History of Sacramento, California
The city was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santisimo Sacramento, before the arrival of Europeans, the Nisenan branch of the Native American Maidu inhabited the Sacramento Valley area. The California Gold Rush started when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill, one of Sutter, its location caused the city to periodically fill with water. Fires would sweep through the city, to resolve the problems, the city worked to raise the sidewalks and buildings and began to replace wooden structures with more resilient materials, like brick and stone. The city was selected as the capital in 1854 after Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo failed to convince the state government to remain in the city of his namesake. Indigenous people such as the Miwok and Maidu Indians were the inhabitants of the north Californian Central Valley. However, no explorer had yet discovered the Sacramento Valley region nor the Golden Gate strait, neither did Gabriel Moraga, who was the first European to enter the Sierra in 1808 and was responsible for naming the Sacramento River, although he incorrectly placed the rivers in the region.
The Mexicans, who had declared independence in 1821, shared Spanish sentiments, as a result, he granted Sutters request on the condition that Sutter would become a Mexican citizen. Sutter commenced to build a fort of his namesake, Sutters Fort, in 1840, John Sutter employed both white people and Native Americans for many mundane and military tasks regarding New Helvetia. As New Helvetia continued to develop economically, Sutter constructed a ranch at the Nisenan village of Hok and named it Hock Farm, New Helvetia was considered a stable colony by 1844, and was the only foreigner-friendly locale in Alta California at the time. Among other foreigners, the Donner Party had designated Sutters Fort their destination during a journey that placed them across the Sierra mountains in the wintertime. Sutters empire began to disintegrate when he decided to back the unpopular Alta Californian governor Manuel Micheltorena, Sutter was jailed as a result, but not before Micheltorena issued the Sobrante Grant, which added 88,000 acres of land to New Helvetian territory.
In 1845, Castro arrived at Sutters Fort and offered a deal to purchase New Helvetia, Sutter declined, agreeing reluctantly, Sutter raised the Bear Flag over his fortification. However, he treated the Vallejos, whom he considered friends, as guests, while the Bear Flaggers under William B. The United States initiated the Mexican-American War in 1846 against Mexico in the wake of the U. S. annexation of the Republic of Texas, whose independence Mexico had not recognized. California, along with Nevada, New Mexico, most of Arizona and Colorado, and parts of Oklahoma, thus, Sutters New Helvetia fell under U. S. control. Continuing business as normal, John Sutter dispatched associate James W. Marshall, in January 1848, Marshall detected a flake of gold on the ground at the site of Sutters new mill, and after conducting tests, determined the minerals authenticity. Word leaked about the discovery nearly immediately, disappointed with what had become of his holdings, Sutter placed his son as head of fort business operations and retired to Hock Farm
Although famous throughout California for his association with the Gold Rush, Sutter saw his business ventures fail while those of his elder son, John Augustus Sutter, Jr. were more successful. John Augustus Sutter was born Johann August Suter on February 15,1803 in Kandern, Germany, Johann went to school in Neuchâtel, Switzerland. At age 21, Johann married the daughter of a rich widow and he operated a store but he was more interested in spending money than making it. Because of family and mounting debts, Johann faced charges that would have him placed in jail, so he decided to dodge trial and ventured to America, he styled his name to Captain John Augustus Sutter. In North America, John Augustus Sutter undertook extensive travels, before he went to the U. S. he had learned Spanish and English in addition to Swiss French. Together with 35 Germans he moved from the St. Louis area to Santa Fe, New Mexico, a province of Mexico, moved to the town of Westport, Oregon Territory. On April 1,1838, he joined a group of missionaries, led by the fur trapper Andrew Drips, and traveled the Oregon Trail to Fort Vancouver in Oregon Territory, which they reached in October.
