MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Theater Hagen is a theatre in Hagen in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Feminism is a range of political movements and social movements that share a common goal: to define and achieve the political, economic and social equality of the genders. This includes fighting gender stereotypes and seeking to establish educational and professional opportunities for women that are equal to those for men. Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages or equal pay, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, to have maternity leave. Feminists have worked to ensure access to legal abortions and social integration, to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, domestic violence. Changes in dress and acceptable physical activity have been part of feminist movements; some scholars consider feminist campaigns to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights in the West, where they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffrage, gender neutrality in English, reproductive rights for women, the right to enter into contracts and own property.
Although feminist advocacy is, has been focused on women's rights, some feminists, including bell hooks, argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims because they believe that men are harmed by traditional gender roles. Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims; some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, college-educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism. Charles Fourier, a Utopian Socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word "féminisme" in 1837; the words "féminisme" and "féministe" first appeared in France and the Netherlands in 1872, Great Britain in the 1890s, the United States in 1910, the Oxford English Dictionary lists 1852 as the year of the first appearance of "feminist" and 1895 for "feminism".
Depending on the historical moment and country, feminists around the world have had different causes and goals. Most western feminist historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements when they did not apply the term to themselves. Other historians assert that the term should be limited to the modern feminist movement and its descendants; those historians use the label "protofeminist" to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movements is divided into three "waves"; each wave dealt with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave comprised women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, promoting women's right to vote; the second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the women's liberation movement beginning in the 1960s. The second wave campaigned for social equality for women; the third wave is a continuation of, a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, which began in the 1990s.
First-wave feminism was a period of activity during early twentieth century. In the UK and the US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage and property rights for women. By the end of the 19th century, a number of important steps had been made with the passing of legislation such as the UK Custody of Infants Act 1839 which introduced the Tender years doctrine for child custody arrangement and gave women the right of custody of their children for the first time. Other legislation such as the Married Women's Property Act 1870 in the UK and extended in the 1882 Act, these became models for similar legislation in other British territories. For example, Victoria passed legislation in 1884, New South Wales in 1889, the remaining Australian colonies passed similar legislation between 1890 and 1897. Therefore, with the turn of the 19th century activism had focused on gaining political power the right of women's suffrage, though some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexual and economic rights as well.
Women's suffrage began in Britain's Australasian colonies at the close of the 19th century, with the self-governing colonies of New Zealand granting women the right to vote in 1893 and South Australia granting female suffrage in 1895. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in 1902. In Britain the Suffragettes and the Suffragists campaigned for the women's vote, in 1918 the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned property. In 1928 this was extended to all women over 21. Emmeline Pankhurst was the most notable activist in England, with Time naming her one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century stating: "she shaped an idea of women for our time. In the U. S. notable leaders of this movement included Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote; these women were influenced by the
A world's fair, world fair, world expo, universal exposition, or international exposition is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations. These exhibitions are held in different parts of the world; the most recent international exhibition, Expo 2017, was held in Kazakhstan. Dubai, United Arab Emirates has been selected to host WORLD EXPO 2020. Osaka, Japan has been selected to host World Expo 2025. Since the 1928 Convention Relating to International Exhibitions came into force, the Bureau International des Expositions has served as an international sanctioning body for world's fairs. Four types of international exhibition are organised under the auspices of the BIE: World Expos, Specialized Expos, Horticultural Expos and the Triennale di Milano. Depending on their category, international exhibitions may last from three weeks to six months. World's fairs originated in the French tradition of national exhibitions, a tradition that culminated with the French Industrial Exposition of 1844 held in Paris.
This fair was followed by other national exhibitions in the United Kingdom. The best-known'first World Expo' was held in The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, United Kingdom, in 1851, under the title "Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations"; the Great Exhibition, as it is called, was an idea of Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's husband, is considered to be the first international exhibition of manufactured products. It influenced the development of several aspects of society, including art-and-design education, international trade and relations, tourism; this expo was the precedent for the many international exhibitions called world's fairs, that have continued to be held to the present time. The character of world fairs, or expositions, has evolved since the first one in 1851. Three eras can be distinguished: the era of industrialization, the era of cultural exchange, the era of nation branding; the first era, the era of "industrialization", roughtly covered the years from 1800 to 1938.
