Bucking is the process of cutting a felled and delimbed tree into logs. This can be a process because logs destined for plywood and pulp each have their own price and specifications for length, diameter. Significant value can be lost by sub-optimal bucking, cutting from the top down is overbucking and from the bottom up is underbucking. A felled and delimbed tree has to be cut into logs of standard sizes and this process is called bucking, and logger who specialises in this job is a buck sawyer. Bucking may be done in a variety of ways depending on the logging operation, trees that have been previously felled and moved to a landing with a log skidder are spread out for processing. While many of the limbs have broken off during transport, the limbs and stubs have to be trimmed. The bucker will anchor the end of an auto rewinding tape measure which is attached to his belt, the tape is anchored gently with a bent horseshoe nail in the bark so it can be jerked loose when the measurement is completed.
When a suitable place to buck the tree is located the cut is made, local market conditions will determine the particular lengths cut. It is common for log buyers to purchase orders for the length, grade. On the West Coast common cuts on a large Pine or Fir tree is three 32s and a 10, there are often different prices for different items. The bucker is the one who turns a tree into logs, significant value may be lost by sub-optimal bucking. The person bucking is generally called a bucksawyer or bucklogger, or just a bucker and runs as many saws as he can, the reason for this is the bucksawyer is typically paid per section of log he cuts. Generally you will find a bucklogger at the sawmills that arent fully mechanized. Each tree has to be picked out of the pile and cut so that a fall of more trees can be worked as the former fall has been cut. The pieces of bucked logs may be known by several names, bolts are the pieces of a log which has been bucked into specific lengths which are less than 8 feet, especially short lengths.
The etymology of bolt is related to being short and stout and related to knock and these pieces may be more specifically known as peeler, stave or pulpwood bolts. Round is often associated with lengths of un-split firewood, chain saw Felling Hewing Limbing Logging
A forest product is any material derived from a forestry for direct consumption or commercial use, such as lumber, paper, or forage for livestock. All other non-wood products derived from forest resources, comprising a variety of other forest products, are collectively described as non-timber forest products. Many forest management policies have been implemented that impact forest product economics, including forest access restrictions, harvesting fees, since 1947, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has published an annual yearbook of forest products. The FAO Yearbook of Forest Products is a compilation of data on basic forest products for all countries and territories of the world. It contains series of data on the volume of production. It includes tables showing direction of trade and average values of trade for certain products. Statistical information in the yearbook is based primarily on data provided to the FAO Forestry Department by the countries through questionnaires or official publications, in the absence of official data, FAO makes an estimate based on the best information available. FAO publishes an annual survey of pulp and paper production capacities around the world, the survey presents statistics on pulp and paper capacity and production by country and by grade.
The statistics are based on information submitted by correspondents worldwide, most of them pulp and paper associations, forests Products data in Canada since chall hatt pagal 1990 Halll hattt ghadr
In woodworking and carpentry, hand saws, known as panel saws, fish saws, are used to cut pieces of wood into different shapes. This is usually done in order to join the pieces together and they usually operate by having a series of sharp points of some substance that is harder than the wood being cut. The hand saw is a bit like a saw, but with one flat. Handsaws have been around for thousands of years, Egyptian hieroglyphics exist depicting ancient woodworkers sawing boards into pieces. Ancient bow saws have been found in Japan, the cut patterns on ancient boards may be observed sometimes to bear the unique cutting marks left by saw blades, particularly if the wood was not smoothed up by some method. As for preservation of handsaws, twenty-four saws from eighteenth-century England are known to survive, materials for saw blades have varied over the ages. There were probably bronze saws in the time before steel making technology became extensively known, sometimes cultures developed two main types of saw teeth, the cross cut saw teeth and the rip saw teeth.