Sutter originally planned to cross the Siskiyou Mountains during the winter, Sutter was charged £21 by Douglas to arrange transportation on the British bark Columbia for himself and his eight followers. The Columbia departed Fort Vancouver on 11 November and sailed to the Kingdom of Hawaii, Sutter had missed the only ship inbound for the Alta California, and had to remain in the Kingdom for four months. The brig Clementine was eventually hired by Sutter to take provisions and general merchandise for New Archangel. Joining the crew as unpaid supercargo, Sutter,10 Native Hawaiians laborers, staying at New Archangel for a month, Sutter joined several balls hosted by Governor Kupreyanov, who likely gave help in determining the course of the Sacramento River. The Clementine sailed for Alta California, reaching Yerba Buena on July 1,1839, which at that time was only a small seaport town. At the time of Sutters arrival in California, Alta California was a province of Mexico, and had a population of only about 1,000 Europeans and an estimated 100, 000-700,000 Native Americans.
Sutter had to go to the capital at Monterey to obtain permission from the governor, Juan Bautista Alvarado, Alvarado saw Sutters plan of establishing a colony in Central Valley as useful in buttressing the frontier which he was trying to maintain against Indians, Russians and British. The governor stipulated however that for Sutter to qualify for land ownership, he had to reside in the territory for a year and become a Mexican citizen, which he did on August 29,1840. Construction was begun in August 1839 on a settlement which Sutter named New Helvetia, or New Switzerland, after his homeland. Sutter often began to identify himself as Captain Sutter of the Swiss Guard, when the settlement was completed in 1841, on 18 June, he received title to 48,827 acres on the Sacramento River. The site is now part of the California state capital of Sacramento, Sutter at first supported the establishment of an independent California Republic but when United States troops under John C
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Phase I environmental site assessment
In the United States, an environmental site assessment is a report prepared for a real estate holding that identifies potential or existing environmental contamination liabilities. The analysis, often called an ESA, typically both the underlying land as well as physical improvements to the property. A proportion of contaminated sites are brownfield sites, in severe cases, brownfield sites may be added to the National Priorities List where they will be subject to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agencys Superfund program. The actual sampling of soil, groundwater and/or building materials is not conducted during a Phase I ESA. The Phase I ESA is generally considered the first step in the process of due diligence. Standards for performing a Phase I site assessment have been promulgated by the US EPA and are based in part on ASTM in Standard E1527-13. Many times these studies were preparatory to understanding the nature of cleanup if the property was being considered for redevelopment or change of land use.
In the United States of America demand increased dramatically for this type of study in the 1980s following judicial decisions related to liability of property owners to effect site cleanup, interpreting the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act of 1980, the U. S. In 1998 the necessity of performing a Phase I ESA was underscored by congressional action in passing the Superfund Cleanup Acceleration Act of 1998, previous guidances regarding the ASTM E1527 standard were ASTM E1527-97, ASTM E1527-00, and ASTM E1527-05. Residential property purchasers need only conduct an inspection and chain of title survey. A variety of reasons for a Phase I study to be performed exist, contemplation by a new lender to provide a loan on the subject real estate. Partnership buyout or principal redistribution of ownership, application to a public agency for change of use or other discretionary land use permit. Existing property owner’s desire to understand toxic history of the property, compulsion by a regulatory agency who suspects toxic conditions on the site.
Depending upon precise protocols utilized, there are a number of variations in the scope of a Phase I study, examine historic aerial photography of the vicinity. Examine current USGS maps to scrutinize drainage patterns and topography, examine chain-of-title for Environmental Liens and/or Activity and Land Use Limitations. In most cases, the file searches, historical research. Many of the preparers are environmental scientists who have trained to integrate these diverse disciplines. Under ASTM E 1527-13 parameters were set forth as to who is qualified to perform Phase I ESAs, an Environmental Professional is someone with a current Professional Engineers or Professional Geologists license or registration from a state or U. S
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 85,000 places listed on the countrys National Register of Historic Places, a National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, and it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed, prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. The first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17,1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the data gathered under this legislation. Because listings often triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9,1960,92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A.
Seaton, more than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States, there are NHLs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nations NHLs, three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states, California, Massachusetts, there are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia. Some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, and foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U. S. commonwealths and territories,5 in U. S. -associated states such as Micronesia, over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are privately owned, the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks. A friends group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve, protect, if not already listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation.