In these days, world expositions were focused on trade and displayed technological advances and inventions. World expositions were platforms for state-of-the-art technology from around the world; the world expositions of 1851 London, 1853 New York, 1862 London, 1876 Philadelphia, 1889 Paris, 1893 Chicago, 1897 Brussels, 1900 Paris, 1901 Buffalo, 1904 St. Louis, 1915 San Francisco, 1933–34 Chicago were notable in this respect. Inventions such as the telephone were first presented during this era; this era set the basic character of the world fair. The 1939–40 New York World's Fair, those that followed, took a different approach, one less focused on techology and aimed more at cultural themes and social progress. For instance, the theme of the 1939 fair was "Building the World of Tomorrow"; these fairs encouraged effective intercultural communication alongside with sharing of techological innovation. The 1967 International and Universal Exposition in Montreal was promoted under the name Expo 67.
Event organizers retired the term world's fair in favor of Expo. From World Expo 88 in Brisbane onwards, countries started to use expositions as a platform to improve their national image through their pavilions. Finland, Canada and Spain are cases in point. A major study by Tjaco Walvis called "Expo 2000 Hanover in Numbers" showed that improving national image was the main goal for 73% of the countries participating in Expo 2000. Pavilions became a kind of advertising campaign, the Expo served as a vehicle for "nation branding". According to branding expert Wally Olins, Spain used Expo'92 and the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona in the same year to underscore its new position as a modern and democratic country and to show itself as a prominent member of the European Union and the global community. At Expo 2000 Hanover, countries created their own architectural pavilions, investing, on average, €12 million each. Given these costs, governments are sometimes hesitant to participate, because the ultimate benefits do not justify the costs.
While the tangible effects are difficult to measure, an independent study for the Dutch pavilion at Expo 2000 estimated that the pavilion generated around €350 million of potential revenues for the Dutch economy. It identified several key success factors for world-exposition pavilions in general. Presently, there are two types of international exhibition: Specialised Expos. World Expos known as universal expositions, are the biggest category events. At World Expos, participants build their own pavilions, they are therefore most expensive expos. Their duration may be between six months. Since 1995, the interval between two World Expos has been at least five years; the latest World Expo Expo 2015 was held in Milan, from 1 May to 31 October 2015. Specialized Expos are smaller in scope and investments and shorter in duration; these Expos were called Special Exhibitions or International Specialized Exhibitions but these terms are no longer used officially. Their total surface area must not exceed 25
Porgy and Bess
Porgy and Bess is an English-language opera by the American composer George Gershwin, with a libretto written by author DuBose Heyward and lyricist Ira Gershwin. It was adapted from Dorothy Heyward and DuBose Heyward's play Porgy, itself an adaptation of DuBose Heyward's 1925 novel of the same name. Porgy and Bess was first performed in Boston on September 30, 1935, before it moved to Broadway in New York City, it featured a cast of classically trained African-American singers—a daring artistic choice at the time. After suffering from an unpopular public reception due in part to its racially charged theme, a 1976 Houston Grand Opera production gained it new popularity, it is now one of the best-known and most performed operas. Gershwin proposed to Heyward to collaborate on an operatic version. In 1934, Gershwin and Heyward began work on the project by visiting the author's native Charleston, South Carolina. In a 1935 New York Times article, Gershwin explained why he called Porgy and Bess a folk opera: Porgy and Bess is a folk tale.
Its people would sing folk music. When I first began work in the music I decided against the use of original folk material because I wanted the music to be all of one piece; therefore I wrote my own folksongs. But they are still folk music – and therefore, being in operatic form and Bess becomes a folk opera; the libretto of Porgy and Bess tells the story of Porgy, a disabled black street-beggar living in the slums of Charleston. It deals with his attempts to rescue Bess from the clutches of Crown, her violent and possessive lover, Sportin' Life, her drug dealer; the opera plot follows the stage play. In the years following Gershwin's death and Bess was adapted for smaller scale performances, it was adapted as a film in 1959. Some of the songs in the opera, such as "Summertime", became popular and recorded songs. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the trend has been toward productions with greater fidelity to Gershwin's original intentions. Smaller-scale productions continue to be mounted.
