Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term comes from a Greek word meaning action, which is derived from I do, the two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses, Thalia was the Muse of comedy, while Melpomene was the Muse of tragedy. Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the mode has been contrasted with the epic. The use of drama in a narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the modern era. Drama in this sense refers to a play that is neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example and it is this narrower sense that the film and television industries, along with film studies, adopted to describe drama as a genre within their respective media. Radio drama has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a performance, it has been used to describe the more high-brow. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production, the structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception.
The early modern tragedy Hamlet by Shakespeare and the classical Athenian tragedy Oedipus Rex by Sophocles are among the masterpieces of the art of drama, a modern example is Long Days Journey into Night by Eugene O’Neill. Closet drama describes a form that is intended to be read, in improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance, performers devise a dramatic script spontaneously before an audience. Western drama originates in classical Greece, the theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama, tragedy and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of celebrating the god Dionysus. The competition for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BCE, tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which usually consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. Comedy was officially recognized with a prize in the competition from 487 to 486 BCE, five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia, each offering a single comedy.
Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between old comedy, middle comedy and new comedy, following the expansion of the Roman Republic into several Greek territories between 270–240 BCE, Rome encountered Greek drama. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, from the beginning of the empire, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments. The first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BCE, five years later, Gnaeus Naevius began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived, by the beginning of the 2nd century BCE, drama was firmly established in Rome and a guild of writers had been formed
Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press is a publishing house established on January 13,1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing. In 2005, it published 220 new titles and it is a member of the Association of American University Presses. Its current director is William P. Sisler and the editor-in-chief is Susan Wallace Boehmer, the press maintains offices in Cambridge, near Harvard Square, in New York City, and in London, England. The Display Room in Harvard Square, dedicated to selling HUP publications, HUP owns the Belknap Press imprint, which it inaugurated in May 1954 with the publication of the Harvard Guide to American History. The John Harvard Library book series is published under the Belknap imprint, Harvard University Press distributes the Loeb Classical Library and is the publisher of the I Tatti Renaissance Library, the Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library, and the Murty Classical Library of India. It is distinct from Harvard Business Press, which is part of Harvard Business Publishing, Harvard University Press books Hall, Max.
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Fear in human beings may occur in response to a specific stimulus occurring in the present, or in anticipation or expectation of a future threat perceived as a risk to body or life. The fear response arises from the perception of danger leading to confrontation with or escape from/avoiding the threat, in humans and animals, fear is modulated by the process of cognition and learning. Thus fear is judged as rational or appropriate and irrational or inappropriate, an irrational fear is called a phobia. Watson, Robert Plutchik, and Paul Ekman have suggested there is only a small set of basic or innate emotions. This hypothesized set includes such emotions as acute stress reaction, angst, fright, joy and sadness. Fear is closely related to, but should be distinguished from, the emotion anxiety, the fear response serves survival by generating appropriate behavioral responses, so it has been preserved throughout evolution. Many physiological changes in the body are associated with fear, summarized as the fight-or-flight response and this primitive mechanism may help an organism survive by either running away or fighting the danger.
With the series of changes, the consciousness realizes an emotion of fear. People develop specific fears as a result of learning and this has been studied in psychology as fear conditioning, beginning with John B. Watsons Little Albert experiment in 1920, which was inspired after observing a child with a fear of dogs. In this study, an 11-month-old boy was conditioned to fear a white rat in the laboratory, the fear became generalized to include other white, furry objects, such as a rabbit and even a ball of cotton. Fear can be learned by experiencing or watching a frightening traumatic accident, for example, if a child falls into a well and struggles to get out, he or she may develop a fear of wells, enclosed spaces, or water. There are studies looking at areas of the brain that are affected in relation to fear, when looking at these areas, it was proposed that a person learns to fear regardless of whether they themselves have experienced trauma, or if they have observed the fear in others.
In a study completed by Andreas Olsson, Katherine I and this suggests that fear can develop in both conditions, not just simply from personal history. Fear is affected by cultural and historical context, for example, in the early 20th century, many Americans feared polio, a disease that can lead to paralysis. There are consistent cross-cultural differences in how people respond to fear, display rules affect how likely people are to show the facial expression of fear and other emotions. Although many fears are learned, the capacity to fear is part of human nature, many studies have found that certain fears are much more common than others. These fears are easier to induce in the laboratory and this phenomenon is known as preparedness
Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, entrepreneur and lecturer. Among his novels are The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Twain was raised in Hannibal, which provided the setting for Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. He served an apprenticeship with a printer and worked as a typesetter and he became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada. He referred humorously to his lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise, the short story brought international attention and was even translated into classic Greek. His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, and he was a friend to presidents, artists and European royalty. He filed for bankruptcy in the wake of financial setbacks. He chose to pay all his creditors in full, even though he had no legal responsibility to do so. Twain was born shortly after an appearance of Halleys Comet, and he predicted that he would go out with it as well and he was lauded as the greatest American humorist of his age, and William Faulkner called him the father of American literature.