These cut into the wood using different mechanisms, wood is composed of many long cells running length-ways. Rip saws, on the hand, are usually shaped so that they form a series of tiny chisel-like edges. The wood cells are contacted by the chisel and ripped apart from the bundle of other cells and it is common that people do not recognize the difference and use saws both ways. The cross-cut saw can cut in any direction but is slower than needs be when cutting with the grain. The development of saws was affected by several factors, the first was the importance of wood to a society, the development of steel and other saw-making technologies and the type of power available. These factors were, in turn, influenced by the environment, such as the types of available, the types of trees nearby. Finally, the types of jobs the saws were to perform was important in the development of the technology, saws can be considered pull cut or push cut. Ancient Egyptian saws have been said to be pull cut, modern European saws generally have push cut handsaws.
Japanese handsaws are usually pull-cut and are used today. In the 1930s, the Kulibert-Stanley Tool Company popularized an inexpensive saw, among Basques and Australians, traditional hand sawing has generated rural sports. The Basque variant is called trontzalaritza, types of saws Musical saws Saw set How to Sharpen a Saw Blade, article on how to sharpen a handsaw yourself
Lumber, or timber is wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber may refer to currently un-needed furniture, as in Lumber room, or an awkward gait, ultimately derived from the look of unfashionable, Lumber may be supplied either rough-sawn, or surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and it is available in many species, usually hardwoods, but it is readily available in softwoods, such as white pine and red pine, because of their low cost. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has other uses as well. It is classified more commonly as a softwood than as a hardwood, in Australia, New Zealand and Britain, the term timber describes sawn wood products, such as floor boards. In the United States and Canada, generally timber describes standing or felled trees, before they are milled into boards, Timber there describes sawn lumber not less than 5 inches in its smallest dimension.
The latter includes the often partly finished lumber used in timber-frame construction, remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of previously milled lumber. Specifically, it is cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not usually processed by a primary sawmill, resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing, structural lumber may be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock. Its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength, logs are converted into timber by being sawn, hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with grain and large knots. There are various types of sawing, Plain sawn —A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log, quarter sawn and rift sawn—These terms have been confused in history but generally mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber.
Boxed heart—The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure, heart center—the center core of a log. Free of heart center —A side-cut timber without any pith, free of knots —No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber that is cut to standardized width and depth, carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, and 4×4, the length of a board is usually specified separately from the width and depth
A logging truck or timber lorry is a large truck used to carry logs. Some have integrated flatbeds, some are discrete units. Often more than one trailer is attached, the most convenient trees to cut down were those near waterways for easy transportation. As the supply dwindled and loggers had to go further from water and these were superseded by steam-powered donkeys and locomotives. The final development was the logging truck, a truck was used for logging in Covington, Washington, in 1913. The coming of World War I and the demand for the Pacific Northwests Sitka spruce for airplanes established log trucking in Washington. The United States Army assigned thousands of men to the Spruce Production Division to build roads into western Washington to harvest the dispersed stands of the best trees. After the war ended, a plenitude of surplus military trucks made their adoption attractive to logging companies, the primitive trucks were improved in the 1920s and 1930s, with more powerful engines and better braking systems.
The old narrow, solid rubber—sometimes steel—treadless tires were replaced by wider pneumatic ones with treads, plank roads gave way to graded dirt ones. By the mid-1930s, trucks were hauling as much out of the Pacific Northwest as the railroads. World War II saw improved truck designs, and once again these were passed along to logging companies through the sale of military vehicles after the war was over. There are two types of modern logging trucks — those used on rough ground and trails in the forest where they are felled. Because the roads in forests are rough and often temporary, the suspension, low pressure and high pressure tires have been used. As many as nine axles may be used to provide low ground pressure, timber is commonly grown in hilly country unsuitable for farming and so the ability of a log truck to climb a gradient is significant. The steepness depends on the quality of the surface - mud and snow are harder to climb than gravel, for a manageable gradient, the speed will depend upon the power of the truck.