A complete recorded version of the score was released in 1976. In the fall of 1933 Gershwin and Heyward signed a contract with the Theatre Guild to write the opera. In the summer of 1934 Gershwin and Heyward went to Folly Beach, South Carolina, where Gershwin got a feel for the locale and its music, he worked in New York. Ira Gershwin, in New York, wrote lyrics to some of the opera's classic songs, most notably "It Ain't Necessarily So". Most of the lyrics, including "Summertime", were written by Heyward, who wrote the libretto. Gershwin's first version of the opera, running four hours, was performed in a concert version in Carnegie Hall, in the fall of 1935, he chose as his choral director Eva Jessye, who directed her own renowned choir. The world premiere performance took place at the Colonial Theatre in Boston on September 30, 1935—the try-out for a work intended for Broadway where the opening took place at the Alvin Theatre in New York City on October 10, 1935. During rehearsals and in Boston, Gershwin made many cuts and refinements to shorten the running time and tighten the dramatic action.
The run on Broadway lasted 124 performances. The production and direction were entrusted to Rouben Mamoulian, who had directed the Broadway productions of Heyward's play Porgy; the music director was Alexander Smallens. The leading roles were played by Anne Brown; the influential vaudeville artist John W. Bubbles created the role of Sportin' Life. After the Broadway run, a tour started on January 27, 1936, in Philadelphia and traveled to Pittsburgh and Chicago before ending in Washington, D. C. on March 21, 1936. During the Washington run, the cast—as led by Todd Duncan—protested segregation at the National Theatre. Management gave in to the demands, resulting in the first integrated audience for a performance of any show at that venue. In 1938, much of the original cast reunited for a West Coast revival that played in Los Angeles and at the Curran Theatre in San Francisco. Avon Long took on the role of Sportin' Life for the first time, a role he would continue to play in many productions over a long career.
The noted director and producer Cheryl Crawford produced professional stock theater in Maplewood, New Jersey, for three successful seasons. The last of these closed with Bess, which she co-produced with John Wildberg. In re-fashioning it in the style of musical theatre which Americans were used to hearing from Gershwin, Crawford produced a drastically cut version of the opera compared with the first Broadway staging; the orchestra was reduced, the cast was halved, many recitatives were reduced to spoken dialog. Having seen the performance, theater owner Lee Shubert arranged for Crawford to bring her production to Broadway; the show opened at the Majestic Theatre in January 1942. Duncan and Brown reprised their roles as the title characters, with Alexander Smallens again conducting. In June the contralto Etta Moten, whom Gershwin had first envisioned as Bess, replaced Brown in the role. Moten was such a success; the Crawford production ran for nine months and was far more successful financially than the original.
Radio station WOR in New York broadcast a live one-hour version on May 7, 1942. The cast included Todd Duncan, Anne Brown, Ruby Elzy, Avon Long, Edward Matthews, Harriet Jackson, Georgette Harvey, Jack Carr, the Eva Jesse Choir; the 12"-diameter 78 rpm, glass base, lacquer-coated disks were tr
Joy Clements was an American lyric coloratura soprano who had a substantial opera and concert career from 1956 through the late 1970s. She notably sang with both the New York City Opera and the Metropolitan Opera during the 1960s through the early 1970s, she traveled for performances with opera companies and orchestras throughout the United States but only appeared in a few number of performances internationally. Born in Dayton, Ohio to Lula Frances Albrecht and Verne Brent Albrecht, Joyce first studied singing at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida and, shortly after graduating, made her professional opera debut as Musetta in Puccini's La bohème with the Opera Guild of Greater Miami in 1956, she pursued graduate studies at the Philadelphia Musical Academy, where she studied from 1956 to 1958. During this time she appeared in operas with smaller houses in the United States. In 1958 she moved to New York City and began further studies with Marinka Gurewich, whom remained her teacher for many years.
