California Gold Rush
The California Gold Rush began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California; the news of gold brought 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. The sudden influx of gold into the money supply reinvigorated the American economy, the sudden population increase allowed California to go to statehood, in the Compromise of 1850; the Gold Rush had severe effects on Native Californians and resulted in a precipitous population decline from disease and starvation. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory, to having one of its first two U. S. Senators, John C. Frémont, selected to be the first presidential nominee for the new Republican Party, in 1856; the effects of the Gold Rush were substantial. Whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called "forty-niners". Outside of California, the first to arrive were from Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, Latin America in late 1848.
Of the 300,000 people who came to California during the Gold Rush, about half arrived by sea and half came overland on the California Trail and the Gila River trail. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the gold rush attracted thousands from Latin America, Europe and China. Agriculture and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. Roads, churches and other towns were built throughout California. In 1849 a state constitution was written; the new constitution was adopted by referendum vote, the future state's interim first governor and legislature were chosen. In September 1850, California became a state. At the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of "staking claims" was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. Although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and adopted around the world.
New methods of transportation developed. By 1869, railroads were built from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, increasing the proportion of gold companies to individual miners. Gold worth tens of billions of today's US dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few, though many who participated in the California Gold Rush earned little more than they had started with; the Mexican–American War ended on February 3, 1848, although California was a de facto American possession before that. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided for, among other things, the formal transfer of Upper California to the United States; the California Gold Rush began near Coloma. On January 24, 1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, the two tested the metal.
After the tests showed that it was gold, Sutter expressed dismay: he wanted to keep the news quiet because he feared what would happen to his plans for an agricultural empire if there were a mass search for gold. Rumors of the discovery of gold were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisher and merchant Samuel Brannan. Brannan hurriedly set up a store to sell gold prospecting supplies, walked through the streets of San Francisco, holding aloft a vial of gold, shouting "Gold! Gold! Gold from the American River!"On August 19, 1848, the New York Herald was the first major newspaper on the East Coast to report the discovery of gold. On December 5, 1848, US President James Polk confirmed the discovery of gold in an address to Congress; as a result, individuals seeking to benefit from the gold rush--later called the "forty-niners"--began moving to the Gold Country of California or "Mother Lode" from other countries and from other parts of the United States. As Sutter had feared, his business plans were ruined after his workers left in search of gold, squatters took over his land and stole his crops and cattle.
San Francisco had been a tiny settlement. When residents learned about the discovery, it at first became a ghost town of abandoned ships and businesses, but boomed as merchants and new people arrived; the population of San Francisco increased from about 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 full-time residents by 1850. Miners lived in wood shanties, or deck cabins removed from abandoned ships. In what has been referred to as the "first world-class gold rush," there was no easy way to get to California. At first, most Argonauts, as they were known, traveled by sea. From the East Coast, a sailing voyage around the tip of South America would take four to five months, cover 18,000 nautical miles. An alternative was to sail to the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama, take canoes and mules for a week through the jungle, on the Pacific side, wait for a ship sailing for San Francisco. There was a route across Mexico starting at Veracruz; the companies providing such transportation created vast wealth among their owners and included the U.
S. Mail Steamship Company, the federally subsidized Pacific Mail Steamship Company, the Accessory Tra
Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. Located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in Northern California's Sacramento Valley, Sacramento's estimated 2018 population of 501,334 makes it the sixth-largest city in California and the ninth largest capital in the United States. Sacramento is the seat of the California Assembly, the Governor of California, Supreme Court of California, making it the state's political center and a hub for lobbying and think tanks. Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which had 2010 population of 2,414,783, making it the fifth largest in California. Sacramento is the fastest-growing major city in California, owing to its status as a notable financial center on the West Coast and as a major educational hub, home of Sacramento State University and University of California, Davis. Sacramento is a major center for the California healthcare industry, as the seat of Sutter Health, the world-renowned UC Davis Medical Center, the UC Davis School of Medicine, notable tourist destination in California, as the site of The California Museum, the Crocker Art Museum, California Hall of Fame, the California State Capitol Museum, the Old Sacramento State Historic Park.