His parents met when his father moved to Missouri, and they were married in 1823, Twain was of Cornish and Scots-Irish descent. Only three of his siblings survived childhood, Orion and Pamela and his sister Margaret died when Twain was three, and his brother Benjamin died three years later. His brother Pleasant died at six months of age, slavery was legal in Missouri at the time, and it became a theme in these writings. His father was an attorney and judge, but he died of pneumonia in 1847, the next year, Twain left school after the fifth grade to become a printers apprentice. In 1851, he working as a typesetter, contributing articles and humorous sketches to the Hannibal Journal. He educated himself in libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school. Twain describes his boyhood in Life on the Mississippi, stating there was but one permanent ambition among his comrades. Pilot was the grandest position of all, the pilot, even in those days of trivial wages, had a princely salary – from a hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars a month, and no board to pay.
As Twain describes it, the pilots prestige exceeded that of the captain, bixby took Twain on as a cub pilot to teach him the river between New Orleans and St. Louis for $500, payable out of Twains first wages after graduating. It was more than two years before he received his pilots license, piloting gave him his pen name from mark twain, the leadsmans cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms, which was safe water for a steamboat
In works of narrative, conflict is the opposition main characters must face to achieve their goals. Traditionally, conflict is a literary element that creates tension. A narrative is not limited to a single conflict, while conflicts may not always resolve in narrative, the resolution of a conflict creates closure, which may or may not occur at a storys end. Conflict in literature refers to the different drives of the characters or forces involved, conflict may be internal or external—that is, it may occur within a characters mind or between a character and exterior forces. Conflict is most visible two or more characters, usually a protagonist and an antagonist/enemy/villain, but can occur in many different forms. A character may as easily find himself or herself in conflict with a force, such as an animal or a weather event. The literary purpose of conflict is to create tension in the story, there may be multiple points of conflict in a single story, as characters may have more than one desire or may struggle against more than one opposing force.
When a conflict is resolved and the reader discovers which force or character succeeds, conflicts may resolve at any point in a story, particularly where more than one conflict exists, but stories do not always resolve every conflict. If a story ends without resolving the main or major conflict, open endings, which can serve to ask the reader to consider the conflict more personally, may not satisfy them, but obvious conflict resolution may leave readers disappointed in the story. The basic types of conflict in fiction have been codified as man against man, man against nature. Although frequently cited, these three types of conflict are not universally accepted, ayn Rand, for instance, argued that man against nature is not a conflict because nature has no free will and thus can make no choices. Man against man conflict involves stories where characters are against each other. The conflict may be direct opposition, as in a gunfight or a robbery and this type of conflict is very common in traditional literature, fairy tales and myths.
One example of the man against man conflict is the struggles between the protagonist and the antagonist stepfather in This Boys Life. Other examples include Dorothys struggles with the Wicked Witch of the West in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, Man against nature conflict is an external struggle positioning the hero against an animal or a force of nature, such as a storm or tornado or snow. The man against nature conflict is central to Ernest Hemingways The Old Man and the Sea and it is common in adventure stories, including Robinson Crusoe. Wild not only takes its name from this conflict, but it is an example, featuring Bear Grylls. With man against self conflict, the struggle is internal and this is a conflict that is usually associated with an internal conflict
The House of the Spirits
The House of the Spirits is the debut novel of Isabel Allende. The novel was rejected by several Spanish-language publishers before being published in Buenos Aires in 1982 and it became an instant best seller, was critically acclaimed, and catapulted Allende to literary stardom. The novel was named Best Novel of the Year in Chile in 1982, the House of the Spirits has been translated into over 37 languages. The book was first conceived by Allende when she received news that her 100-year-old grandfather was dying and she began to write him a letter that ultimately became the manuscript of The House of the Spirits. The story is mainly from the perspective of two protagonists and incorporates elements of magical realism. The story starts with the del Valle family, focusing upon the youngest, the youngest daughter, Clara del Valle, has paranormal powers and keeps a detailed diary of her life. Using her powers, Clara predicts a death in the family. Shortly after this, Claras sister, Rosa the Beautiful, is killed by poison intended for her father who is running for the Senate.