In 1959 Clements signed a contract with the New York City Opera making her debut with the company in April of that year as Monica in Gian Carlo Menotti's The Medium with Claramae Turner in the title role and conductor Werner Torkanowsky. Over the next ten years, she was heard with that company in such roles as Micaëla in Bizet's Carmen, Speranza in L'Orfeo, Despina in Mozart's Così fan tutte, Mary Warren in the world premiere of Robert Ward's The Crucible, Lauretta in Puccini's Gianni Schicchi, Rose Maurrant in Street Scene, Susanna in Mozart's Le nozze di Figaro, the title role in Floyd's Susannah, Yum-Yum in The Mikado among others. Clements was first seen at the Metropolitan Opera on October 23, 1963, as the Countess Ceprano in Giuseppe Verdi's Rigoletto with Cornell MacNeil in the title role, Gianna D'Angelo as Gilda, Barry Morell as the Duke of Mantua, conductor Fausto Cleva, she performed there for the next 10 consecutive seasons in such roles as Adele in Johann Strauss II's Die Fledermaus, Amor in Orfeo ed Euridice, Giannetta in Donizetti's L'elisir d'amore, Gretel in Hänsel und Gretel, Lisa in Bellini's La sonnambula and Oscar in Un ballo in maschera among others.
Her last and 141st performance with the Met was as Marzelline in Beethoven's Fidelio on June 1, 1972 with Leonie Rysanek as Leonore, Robert Nagy as Florestan, William Dooley as Don Pizarro, John Macurdy as Rocco. While working with the NYCO and the Met during the 1960s and 1970s, Clements appeared with several opera companies throughout the United States, she sang roles with the Houston Grand Opera, the Baltimore Opera Company, the Cincinnati Opera, the Pittsburgh Opera, the Philadelphia Lyric Opera Company, the San Diego Opera, the Minnesota Opera, the Fort Worth Opera, the Tulsa Opera, Hawaii Opera Theatre among others. In 1963 she made her first international appearances with Vancouver Opera and the Israeli Opera in Tel Aviv. In 1972, she returned to the City Opera, again in Susannah; the same year, she appeared in Le nozze di Figaro at the Wolf Trap Farm Park, with Treigle and Susanne Marsee in the cast. She appeared in a number of productions with the Théâtre de la Monnaie in Brussels during the 1975-1976 season.
Among the roles she sang with these companies included Bess in Porgy and Bess, Gilda in Rigoletto, Juliette in Roméo et Juliette, Lucy in The Telephone, the title heroine in Massenet's Manon, Marguerite in Faust, the title role in Flotow's Martha, Mimi in La Bohème, Olympia in Les contes d'Hoffmann, Pamina in The Magic Flute, Shemakhan Tsaritsa in The Golden Cockerel, Violetta in La Traviata, many of the roles she portrayed in New York City. A highlight of her career was the July 28, 1965, Concert Version of Aaron Copland's The Tender Land, as part of the French-American Festival, with the New York Philharmonic. Clements sang the leading role of Laurie Moss, with Turner, Richard Cassilly and Richard Fredricks in the cast, conducted by the composer. Three days Columbia recorded an abridged version of the opera, at the Manhattan Center. In 1971, she made her debut performance with the Philadelphia Orchestra, singing Valencienne in a concert performance of The Merry Widow. After retiring from performing in the late 1970s, Clements worked as a voice teacher for a number of years.
She succumbed to complications from multiple sclerosis, aged 73. Joy Clements in an excerpt from The Tender Land, with Claramae Turner on YouTube
Carlisle Floyd is an American opera composer. The son of a Methodist minister, he has based many of his works on themes from the South, his best known opera, Susannah, is based on a story from the Biblical Apocrypha, transferred to contemporary, rural Tennessee, is set in a Southern dialect. Floyd was born in the son of a Methodist minister. In 1943, Floyd entered Converse College, in Spartanburg, South Carolina, studied piano under Ernst Bacon; when Bacon accepted a position at Syracuse University, in New York, Floyd followed him there, where he received a Bachelor of Music in 1946. The following year, Floyd became part of the piano faculty at Florida State University, in Tallahassee, he was to remain there for thirty years becoming Professor of Composition. He received a master's degree at Syracuse, in 1949. While at FSU, Floyd became interested in composition, his first opera was Slow Dusk, to his own libretto, was produced at Syracuse in 1949. His next opera, The Fugitives, was seen at Tallahassee in 1951, but was withdrawn.
