoy Punta del Este is a hotel and cas
A cult film or cult movie commonly referred to as a cult classic, is a film that has acquired a cult following. Cult films are known for their dedicated, passionate fanbase, an elaborate subculture that engage in repeated viewings, quoting dialogue, audience participation. Inclusive definitions allow for major studio productions box office bombs, while exclusive definitions focus more on obscure, transgressive films shunned by the mainstream; the difficulty in defining the term and subjectivity of what qualifies as a cult film mirror classificatory disputes about art. The term cult film itself was first used in the 1970s to describe the culture that surrounded underground films and midnight movies, though cult was in common use in film analysis for decades prior to that. Cult films trace their origin back to controversial and suppressed films kept alive by dedicated fans. In some cases, reclaimed or rediscovered films have acquired cult followings decades after their original release for their camp value.
Other cult films have since become reassessed as classics. After failing in the cinema, some cult films have become regular fixtures on cable television or profitable sellers on home video. Others have inspired their own film festivals. Cult films can both form their own subcultures. Other media that reference cult films can identify which demographics they desire to attract and offer savvy fans an opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge. Cult films break cultural taboos, many feature excessive displays of violence, sexuality, profanity, or combinations thereof; this can lead to controversy and outright bans. Films that fail to attract requisite amounts of controversy may face resistance when labeled as cult films. Mainstream films and big budget blockbusters have attracted cult followings similar to more underground and lesser known films. Fans who like the films for the wrong reasons, such as perceived elements that represent mainstream appeal and marketing, will be ostracized or ridiculed.
Fans who stray from accepted subcultural scripts may experience similar rejection. Since the late 1970s, cult films have become popular. Films that once would have been limited to obscure cult followings are now capable of breaking into the mainstream, showings of cult films have proved to be a profitable business venture. Overbroad usage of the term has resulted in controversy, as purists state it has become a meaningless descriptor applied to any film, the slightest bit weird or unconventional. Films are stated to be an "instant cult classic" now before they are released. Fickle fans on the Internet have latched on to unreleased films only to abandon them on release. At the same time, other films have acquired massive, quick cult followings, owing to spreading virally through social media. Easy access to cult films via video on demand and peer-to-peer file sharing has led some critics to pronounce the death of cult films. A cult film is any film that has a cult following, although the term is not defined and can be applied to a wide variety of films.
Some definitions exclude films that have been released by major studios or have big budgets, that try to become cult films, or become accepted by mainstream audiences and critics. Cult films are defined by audience reaction as much as by their content; this may take the form of elaborate and ritualized audience participation, film festivals, or cosplay. Over time, the definition has become more vague and inclusive as it drifts away from earlier, stricter views. Increasing use of the term by mainstream publications has resulted in controversy, as cinephiles argue that the term has become meaningless or "elastic, a catchall for anything maverick or strange". Academic Mark Shiel has criticized the term itself as being reliant on subjectivity. According to feminist scholar Joanne Hollows, this subjectivity causes films with large female cult followings to be perceived as too mainstream and not transgressive enough to qualify as a cult film. Academic Mike Chopra‑Gant says that cult films become decontextualized when studied as a group, Shiel criticizes this recontextualization as cultural commodification.
In 2008, Cineaste asked a range of academics for their definition of a cult film. Several people defined cult films in terms of their opposition to mainstream films and conformism, explicitly requiring a transgressive element, though others disputed the transgressive potential, given the demographic appeal to conventional moviegoers and mainstreaming of cult films. Jeffrey Andrew Weinstock instead called them mainstream films with transgressive elements. Most definitions required a strong community aspect, such as obsessed fans or ritualistic behavior. Citing misuse of the term, Mikel J. Koven took a self-described hard-line stance that rejected definitions that use any other criteria. Matt Hills instead stressed the need for an open-ended definition rooted in structuration, where the film and the audience reaction are interrelated and neither is prioritized. Ernest Mathijs focused on the accidental nature of cult followings, arguing that cult film fans consider themselves too savvy to be marketed to, w
Fashion dolls are dolls designed to be dressed to reflect fashion trends. They are manufactured both as toys for children to play with and as collectibles for adult collectors; the dolls are modeled after teen girls or adult women, though child and some non-human variants exist. Contemporary fashion dolls are made of vinyl or another plastic. 3D software versions have appeared. An early form of the fashion dolls were French bisque dolls from the mid-19th century. However, fashion dolls were used throughout the courts of France and Spain as early as the 16th century to show the tactile qualities of fashion which could not be incorporated into the paintings. A letter dated 1515 and sent by Federico Gonzaga on behalf of King Francis I of France to his mother Isabella d'Este asks her to send a fashion doll to the French court so that copies of her style might be made for the women of France. Barbie was released by the American toy-company Mattel in 1959, was followed by many similar vinyl fashion dolls intended as children's toys.