About three percent of Register listings are NHLs, american Water Landmark List of U. S
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly yellow, soft, malleable. Chemically, gold is a metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions, Gold often occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the element silver and naturally alloyed with copper. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium, golds atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher numbered, naturally occurring elements. It is thought to have produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, from the collision of neutron stars. Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold dissolves in solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction, as a precious metal, gold has been used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold is in existence above ground, the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. As of 2014, the worlds largest gold producer by far was China with 450 tonnes, Gold is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃-. The symbol Au is from the Latin, the Latin word for gold, the Proto-Indo-European ancestor of aurum was *h₂é-h₂us-o-, meaning glow. This word is derived from the root as *h₂éu̯sōs, the ancestor of the Latin word Aurora. This etymological relationship is presumably behind the frequent claim in scientific publications that aurum meant shining dawn, Gold is the most malleable of all metals, a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, and an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet.
Gold leaf can be thin enough to become semi-transparent
Death Valley National Park
Death Valley National Park is a national park in the United States. Straddling the border of California and Nevada, located east of the Sierra Nevada, the park protects the northwest corner of the Mojave Desert and contains a diverse desert environment of salt-flats, sand dunes, valleys and mountains. It is the largest national park in the lower 48 states and has declared an International Biosphere Reserve. Approximately 91% of the park is a wilderness area. It is the hottest and lowest of the parks in the United States. The second-lowest point in the Western Hemisphere is in Badwater Basin, the park is home to many species of plants and animals that have adapted to this harsh desert environment. Some examples include creosote bush, bighorn sheep and the Death Valley pupfish, several short-lived boom towns sprang up during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to mine gold and silver. The only long-term profitable ore to be mined was borax, which was transported out of the valley with twenty-mule teams, the valley became the subject of books, radio programs, television series, and movies.
Tourism blossomed in the 1920s, when resorts were built around Stovepipe Wells, Death Valley National Monument was declared in 1933 and the park was substantially expanded and became a national park in 1994. The natural environment of the area has been shaped largely by its geology, the valley itself is actually a graben. The oldest rocks are metamorphosed and at least 1.7 billion years old. Ancient, shallow seas deposited marine sediments until rifting opened the Pacific Ocean, additional sedimentation occurred until a subduction zone formed off the coast. This uplifted the region out of the sea and created a line of volcanoes, the crust started to pull apart, creating the current Basin and Range landform. Valleys filled with sediment and, during the wet times of glacial periods, with lakes, in 2013, Death Valley National Park was designated as a dark sky park by the International Dark-Sky Association. There are two valleys in the park, Death Valley and Panamint Valley. Both of these valleys were formed within the last few million years, the result of this shearing action is additional extension in the central part of Death Valley which causes a slight widening and more subsidence there.
Uplift of surrounding mountain ranges and subsidence of the floor are both occurring. The uplift on the Black Mountains is so fast that the fans there are small
Lassen Volcanic National Park
Lassen Volcanic National Park is a United States National Park in northeastern California. The dominant feature of the park is Lassen Peak, the largest plug dome volcano in the world, Lassen Volcanic National Park started as two separate national monuments designated by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1907, Cinder Cone National Monument and Lassen Peak National Monument. The source of heat for volcanism in the Lassen area is subduction off the Northern California coast of the Gorda Plate diving below the North American Plate, the area surrounding Lassen Peak is still active with boiling mud pots, stinking fumaroles, and churning hot springs. Lassen Volcanic National Park is one of the few areas in the world where all four types of volcano can be found, the park is accessible via State Routes SR89 and SR44. SR89 passes north-south through the park, beginning at SR36 to the south, SR89 passes immediately adjacent the base of Lassen Peak. A large lodge with concession facilities was located near the south-west entrance, a new, full-service visitor center was constructed in the same location, and opened to the public in 2008.