His third opera was to be Floyd's greatest success: Susannah. It was first heard at Florida State, in February 1955, with Phyllis Curtin in the title role, Mack Harrell as the Reverend Olin Blitch; the following year, the opera was given at the New York City Opera, with Curtin and Norman Treigle as Blitch, with Erich Leinsdorf conducting. After receiving much acclaim, a City Opera production was taken to the 1958 World's Fair in Brussels, with Curtin and Richard Cassilly. In 1958, Floyd's Wuthering Heights was premiered at the Santa Fe Opera, with Curtin as the heroine. In 1960, at Syracuse, his "solo cantata on biblical texts," Pilgrimage, was first heard with Treigle as soloist; the Passion of Jonathan Wade was first seen at the City Opera, in 1962. Set in South Carolina during Reconstruction, the piece had Theodor Uppman, Curtin and Harry Theyard in the large cast. Floyd's next opera was The Sojourner and Mollie Sinclair, a comedy regarding the Scottish settlers of the Carolinas. Patricia Neway and Treigle created the title roles, with Rudel conducting.
The composer's Markheim was first shown at the New Orleans Opera Association in 1966, with Treigle and Audrey Schuh heading the cast. Floyd himself served as stage director. Of Mice and Men, following a long gestation, was heard at the Seattle Opera in 1970, in a staging by Corsaro. A monodrama on the royal subject of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Hawk, was premiered in Jacksonville, with Curtin directed by Corsaro. Bilby's Doll was first mounted at the Houston Grand Opera in 1976, with Christopher Keene conducting and David Pountney producing. In 1976, Floyd co-founded, with David Gockley, the Houston Opera Studio, a training program administered by the Houston Grand Opera for outstanding young professional singers and repertory coaches, his students there included Michael Ching. Between 1976 and 1996, he held the M. D. Anderson Professorship at the University of Houston School of Music. In Houston, Willie Stark was first heard, in 1981, in staging by Harold Prince. After an hiatus of twenty years, another Floyd opera was premiered in Houston: Cold Sassy Tree, in 2000.
Patrick Summers conducted, Bruce Beresford directed, Patricia Racette led the cast. Carlisle Floyd composed a Piano Sonata in the 1950s for Rudolf Firkušný, who played it at a Carnegie Hall recital, but it languished until Daniell Revenaugh recorded it in 2009, at the age of 74. Revenaugh worked with the composer in learning the piece, their rehearsal sessions and the live recording itself were filmed for posterity; the recording was made on the Alma-Tadema Steinway that graced the White House during the presidencies of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. The Houston Grand Opera produced a new opera by Floyd on March 5, 2016, Prince of Players, about the 17th-century actor, Edward Kynaston, conducted by Summers. Slow Dusk Susannah Wuthering Heights The Passion of Jonathan Wade The Sojourner and Mollie Sinclair Markheim Of Mice and Men Flower and Hawk Bilby's Doll Willie Stark Cold Sassy Tree Prince of Players 1956 Guggenheim Fellowship 1957 Citation of Merit from the National Association of American Conductors and Composers 1959 Ten Outstanding Young Men of the Nation Award from the U.
S. Junior Chamber of Commerce 1964 Distinguished Professor of Florida State University Award 1972 Resolution of Appreciation by the State of Florida Legislature 1983 Honorary Doctorate from Dickinson College 1983 National Opera Institute's Award for Service to American Opera - the highest honor the institute bestows 1993 Brock Commission from the American Choral Directors Association. 2001 Inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters 2004 National Medal of Arts from the White House 2008 National Endowment for the Arts Opera Honoree for lifetime work 2010 Anton Coppola Excellence in the Arts Award from Opera Tampa 2011 Honorary Doctorate from Florida State University 2012 Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Man of Music - the highest honor for a member of the American music fraternity. Susannah Virgin Classics Susannah VAI Wuthering Heights Reference Recordings Pilgrimage: excerpts (Treigle.