Sacramento is known for its evolving contemporary culture, dubbed the most "hipster city" in California. In 2002, the Harvard University Civil Rights Project conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City". Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area was inhabited by the Nisenan people indigenous peoples of California. Spanish cavalryman Gabriel Moraga surveyed and named the Rio del Santísimo Sacramento in 1808, after the Blessed Sacrament, referring to the Eucharist in the Catholic Church. In 1839, Juan Bautista Alvarado, Mexican governor of Alta California granted the responsibility of colonizing the Sacramento Valley to Swiss-born, Mexican citizen John Augustus Sutter, who subsequently established Sutter's Fort and the settlement at the Rancho Nueva Helvetia. Following the American Conquest of California and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the waterfront developed by Sutter began to be developed and incorporated in 1850 as the City of Sacramento; as a result of the California Gold Rush, Sacramento became a major commercial center and distribution point for Northern California, serving as the terminus for the Pony Express and the First Transcontinental Railroad.
Nisenan and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region, by fruits, bulbs and roots gathered throughout the year. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths; the air was like champagne, drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. "¡Es como el sagrado sacramento!" The valley and the river were christened after the "Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ", referring to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist. John Sutter Sr. first arrived in the area on August 13, 1839, at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutter's Fort, a massive adobe structure with walls eighteen feet high and three feet thick. Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847 Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. That same year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.'s "empire" had been built on some thin margins of credit. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, a large number of gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the population.
In August 1848 Sutter Sr.'s son, John Sutter Jr. arrived in the area to assist his father in relieving his indebtedness. Now compounding the problem of his father's indebtedness, was the additional strain placed on the Sutters by the ongoing arrival of thousands of new gold miners and prospectors in the area, many quite content to squat on unwatched portions of the vast Sutter lands, or to abscond with various unattended Sutter properties or belongings if they could. In Sutter's case, rather than being a'boon' for Sutter, his employee's discovery of gold in the area turned out to be more of a personal'bane' for him. By December 1848, John Sutter Jr. in association with Sam Brannan, began laying out the City of Sacramento, 2 miles south of his father's settlement of New Helvetia. This venture was undertaken against the wishes of Sutter Sr. however the father, being in debt, was in no position to stop the venture. For
John Augustus Sutter, born Johann August Suter, was a German-born Swiss pioneer of California, with Mexican and American citizenship, known for establishing Sutter's Fort in the area that would become Sacramento, the state's capital. Although he became famous following the discovery of gold by his employee James W. Marshall and the mill making team at Sutter's Mill, Sutter saw his own business ventures fail during the California Gold Rush; those of his elder son, John Augustus Sutter Jr. were more successful. John August Sutter was born on February 23, 1803, in Kandern, Baden and his father came from the nearby town of Rünenberg in Switzerland. Johann went to school in Switzerland. At age 21, he married the daughter of a rich widow, he was more interested in spending money than earning it. Because of family and mounting debts, Johann faced charges. So he ventured to America. In May 1834, he left his wife and five children behind in Burgdorf and with a French passport he boarded the ship Sully which travelled from Le Havre, France, to New York City where it arrived on July 14, 1834.
In North America, John August Sutter undertook extensive travels. Before he went to the U. S. he had learned English in addition to Swiss French. He and 35 Germans moved from the St. Louis area to Santa Fe, New Mexico, a province of Mexico moved to the town of Westport, Oregon Territory. On April 1, 1838, he joined a group of missionaries, led by the fur trapper Andrew Drips, traveled the Oregon Trail to Fort Vancouver in Oregon Territory, which they reached in October. Sutter planned to cross the Siskiyou Mountains during the winter, but acting chief factor James Douglas convinced him that such an attempt would be perilous. Sutter was charged £21 by Douglas to arrange transportation on the British bark Columbia for himself and his eight followers; the Columbia departed Fort Vancouver on November 11 and sailed to the Kingdom of Hawaii, reaching Honolulu on December 9. Sutter had missed the only ship inbound for the Alta California, had to remain in the Kingdom for four months. Over the months Sutter gained friendly relations with the Euro-American community, dining with the Consuls of the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, John Coffin Jones and Richard Charlton along with merchants such as American Faxon Atherton.