The size of the Barbie, 11.5 inches set the standard used by other manufacturers. But fashion dolls have been made in many different sizes varying from 10.5 inches to 36 inches. Costumers and seamstresses use fashion dolls as a canvas for their work. Customizers repaint reroot hair, or do other alterations to the dolls themselves. Many of these works are one-of-a-kind; these artists are not connected to the original manufacturers and sell their work to collectors. Despite these setbacks, the fashion doll market continues to expand, introducing a number of toys-based dolls like Hasbro's Equestria Girls dolls, Mattel's Barbie, Ever After High and Monster High and MGA Entertainment's Bratz and Project Mc² that incorporate the use of fashion dolls and toys; the earliest bisque dolls from French companies were fashion dolls. These dominated the market between 1860 and 1890, they were made to represent grown up women and intended for children of affluent families to play with and dress in contemporary fashions.
These dolls came from companies like Jumeau, Gaultier, Rohmer and Huret, though their heads were manufactured in Germany. In the Passage Choiseul area of Paris an industry grew around making clothing and accessories for the dolls. Child like bisque dolls appeared in the mid-19th century and overtook the market towards the end of the century; the first American fashion doll, was released by the Alexander Doll Company in 1955. Cissy sported high-heeled shoes. Barbie was launched by the American toy company Mattel in 1959, inspired by the German Bild Lilli doll. Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for fifty years. Many fashion doll lines have been launched as alternatives to Barbie. Tammy was created by the Ideal Toy Company in 1962. Advertised as "The Doll You Love to Dress", Tammy was portrayed as a young American teenager, more "girl next door" than the cosmopolitan image of Barbie. Sindy was created by the British Pedigree Dolls & Toys company in 1963 as a rival to Barbie with a wholesome look.
American Character Doll Company released their "Tressy" fashion doll in 1963 to compete with Barbie. Tressy was first sold as an 11½" fashion doll, after being acquired by the Ideal Toy Company, by the late 60s was sold as a larger pre-teen doll. Tressy featured a long swatch of hair that could be pulled out of the top of the doll's head by pushing a button on the doll's midriff. In the late 1960s and early 1970s Ideal released several other large fashion dolls with hair with adjustable length; the Crissy Doll and friends are 16" and Velvet Doll and friends are 18". British designer Mary Quant's Daisy doll from 1973 had a large selection of contemporary 70s fashion designed by Quant. Integrity Toys released the Fashion Royalty line of 12" dolls conceived and created by Jason Wu in 2000 which included characters such as Dania Zarr and Baroness Agness Von Weiss, marketed to adult collectors. In 2005, Superdoll Collectibles London artists Desmond Lingard and Charles Fegen, created Sybarites, 16" resin artist-dolls as fashion dolls for adult collectors.
Paul Pham creates 16" Numina dolls under the company name Dollcis for adult collectors. Fulla is marketed to children of Middle-Eastern countries as an alternative to Barbie; the concept of her evolved around 1999, she hit stores in late 2003. Bratz were released in 2001, designed by Carter Bryant and manufactured by California toy company MGA Entertainment, they are distinguished by large heads with lush, glossy lips. Mattel introduced the the Flavas line in 2003 to rival Bratz. In 2010 Mattel launched the Monster High doll line, based from horror monsters. In 2014, artist Nickolai Lamm unveiled Lammily, a fashion doll based on Lamm's study comparing Barbie's figure with measurements matching those of an average 19-year-old woman. Asian fashion dolls are made by Asian manufacturers and targeted to an Asian market. Blythe dolls with oversized heads and color changing eyes were made by American company Kenner but are now produced by Japanese company Takara. Another doll with an oversized head, was created in 2003 in Korea.