Near the old location was located Lassen Ski Area. Native Americans have inhabited the area long before white settlers first saw Lassen. The natives knew that the peak was full of fire and water, White immigrants in the mid-19th century used Lassen Peak as a landmark on their trek to the fertile Sacramento Valley. One of the guides to these immigrants was a Danish blacksmith named Peter Lassen, Lassen Peak was named after him. Nobles Emigrant Trail was cut through the area and passed Cinder Cone. Inconsistent newspaper accounts reported by witnesses from 1850 to 1851 described seeing fire thrown to a terrible height, as late as 1859, a witness reported seeing fire in the sky from a distance, attributing it to an eruption. Early geologists and volcanologists who studied the Cinder Cone concluded the last eruption occurred between 1675 and 1700, after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, the United States Geological Survey began reassessing the potential risk of other active volcanic areas in the Cascade Range.
Further study of Cinder Cone estimated the last eruption occurred between 1630 and 1670, recent tree-ring analysis has placed the date at 1666. The Lassen area was first protected by being designated as the Lassen Peak Forest Preserve, Lassen Peak and Cinder Cone were declared as U. S. National Monuments in May 1907 by President Theodore Roosevelt. Starting in May 1914 and lasting until 1921, a series of minor to major eruptions occurred on Lassen and these events created a new crater, and released lava and a great deal of ash. Fortunately, because of warnings, no one was killed, because of the eruptive activity, which continued through 1917, and the areas stark volcanic beauty, Lassen Peak, Cinder Cone and the area surrounding were declared a National Park on August 9,1916. The 29-mile Main Park Road was constructed between 1925 and 1931, just 10 years after Lassen Peak erupted, near Lassen Peak the road reaches 8,512 feet, making it the highest road in the Cascade Mountains
James W. Marshall
The mill property was owned by Johan Sutter who employed Marshall to build his mill. The wave of gold seekers turned everyones attention away from the mill eventually fell into disrepair and was never used as intended. Neither Marshall nor Sutter ever profited from the gold find, James Wilson Marshall, of English descent, was born to Philip Marshall and Sarah Wilson at the family homestead in Hopewell Township, New Jersey on October 8,1810. The family homestead was known as the Round Mountain Farm and is known as Marshalls Corner. He was the oldest of four children, and the only male, in 1816, the Marshall family relocated to nearby Lambertville, where Philip constructed a house on approximately five acres of land. James left New Jersey in 1834 and headed west, after spending time in Indiana and Illinois, he settled in Missouri in 1844, and began farming along the Missouri River. It was there that he contracted malaria, an affliction in the area. On the advice of his doctor, Marshall left Missouri in the hopes of improving his health and he joined an emigrant train heading west and arrived in Oregons Willamette Valley in the spring of 1845.
He left Oregon in June 1845 and headed south along the Siskiyou Trail into California, eventually reaching Sutters Fort, the founder of Sutters Fort, an agricultural settlement. Sutter was the alcalde of the area, as California was still a Mexican possession in 1845, Sutter hired Marshall to assist with work at the sawmill, and around the fort. He helped Marshall to buy two leagues of land on the side of Butte Creek and provided him with cattle. It was here that Marshall began his stint as a farmer. Soon after this, the Mexican-American War began in May 1846, Marshall volunteered and served under Captain John C. Frémonts California Battalion during the Bear Flag Revolt, when he left the battalion and returned to his ranch in early 1847, he found that all his cattle had either strayed or been stolen. With his sole source of income gone, Marshall lost his land, Marshall soon entered into a partnership with Sutter for the construction of a sawmill. Marshall was to oversee the construction and operation of the mill, after scouting nearby areas for a suitable location, he eventually decided upon Coloma, located roughly 40 miles upstream of Sutters Fort on the American River.