Rosas fiancé, a miner named Esteban Trueba, is devastated and attempts to mend his broken heart by devoting his life to uplifting his family hacienda. Through a combination of intimidation and reward systems, he quickly earns/forces respect and labor from the fearful peasants and turns Tres Marías into a model hacienda. He turns the first peasant who spoke to him upon arrival, Pedro Segundo, into his foreman, who quickly becomes the closest thing that Trueba ever has to an actual friend during his life. However, he rapes many of the peasant women, and his first victim, Pancha García, becomes the mother of his bastard son, Esteban returns to the city to see his dying mother. After her death, Esteban decides to fulfill her dying wish and he goes to the del Valle family to ask for Claras hand in marriage. Clara accepts Estebans proposal, she herself has predicted her engagement two months prior, speaking for the first time in nine years. During the period of their engagement, Esteban builds what everyone calls the big house on the corner, after their wedding, Estebans sister Férula comes to live with the newlyweds in the big house on the corner.
Férula develops a strong dedication to Clara, which fulfills her need to serve others, Estebans wild desire to possess Clara and to monopolize her love causes him to throw Férula out of the house. She curses him, telling him that he will shrink in body and soul, although she misses her sister-in-law, a passive and dreamy Clara finds happiness in developing her psychic powers. Spirits and spiritualists flock to the Truebas house, Clara gives birth to a daughter named Blanca and later, to twin boys Jaime and Nicolás
McFarland & Company
McFarland & Company, Inc. is an independent book publisher of primarily academic and adult nonfiction based in Jefferson, North Carolina. Its president and editor-in-chief is Robert Franklin, who founded the company in 1979, McFarland employs a staff of about 50, and as of 2017 had published approximately 5,100 titles. For much of its history, McFarland has focused on print runs. McFarland & Company mainly focuses on selling to libraries, the publisher utilizes direct mailing to connect with enthusiasts in niche categories. The company is known for its sports literature, especially history, as well as books about chess. According to the Mountain Times, McFarland publishes about 275 scholarly monograph, the following academic journals are published by McFarland & Company. Base Ball, A Journal of the Early Game Black Ball, A Journal of the Negro Leagues Clues, A Journal of Detection Journal of Information Ethics North Korean Review Official website
A puzzle is a game, problem, or toy that tests a persons ingenuity or knowledge. In a puzzle, one is required to put together in a logical way. There are different types of puzzles for different ages, such as puzzles, word-search puzzles, number puzzles. Puzzles are often devised as a form of entertainment but they can arise from serious mathematical or logistical problems. In such cases, their solution may be a significant contribution to mathematical research, solutions of puzzles often require the recognition of patterns and the creation of a particular kind of order. Sometimes not because of how complicated and diagonal the pattern can get, people with a high level of inductive reasoning aptitude may be better at solving such puzzles than others. But puzzles based upon inquiry and discovery may be solved easily by those with good deduction skills. Some notable creators of puzzles are Sam Loyd, Henry Dudeney, Boris Kordemsky and, more recently, David J. Bodycombe, Will Shortz, Lloyd King, the 1989 edition of the Oxford English Dictionary dates the word puzzle to the end of the 16th century.
Its first documented use was in a book titled The Voyage of Robert Dudley. to the West Indies, 1594–95, narrated by Capt. Wyatt, by himself, the word came to be used as a noun. The word puzzle comes from pusle, meaning bewilder, the use of the word to mean a toy contrived to test ones ingenuity is relatively recent. He used the pieces as an aid to the teaching of geography. After becoming popular among the public, this kind of teaching aid remained the primary use of jigsaw puzzles until about 1820, by the early 20th century and newspapers had found that they could increase their readership by publishing puzzle contests. The largest puzzle is made by German game company Ravensburger, the smallest puzzle ever made was created at LaserZentrum Hannover. It is only five square millimetres, the size of a dust grain, there are organizations and events that cater to puzzle enthusiasts, such as the World Puzzle Championship, the National Puzzlers League, and Ravenchase. There are puzzlehunts, such as the Maze of Games, Puzzles can be divided into categories.