The legal weight limits vary by jurisdiction but, for example, in the southern states of the USA. To load the logs, the truck may be fitted with one or more winches or cranes, the logs are commonly unloaded by letting them roll off sideways. Manufacturers of log trucks include Peterbilt, Hayes Truck, Scania AB, and Volvo
Leidschendam is a town and former municipality in the province of South Holland of the Netherlands. Along with Voorburg and Stompwijk, it is part of the municipality Leidschendam-Voorburg, the towns name has been in use for centuries and refers to the lock in the Vliet, near the historic city of Leiden. The settlement on the Northern side of the lock was known as Veur and this recent date belies the long history of human habitation in this area, which predates the Roman occupation two thousand years ago. Important driver for the development of the area was the Vliet canal, ferrying people and goods through Holland in the Middle Ages, and even in Roman times. As elsewhere in Holland, windmills were constructed to power industry, such as a wheat grinding mill in 1594. Veur became an independent municipality in the time of the short-lived Batavian Republic, the Southern side of the Vliet was settled at a date due to presence of extensive swamps. These were drained around 1200 by the Dutch counts, enabling the settlements of Stompwijk, subsequently the peat industry flourished, and about twenty windmills were constructed for water management.
In 1811, Stompwijk and Veur were combined to form Leidschendam, a growing number of government and industrial activities and the associated housing demand transformed Veur from a rural into a suburban community. This led to a reorganization and the formation of Leidschendam. Both Leidschendam and Voorburg are now part of the agglomeration of the city of The Hague and are regarded as its suburbs. Stompwijk is still a village, located a few miles Northeast of Leidschendam. All three were combined into the municipality of Leidschendam-Voorburg in 2002 as an answer to a series of small annexations from surrounding municipalities made by The Hague, hans van der Sluijs has been mayor of Leidschendam-Voorburg since 2007. In 2002, the unemployment rate was 13. 1%, a large, semi-covered, shopping area, exists near the border with Voorburg. Leidsenhage contains a number of retailers, including large chains such as Albert Heijn, Vroom & Dreesmann. Drawing large numbers of people, the area is a point of road.
Leidschendam hosts the headquarters of Fugro, a company providing geotechnical. Leidschendam hosted the office of the countrys secret service, the AIVD. The building now hosts the UN Special Tribunal for Lebanon to try those suspected of assassinating former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri
Anatolia, in geography known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea to the Armenian Highlands, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. The Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Armenian, Laz and Greek. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea.
This traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Websters Geographical Dictionary, under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, and the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia. To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria, the first name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula was Ἀσία, presumably after the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia. As the name of Asia came to be extended to areas east of the Mediterranean. The name Anatolia derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more literally “sunrise”, the precise reference of this term has varied over time, perhaps originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western, the modern Turkish form of Anatolia is Anadolu, which again derives from the Greek name Aνατολή.
The Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin, in English the name of Turkey for ancient Anatolia first appeared c. It is derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, which was used by the Europeans to define the Seljuk controlled parts of Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert. Human habitation in Anatolia dates back to the Paleolithic, neolithic Anatolia has been proposed as the homeland of the Indo-European language family, although linguists tend to favour a origin in the steppes north of the Black Sea. However, it is clear that the Anatolian languages, the oldest branch of Indo-European, have spoken in Anatolia since at least the 19th century BC. The earliest historical records of Anatolia stem from the southeast of the region and are from the Mesopotamian-based Akkadian Empire during the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 24th century BC, scholars generally believe the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians. The region was famous for exporting raw materials, and areas of Hattian-, one of the numerous cuneiform records dated circa 20th century BC, found in Anatolia at the Assyrian colony of Kanesh, uses an advanced system of trading computations and credit lines.
They were speakers of an Indo-European language, the Hittite language, originating from Nesa, they conquered Hattusa in the 18th century BC, imposing themselves over Hattian- and Hurrian-speaking populations. According to the most widely accepted Kurgan theory on the Proto-Indo-European homeland, the Hittites adopted the cuneiform script, invented in Mesopotamia
Manual labour or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals. It is most literally work done with the hands, and, by figurative extension, for most of human prehistory and history, manual labour and its close cousin, animal labour, have been the primary ways that physical work has been accomplished. To be implemented, they require that sufficient technology exist and that its capital costs be justified by the amount of wages that they will obviate. Thus there is a partial but significant correlation between manual labour and unskilled or semiskilled workers, throughout human existence the latter has involved a spectrum of variants, from slavery, to caste or caste-like systems, to subtler forms of inequality. Economic competition often results in trying to buy labour at the lowest possible cost or to obviate it entirely. It has always been the case for humans that many workers begin their working lives lacking any special level of skill or experience and these conditions have assured the correlations strength and persistence.