The brig Clementine was hired by Sutter to take freight provisions and general merchandise for New Archangel, the capital of the Russian-American Company colonies in Russian America. Joining the crew as unpaid supercargo, Sutter, 10 Native Hawaiians laborers and several other followers embarked on April 20, 1839. Staying at New Archangel for a month, Sutter joined several balls hosted by Governor Kupreyanov, who gave help in determining the course of the Sacramento River; the Clementine sailed for Alta California, arriving on July 1, 1839, at Yerba Buena, which at that time was only a small seaport town. At the time of Sutter's arrival in California, Alta California was a province of Mexico, had a population of only about 1,000 Europeans and an estimated 100,000-700,000 Native Americans. Sutter had to go to the capital at Monterey to obtain permission from the governor, Juan Bautista Alvarado, to settle in the territory. Alvarado saw Sutter's plan of establishing a colony in Central Valley as useful in "buttressing the frontier which he was trying to maintain against Indians, Russians and British."The governor stipulated however that for Sutter to qualify for land ownership, he had to reside in the territory for a year and become a Mexican citizen, which he did on August 29, 1840.
Construction was begun in August 1839 on a fortified settlement which Sutter named New Helvetia, or "New Switzerland," after his homeland, "Helvetia" being the Latin name for Switzerland. Sutter began to identify himself as'Captain Sutter of the Swiss Guard'; when the settlement was completed in 1841, on June 18, he received title to 48,827 acres on the Sacramento River. The site is now part of the California state capital of Sacramento. A Francophile, Sutter threatened to raise the French flag over California and place New Helvetia under French protection, but in 1846 California was occupied by the United States in the Mexican–American War. Sutter at first supported the establishment of an independent California Republic but when United States troops under John C. Frémont seized control of his fort, Sutter did not resist because he was outnumbered. Sutter had to make peace with the local native Maidu people. Over time, the Maidu and Sutter became friends, they helped Sutter and his Kanakas build a fortified settlement.
Sutter called the place New Helvetia or “New Switzerland.” Sutter's Fort had a central building made of adobe bricks, surrounded by a high wall with protection on opposite corners to guard against attack. It had workshops and stores that produced all goods necessary for the New Helvetia settlement. Sutter employed or enslaved Native Americans of the Miwok and Maidu tribes, the Hawaiians he had brought, employed some Europeans at his compound, he envisioned creating an agricultural utopia, for a time the settlement was in fact quite large and prosperous. Prior to the Gold Rush, it was the destination for most immigrants entering California via the high passes of the Sierra Nevada, including the ill-fated Donner Party of 1846, for whose rescue Sutter contributed supplies; some Native Americans worked voluntarily for S
California gold coinage
California gold coinage is a broad category of privately-issued coin-like items that were used in place of official currency in the United States territory of California during the gold rush of 1849. Since the federal government reserves the right to issue legal tender coins, California gold coinage is a misnomer and references coin-like ingots with a stated tender value, tokens with a stated tender value, tokens without a stated tender value; these items are only classified as an ingot if the value of the metal was close to the tender value marked on the piece. In spite of the misnomer, it is common practice among numismatists to label coin-like ingots and denominated tokens as'coins' while labeling the non-denominated tokens as'tokens'; the small California Gold coins and tokens have been made in many locations other than California with a claim of being from California on the piece and these items are labeled as California Gold Coins or Tokens. Coin-like ingots were produced from 1849 until 1856 in denominations of $1, $5, $10, $20, $25, $50.
Many of these were made by well-known assayers. Some of these achieved circulation on the east coast of the USA. All are valued today. Tokens with a stated tender value were produced from 1852 until 1883 as well as spuriously in years; these were made in denominations of $1, $0.50, $0.25 in both round and octagonal shapes. In the early period, from 1852 through 1853, the coins were made for actual use due to a scarcity of silver coins; these coins were rejected as being too small to handle, but gained popularity for use as souvenirs that could be economically mailed to families. Although the earliest issues had about 80-90% of the correct weight for the denomination, the weights decreased over the years of issue. Only the rare "defiant eagle" issue has the full weight of gold. Tokens without a stated tender value have been produced since 1869; the Coinage Act of 1864 made the private creation of items intended to be passed as legal tender to be illegal. This law was first enforced in an obscure case in Boston in 1869 and enforced in a more public fashion at Ft. Leavenworth in 1871.