For example, a maze is a type of tour puzzle, some other categories are construction puzzles, stick puzzles, tiling puzzles, transport puzzles, disentanglement puzzles, lock puzzles, folding puzzles, combination puzzles, and mechanical puzzles. A chess problem is a puzzle that uses chess pieces on a chess board, examples are the knights tour and the eight queens puzzle. Peg solitaire A puzzle box is a puzzle that can be used to hide something — jewelry, rubiks Cube and other combination puzzles can be stimulating toys for children or recreational activities for adults
A protagonist is the main character in any story, such as a literary work or drama. The protagonist is at the center of the story, typically makes the key decisions, the protagonist usually affects the main characters circumstances as well, as they are often the primary actor propelling the story forward. If a story contains a subplot, or is a made up of several stories. The word protagonist is used notably in stories and forms of literature and culture that contain stories, in those forms the protagonist may simply be the leading actor, or the principal character in the story. The antagonist will provide obstacles and complications and create conflict that test the protagonist, thus revealing the strengths, the earliest known examples of protagonist are dated back to Ancient Greece. At first dramatic performances involved merely dancing and recitation by the chorus, but in Poetics, Aristotle describes how a poet named Thespis introduced the idea of having one actor step out and engage in a dialogue with the chorus.
This was the invention of tragedy, which occurred about 536 B. C, the poet Aeschylus, in his plays, introduced a second actor, inventing the idea of dialogue between two characters. Sophocles wrote plays that required a third actor, euripides play Hippolytus may be considered to have two protagonists. The protagonist of the first half is Phaedra, who dies partway through the play and her stepson, the titular Hippolytus, assumes the dominant role in the second half of the play. In Ibsen’s play The Master Builder, the protagonist is the architect Halvard Solness, the young woman, Hilda Wangel, whose actions lead to the death of Solness, is the antagonist. In Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet, Romeo is the protagonist and he is actively in pursuit of his relationship with Juliet, and the audience is invested in that story. The character of Tybalt opposes Romeo’s desires, he is the antagonist, in Shakespeare’s play Hamlet, Prince Hamlet, who seeks revenge for the murder of his father, is the protagonist.
The antagonist would be the character who most opposes Hamlet, Claudius, in the novel The Catcher in the Rye, the character Holden Caulfield is the protagonist. He is the character, and the reader is invested in his story. Sometimes, a work will have a false protagonist, who may seem to be the protagonist, the character Marion in Alfred Hitchcocks film Psycho is an example. A novel that contains a number of narratives may have a number of protagonists, alexander Solzhenitsyns The First Circle, for example, depicts a variety of characters imprisoned and living in a gulag camp. Leo Tolstoys War and Peace, depicts fifteen major characters involved in or affected by a war
Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, is an American company that publishes reference books, especially known for its dictionaries. In 1831, George and Charles Merriam founded the company as G & C Merriam Co. in Springfield, in 1843, after Noah Webster died, the company bought the rights to An American Dictionary of the English Language from Websters estate. All Merriam-Webster dictionaries trace their lineage to this source, in 1964, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. acquired Merriam-Webster, Inc. as a subsidiary. The company adopted its current name in 1982, in 1806, Webster published his first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language. In 1807 Webster started two decades of work to expand his publication into a fully comprehensive dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language. To help him trace the etymology of words, Webster learned 26 languages, Webster hoped to standardize American speech, since Americans in different parts of the country used somewhat different vocabularies and spelled and used words differently.
Webster completed his dictionary during his year abroad in 1825 in Paris and his 1820s book contained 70,000 words, of which about 12,000 had never appeared in a dictionary before. He added American words, including skunk and squash, that did not appear in British dictionaries, at the age of 70 in 1828, Webster published his dictionary, it sold poorly, with only 2,500 copies putting him in debt. However, in 1840, he published the edition in two volumes with much greater success. He shows ways that American poetry inherited Websters ideas and draws on his lexicography to develop the language, in 1843, after Websters death, George Merriam and Charles Merriam secured publishing and revision rights to the 1840 edition of the dictionary. They published a revision in 1847, which did not change any of the text but merely added new sections. This began a series of revisions that were described as being unabridged in content, in 1884 it contained 118,000 words,3000 more than any other English dictionary.
With the edition of 1890, the dictionary was retitled Websters International, the Collegiate Dictionary was introduced in 1898 and the series is now in its eleventh edition. Following the publication of Websters International in 1890, two Collegiate editions were issued as abridgments of each of their Unabridged editions, with the ninth edition, the Collegiate adopted changes which distinguish it as a separate entity rather than merely an abridgment of the Third New International. Some proper names were returned to the word list, including names of Knights of the Round Table, the most notable change was the inclusion of the date of the first known citation of each word, to document its entry into the English language. The eleventh edition includes more than 225,000 definitions, a CD-ROM of the text is sometimes included. This dictionary is preferred as a source for general matters of spelling by the influential The Chicago Manual of Style, the Chicago Manual states that it normally opts for the first spelling listed.
Merriam overhauled the dictionary again with the 1961 Websters Third New International under the direction of Philip B, making changes that sparked public controversy