The phrase hard labour has become a legal euphemism for penal labour. Throughout human existence, but most especially since the Age of Enlightenment, humans have not yet succeeded in instantiating any such utopia, but some social systems have been designed that go far enough toward the goal that hope yet remains for further improvement. Concepts such as the Three-fifths compromise and the Untermensch defined slaves as less than human, one interesting historical trend that is true of all of the systems above is that they began crumbling in the 20th century and have continued crumbling since. Todays forms of them are mostly greatly weakened compared to past generations versions, at the lowest extreme, such distortion produces subtler forms of racism and de facto inequality of opportunity. The more plausible the deniability, the easier the rationalisation and perpetuation, at such areas of the spectrum, it becomes ever harder to justify efforts that use de jure methods to fight de facto imbalances, because valid instances can be highlighted by all sides. A willingness to recognise that manual labour can involve skill and intelligence can take a variety of forms, in its healthier forms, it recognises the dignity and intelligence of blue-collar workers, and it recognises their civil equality with white-collar workers.
Yet it simultaneously leaves room in society for meritocracy, allowing both upward and downward social mobility. In its more pathological forms, it may admit that there can be a science of manual labour. Some people would have only the first, only the second, players usually should not be their own coaches. Whether Taylor was capable of predicting and preventing that problem is unclear, an example of the second pathology are 20th-century variants of communism, such as Leninism and Stalinism. Mechanisation and automation strive to reduce the amount of labour required for production. Automation helps to bring mechanisation to more complicated tasks that require dexterity, decision making based on visual input
Hierapolis was an ancient city located on hot springs in classical Phrygia in southwestern Anatolia. Its ruins are adjacent to modern Pamukkale in Turkey and currently comprise an archaeological museum designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the hot springs have been used as a spa since the 2nd century BC, with many patrons retiring or dying there. The large necropolis is filled with sarcophagi, most famously that of Marcus Aurelius Ammianos, the great baths were constructed with huge stone blocks without the use of cement and consisted of various closed or open sections linked together. There are deep niches in the section, including the bath, library. Hierapolis is located in the Büyük Menderes valley adjacent to the modern Turkish cities of Pamukkale and it is located in Turkeys inner Aegean region, which has a temperate climate for most of the year. There are only a few facts known about the origin of the city. No traces of the presence of Hittites or Persians have been found, the Phrygians built a temple, probably in the first half of the 3rd century BC.
This temple, originally used by the citizens of the town of Laodicea. Hierapolis was founded as a thermal spa early in the 2nd century BC within the sphere of the Seleucid Empire, Antiochus the Great sent 2,000 Jewish families to Lydia and Phrygia from Babylon and Mesopotamia, joined by more from Judea. The Jewish congregation grew in Hierapolis and has estimated as high as 50,000 in 62 BC. The city was expanded with the booty from the 190 BC Battle of Magnesia where Antiochus the Great was defeated by the Roman ally Eumenes II, following the Treaty of Apamea ending the Syrian War, Eumenes annexed much of Asia Minor, including Hierapolis. Hierapolis became a centre where doctors used the thermal springs as a treatment for their patients. The city began minting coins in the 2nd century BC. These coins give the name Hieropolis and this name eventually changed into Hierapolis, according to the Byzantine geographer Stephanus on account of its large number of temples. In 133 BC, when Attalus III died, he bequeathed his kingdom to Rome, Hierapolis thus became part of the Roman province of Asia.