At that time several manufacturers stopped production of the denominated pieces and new manufacturers stepped with a mix of denominated and non-denominated issues. After an overzealous visit from the United States Secret Service in 1883, all of the remaining manufacturers switched to non-denominated issues. Since issues have been produced with gold-rush era dates on them, more or less continuously through the present. California Gold Coins
New Riders of the Purple Sage
New Riders of the Purple Sage is an American country rock band. The group emerged from the psychedelic rock scene in San Francisco, California, in 1969, its original lineup included several members of the Grateful Dead, their best known song is "Panama Red". The band is sometimes referred to as the New Riders, or as NRPS; the roots of the New Riders can be traced back to the early 1960s Peninsula folk/beatnik scene centered on Stanford University's now-defunct Perry Lane housing complex in Menlo Park, where future Grateful Dead guitarist Jerry Garcia played gigs with like-minded guitarist David Nelson. The young John Dawson played some concerts with Garcia and their compatriots while visiting relatives on summer vacation. Enamored of the sounds of Bakersfield-style country music, Dawson would turn his older friends on to the work of Merle Haggard and Buck Owens and provided a vital link between Timothy Leary's International Federation for Internal Freedom in Millbrook, New York and the Menlo Park bohemian coterie nurtured by Ken Kesey.
Inspired by American folk music and roll, blues, Garcia formed the Grateful Dead with blues singer Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, while Nelson joined the inclined New Delhi River Band shortly thereafter. Although they lacked the managerial acumen and cultural cachet of the Grateful Dead and elected to remain in East Palo Alto, California unlike the former group, who soon relocated to the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, the New Delhi River Band were considered to be the house band of The Barn in Scotts Valley, California by late 1966; the group continued to enjoy a cult following in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Counties through the Summer of Love until their dissolution in early 1968. After a period of inactivity, Nelson contributed to the Grateful Dead's Aoxomoxoa sessions and served as the caretaker of Big Brother and the Holding Company's rehearsal space while guitarist Peter Albin and drummer David Getz undertook a European tour with Country Joe & the Fish following the schismatic departure of Janis Joplin and Sam Andrew from the former band in December 1968.
During this period and Garcia played intermittently in an early iteration of High Country, a traditional bluegrass ensemble formed by the remnants of the Peninsula folk scene. It is believed that Nelson would have been lead guitarist in the reconstituted lineup of Big Brother that coalesced in 1969 and thus may have contributed to some of the recordings on Be a Brother during this transitional period. Dawson—who dropped out of Occidental College in December 1965 and remained in Los Angeles for several years thereafter, "hanging out with musicians and weirdos"—had returned to Los Altos Hills by early 1969, allowing him to contribute to the Aoxomoxoa sessions and enroll at Foothill College. After a mescaline experience at Pinnacles National Park with Torbert and Matthew Kelly, he began to compose songs on a regular basis; some were traditional country pastiches. "Henry", a traditional shuffle with contemporary lyrics about marijuana smuggling dates from this period. Dawson's vision was prescient, as 1969 marked the emergence of country rock via Bob Dylan, The Band, The Flying Burrito Brothers, the Dillard & Clark Band, the Clarence White-era Byrds.
Around this time, Garcia was inspired to take up the pedal steel guitar, an informal line-up including Dawson and Peninsula folk veteran Peter Grant began playing coffeehouse and hofbrau concerts together when the Grateful Dead were not touring. Their repertoire included country standards, traditional bluegrass, Dawson originals, a few Dylan covers. By the summer of 1969 it was decided that a full band would be formed and David Nelson was recruited to play lead guitar. In addition to Nelson and Garcia, the original line-up of the band that came to be known as the New Riders of the Purple Sage consisted of Alembic Studios engineer Bob Matthews on electric bass and Mickey Hart of the Grateful Dead. Lyricist Robert Hunter rehearsed with the band on bass in early 1970 before the permanent hiring of Torbert in April of that year; the most commercially successful configuration of the New Riders would come to encompass Dawson, Torbert, Spencer Dryden, Buddy Cage. After a few warmup gigs throughout the Bay Area in 1969, Dawson and Torbert began to tour in May 1970 as part of a tripartite bill advertised as "An Evening with the Grateful Dead".
An acoustic Grateful Dead set that included contributions from Dawson and Nelson would segue into New Riders and electric Dead sets, obviating the need to hire external opening acts. By the time the New Riders recorded their first album in late 1970, change was in the air. Due to an incipient opiate addiction that affected his performance, Hart was temporarily fired by the Grateful Dead in February 1971. Although he contributed to two tracks
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the U. S. state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below: The first, only, or most significant of its type in the state or within a large geographic region. California Historical Landmarks of number 770 and above are automatically listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event, of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument List of San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. Why Stop? A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company. P. 213. ISBN 9780884159230. OCLC 32168093. Official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP: California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county