He proposed his plan to Sutter, and construction began in late August and his crew consisted mainly of local Native Americans and veterans of the Mormon Battalion on their way to Salt Lake City, Utah. Construction continued into January 1848, when it was discovered that the portion of the mill was too narrow and shallow for the volume of water needed to operate the saw
Cabrillo National Monument
Cabrillo National Monument is at the southern tip of the Point Loma Peninsula in San Diego, California. It commemorates the landing of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo at San Diego Bay on September 28,1542 and this event marked the first time a European expedition had set foot on what became the West Coast of the United States. The site was designated as California Historical Landmark #56 in 1932, as with all historical units of the National Park Service, Cabrillo was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15,1966. The annual Cabrillo Festival Open House is held on a Sunday each October and it commemorates Cabrillo with a reenactment of his landing at Ballast Point, in San Diego Bay. The park offers a view of San Diegos harbor and skyline, as well as Coronado, on clear days, a wide expanse of the Pacific Ocean and Mexicos Coronado Islands are visible. A visitor center screens a film about Cabrillos voyage and has exhibits about the expedition, the Old Point Loma Lighthouse is the highest point in the park and has been a San Diego icon since 1855.
The lighthouse was closed in 1891, and a new one opened at an elevation, because fog. The old lighthouse is now a museum, and visitors may enter it, the area encompassed by the national monument includes various former military installations, such as coastal artillery batteries, built to protect the harbor of San Diego from enemy warships. Many of these installations can be seen walking around the area. A former army building hosts an exhibit that tells the story of history at Point Loma. The area near the monument entrance was used for gliding activities in 1929-1935. Even Charles Lindbergh soared in a Bowlus sailplane along the cliffs of Point Loma in 1930, markers for these accomplishments can be found near the entrance, and the site is recognized as a National Soaring Landmark by the National Soaring Museum. On October 14,1913, by proclamation, Woodrow Wilson reserved 0.5 acres of Fort Rosecrans for The Order of Panama. To construct a statue of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo. In 1939 the Portuguese government commissioned a statue of Cabrillo.
The sandstone statue, executed by sculptor Alvaro de Bree, is 14 feet tall, the statue was intended for the Golden Gate International Exposition in San Francisco but arrived too late and was stored in an Oakland, California garage. Then-State Senator Ed Fletcher managed to obtain the statue in 1940 over the objections of Bay Area officials and it was stored for several years on the grounds of the Naval Training Center San Diego, out of public view, and was finally installed at Cabrillo Monument in 1949. The sandstone statue suffered severe weathering because of its position and was replaced in 1988 by a replica made of limestone
Coloma is a census-designated place in El Dorado County, California, USA. It is approximately 36 miles northeast of Sacramento, Coloma is most noted for being the site where James W. Marshall found gold in the Sierra Nevada, at Sutters Mill on January 24,1848, leading to the California Gold Rush. The settlement is a tourist attraction known for its ghost town, Coloma was designated a National Historic Landmark District on July 4,1961. It lies at an elevation of 764 feet, Coloma grew around Sutters Mill following the finding of gold. A post office was established in 1849 under the name Culloma, one of Colomas earliest settlers was Silas Sanderson, who went on to become the 7th Chief Justice of California. The tailrace of Sutters Mill remains, along with a nearby reconstruction, in reality the meaningfulness of the township of Coloma has dissipated as residents who live in the wider Coloma Valley area generally share a community spirit. The town currently has approximately 300 inhabitants, the local economy is predominately agriculture and tourism.
Of particular note is the industry as the South Fork American River is one of the most popular white water trips in North America. The name comes from the natives name for the valley Coloma is in, Cullumah. Coloma is on the South Fork American River that runs through the valley and was built on the original Native American village of Koloma, the 2010 United States Census reported that Coloma had a population of 529. The population density was 157.7 people per square mile, the racial makeup of Coloma was 462 White,4 African American,3 Native American,8 Asian,0 Pacific Islander,15 from other races, and 37 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 63 persons, the Census reported that 429 people lived in households,34 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 were institutionalized. There were 22 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 2 same-sex married couples or partnerships,51 households were made up of individuals and 20 had someone living alone. The average household size was 2.29, there were 140 families, the average family size was 2.64.
The median age was 49.0 years, for every 100 females there were 115.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.1 males, there were 251 housing units at an average density of 74.8 per square mile, of which 153 were owner-occupied and 63 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1. 3%, the vacancy rate was 12. 5%. 355 people lived in owner-occupied housing units, and 140 people lived in housing units