In AD17, during the rule of the emperor Tiberius, through the influence of the Christian apostle Paul, a church was founded here while he was at Ephesus. The Christian apostle Philip spent the last years of his life here, the towns Martyrium was alleged to have been built upon the spot where Philip was crucified in AD80. His daughters were said to have acted as prophetesses in the region
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and most of the important technological innovations were British, aided by these legal and cultural foundations, an entrepreneurial spirit and consumer revolution drove industrialisation in Britain, which would be emulated in countries around the world. A change in marrying patterns to getting married made able to accumulate more human capital during their youth. The Industrial Revolution marks a turning point in history, almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth, mechanised textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles and coal emerging in Belgium, and in France. Since industrialisation has spread throughout much of the world, the precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes.
Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants. The term Industrial Revolution applied to change was becoming more common by the late 1830s. Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of an industrial revolution, although Engels wrote in the 1840s, his book was not translated into English until the late 1800s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, some historians, such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts, have argued that the economic and social changes occurred gradually and the term revolution is a misnomer. This is still a subject of debate among some historians, the commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations, beginning in the second half of the 18th century. By the 1830s the following gains had been made in important technologies, Textiles – mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water greatly increased the output of a worker, the power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over 40.
The cotton gin increased productivity of removing seed from cotton by a factor of 50, large gains in productivity occurred in spinning and weaving of wool and linen, but they were not as great as in cotton. Steam power – the efficiency of steam engines increased so that they used between one-fifth and one-tenth as much fuel, the adaptation of stationary steam engines to rotary motion made them suitable for industrial uses. The high pressure engine had a power to weight ratio. Steam power underwent an expansion after 1800. Iron making – the substitution of coke for charcoal greatly lowered the fuel cost for pig iron, using coke allowed larger blast furnaces, resulting in economies of scale. The cast iron blowing cylinder was first used in 1760 and it was improved by making it double acting, which allowed higher furnace temperatures
Wood drying reduces the moisture content of wood before its use. When the drying is done in a kiln, the product is known as kiln-dried timber or lumber, equilibration causes unequal shrinkage in the wood, and can cause damage to the wood if equilibration occurs too rapidly. The equilibration must be controlled to prevent damage to the wood, Wood burning, when wood is burned, it is usually best to dry it first. Damage from shrinkage is not a problem here, and the drying may proceed more rapidly than in the case of drying for woodworking purposes, Moisture affects the burning process, with unburnt hydrocarbons going up the chimney. With condensers, the efficiency can be increased, for the normal stove. For some purposes, wood is not dried at all, and is used green, wood must be in equilibrium with the air outside, as for construction wood, or the air indoors, as for wooden furniture. Wood is air-dried or dried in a purpose built oven, usually the wood is sawed before drying, but sometimes the log is dried whole.
Case hardening describes lumber or timber that has been dried too rapidly, Wood initially dries from the shell, shrinking the shell and putting the core under compression. When this shell is at a low moisture content it will set, the core of the wood is still at a higher moisture content. This core will begin to dry and shrink. However, any shrinkage is resisted by the already set shell and this leads to reversed stresses, compression stresses on the shell and tension stresses in the core. This results in unrelieved stress called case hardening, case-hardened wood may warp considerably and dangerously when the stress is released by sawing. Wood is divided, according to its origin, into two kinds, from coniferous trees, and hardwoods, from broad-leaved trees. Softwoods are lighter and generally simple in structure, whereas hardwoods are harder, however, in Australia, softwood generally describes rainforest trees, and hardwood describes Sclerophyll species. Softwoods such as pine are typically lighter and easier to process than hardwoods such as fruit tree wood.
The density of softwoods ranges from 350 kg/m3 to 700 kg/m3, once dried, both consist of approximately 12% of moisture. Because of hardwoods denser and more structure, its permeability is much less than that of softwood. The timber of living trees and fresh logs contains an amount of water which often constitutes over 50% of the woods weight
Felling is the process of downing individual trees, an element of the task of logging. The person cutting the trees is a feller, in hand felling, an axe, saw, or chainsaw is used to fell a tree, followed up by limbing, bucking in traditional applications. In the modern commercial logging industry, felling is typically followed by limbing and skidding, a feller-buncher is a motorized vehicle with an attachment which rapidly cuts and gathers several trees in the process of felling them. In cut-to-length logging a harvester performs the tasks of a feller-buncher additionally doing the delimbing and bucking of the trees as well