Japanese fashion dolls marketed to children include Jenny by Takara Tomy. In the mid-1990s dolls like Gene Marshall from Ashton-Drake, Tyler Wentworth from Tonner and Alexandra Fairchild Ford from Madame Alexander appeared, they are between 16 inches larger than other common fashion dolls. Integrity Toys expanded
Carlos Monzón was an Argentine professional boxer who held the undisputed world middleweight championship for 7 years. He defended his title 14 times and is regarded as not only one of the best middleweights in history but one of the greatest boxers of all time. Known for his speed, punching power and relentless work rate, Monzon ended his career with a record of 87-3-9 with 59 knockouts, each one of his losses were early in his career and were avenged. Inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990, he was chosen by The Ring magazine in 2002 as the 11th greatest fighter of the last 80 years and voted him as the best middleweight title holders of the last 50 years in 2011; as of January 2018, Monzón holds the 2nd longest unified championship reign in middleweight history at 9 consecutive defenses. Argentines adored Monzon throughout his career, his glamorous and violent life was avidly followed both by Argentine people. He was, accused many times of domestic violence by his two wives and many mistresses, of beating paparazzi.
Charged with killing his wife Alicia Muñiz in Mar del Plata in 1988, the former champion was sentenced to 11 years in jail. He died in a January 1995 car crash during a weekend furlough. Monzón was born in the city of Argentina, his parents were Amalia Ledesma. Monzón was raised in poverty with his twelve siblings; when Monzón was six years old, his family moved to Barranquitas Oeste, a poor neighborhood, of Santa Fe, the capital of Santa Fe Province. To help out his family, he quit school in third grade, working different jobs, such as shoe shiner, paper boy and milk man; as a youngster, he showed an interest in boxing. When he was sixteen, he met Zulema Encarnación Torres, with whom he had his first son, Carlos Alberto Monzón. On 11 May 1962, he married Mercedes Beatriz García, nicknamed'Pelusa.' They were so poor. They had three kids: Abel Ricardo and Carlos Raúl. Monzón had his first amateur fight on 2 October 1959; this first fight ended in a draw. Three years after a 73-6-8 amateur record, he became a professional.
His first professional bout was held on 6 February 1963. He knocked out his opponent in the second round. In 1966, he won the Argentine middleweight title. In 1967, he won the South American middleweight title. After this success, Argentine boxing promoter Juan Carlos Lectoure pushed him into the international boxing scene by organizing fights with foreign boxers such as Douglas Huntley, Charles Austin, Johnny Brooks, Harold Richardson, Tommy Bethea, Manoel Severino and Eddy Pace. World middleweight champion Nino Benvenuti had long had a distinguished career that included championships in 2 divisions and 2 wins in 3 bouts vs all-time great Emile Griffith, he had lost the year before to American Tom Bethea in Australia, but in an actual title fight in Yugoslavia, he avenged that loss. Nobody expected Monzón to beat Benvenuti in their title match, yet Monzón applied pressure from the start, in the 12th, a right hand landed on Benvenuti's chin, the title changed hands. Monzón beat Benevenuti in a rematch, this time in only three rounds in Monte Carlo when his seconds threw in the towel.
In 1971, Monzón became only the second man to stop former three-time world champion Emile Griffith in 14 rounds, out-pointed him over 15 in a close fight. Monzón scored a win over tough Philadelphian Bennie Briscoe, over-coming a shakey 9th round, in which Briscoe scored a knockout. Monzón's middleweight championship title was lifted in 1975 by the WBC for not defending it against mandatory challenger Rodrigo Valdez. Valdez, a Colombian, won the WBC's title. In 1976, they met, this time, world champion vs. world champion. Valdez's brother had been shot to death one week prior to the fight and he did not feel like fighting. Still, the fight went on, it took place in Monte Carlo. Monzón handed Valdez a beating, winning a 15-round unanimous decision and unifying the world title once again. Facing a lack of good challengers, Monzón was offered a high purse to again fight the Colombian; the second fight was different. Monzón-Valdez II is a classic. Valdez came out roaring this time. In the second round, right cross to the chin put Monzón down for the first and only time in his career.
Valdez built a lead through the first part of the fight. Monzón, mounted a brilliant comeback and outboxed Valdez for the last 8 rounds, winning a unanimous decision to retain the title and score his 14th title defense. Monzón retired after the second Valdez fight defense, his record stands at only three losses, nine draws and one no contest. Of his wins, 59 came by knockout, his only losses were by points and early in his career. In 2003, he was named by the Ring Magazine as one of the 100 greatest punchers of all time. On the independent computer-based ranking of boxrec.com, he is listed as the second best middleweight boxer of all time after Sugar Ray Robinson. Following Monzón's victory Mantequilla Nápoles, Angelo Dundee said: "Monzón is the complete fighter, he can box, he can hit, he can think, he is game all the way."Before retirement, in 1974, he starred in La Mary, a hit movie directed by