The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Butte Sink Wildlife Management Area
Butte Sink Wildlife Management Area is located in Colusa and Sutter Counties. It is wetlands managed as part of the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex and is not open to the public. Within the 18,000-acre Wildlife Management Area, conservation easements have been purchased on 10,311 acres, requiring landowners to maintain wetlands on their property in perpetuity; these lands are owned and closed to public access. In addition, a 733-acre area was established in 1980 to protect wetlands for wintering waterfowl; this area is known as the "Butte Sink Unit", is closed to public access. Major refuge objectives are to provide feeding and resting habitat for wintering waterfowl; the Butte Sink supports wintering populations of over 300,000 ducks and 100,000 geese. As 95 percent of wetlands of the Central Valley have been lost over the last 100 years, waterfowl have become dependent on the remaining wetlands within the Sacramento Valley. Butte Sink Wildlife Area website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright reddish yellow, soft and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a group 11 element, it is solid under standard conditions. Gold occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, in alluvial deposits, it occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver and naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less it occurs in minerals as gold compounds with tellurium. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to refine gold and to confirm the presence of gold in metallic objects, giving rise to the term acid test. Gold dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys. A rare element, gold is a precious metal, used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. In the past, a gold standard was implemented as a monetary policy, but gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s, the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1971. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2015; the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, 10% in industry. Gold's high malleability, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine; as of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes per year.
Gold is the most malleable of all metals. It can be drawn into a monoatomic wire, stretched about twice before it breaks; such nanowires distort via formation and migration of dislocations and crystal twins without noticeable hardening. A single gram of gold can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become semi-transparent; the transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold reflects yellow and red. Such semi-transparent sheets strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared shields in visors of heat-resistant suits, in sun-visors for spacesuits. Gold is a good conductor of electricity. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3 identical to that of tungsten at 19.25 g/cm3. By comparison, the density of lead is 11.34 g/cm3, that of the densest element, osmium, is 22.588±0.015 g/cm3. Whereas most metals are gray or silvery white, gold is reddish-yellow; this color is determined by the frequency of plasma oscillations among the metal's valence electrons, in the ultraviolet range for most metals but in the visible range for gold due to relativistic effects affecting the orbitals around gold atoms.
Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic caesium. Common colored gold alloys include the distinctive eighteen-karat rose gold created by the addition of copper. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys. Fourteen-karat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, both may be used to produce police and other badges. White gold alloys can be made with nickel. Fourteen- and eighteen-karat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron, purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium. Less addition of manganese, aluminium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications. Colloidal gold, used by electron-microscopists, is red. Gold has only one stable isotope, 197Au, its only occurring isotope, so gold is both a mononuclidic and monoisotopic element. Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205.
The most stable of these is 195Au with a half-life of 186.1 days. The least stable is 171Au. Most of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, β+ decay; the exceptions are 195Au, which decays by electron capture, 196Au, which decays most by electron capture with a minor β− decay path. All of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β− decay. At least 32 nuclear isomers have been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from 170 to 200. Within that range, only 178Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, 188Au do not have isomers. Gold's most stable isomer is 198m2Au with a half-life of 2.27 days. Gold's least stable isomer is 177m2Au with a half-life of only 7 ns. 184m1Au has three decay paths: β+ decay, isomeric
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Placer County, California
Placer County the County of Placer, is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 348,432; the county seat is Auburn. Placer County is included in the Greater Sacramento metropolitan area, it is in what is known as the Gold Country. The county stretches 65 miles from Sacramento's suburbs at Roseville to the Nevada border and the shore of Lake Tahoe; the discovery of gold in 1848 brought tens of thousands of miners from around the world during the California Gold Rush. In addition, many more thousands came to provide services to the miners. Only three years after the discovery of gold, the fast-growing county was formed from portions of Sutter and Yuba counties on April 25, 1851, with Auburn as the county seat. Placer County took its name from the Spanish word for gravel deposits containing gold. Miners washed away the gravel, leaving the heavier gold, in a process known as "placer mining". Gold mining was a major industry through the 1880s, but the new residents turned to farming the fertile foothill soil, harvesting timber and working for the Southern Pacific Railroad.
Auburn was settled when Claude Chana discovered gold in Auburn Ravine in May 1848 and became a shipping and supply center for the surrounding gold camps. The cornerstone of Placer's beautiful and historic courthouse, visible from Interstate 80 through Auburn, was laid on July 4, 1894; the building itself was renovated during the late 1980s and continues to serve the public today with courtrooms, a historic sheriff's office and the Placer County Museum. Roseville, once a small agricultural center, became a major railroad center and grew to the county's most populous city after Southern Pacific Railroad moved its railroad switching yards there in 1908. Loomis and Newcastle began as mining towns, but soon became centers of a booming fruit-growing industry, supporting many local packing houses. Penryn was founded by a Welsh miner, Griffith Griffith, who turned from mining to establish a large granite quarry. Rocklin became home to a number of granite quarries. Lincoln and Sheridan continue to support farming.
Lincoln is the home of one of the county's oldest businesses, the Gladding, McBean terra cotta clay manufacturing plant established in 1875. The 1960 Winter Olympics were hosted in Squaw Valley, located in Placer County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,502 square miles, of which 1,407 square miles is land and 95 square miles is water. Watercourses in Placer County include the American Bunch Creek. Lake Tahoe has 40.96% of its surface area in Placer County, more than in any of the four other counties in which it lies. Nevada County - north Washoe County, Nevada - northeast Carson City, Nevada - east Douglas County, Nevada - southeast Amador County - east El Dorado County - south Sacramento County - southwest Sutter County - west Yuba County - northwest Eldorado National Forest in part Tahoe National Forest in part The 2010 United States Census reported that Placer County had a population of 348,432; the racial makeup of Placer County was 290,977 White, 4,751 African American, 3,011 Native American, 20,435 Asian, 778 Pacific Islander, 13,375 from other races, 15,105 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 44,710 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 248,399 people, 93,382 households, 67,701 families residing in the county; the population density was 177 people per square mile. There were 107,302 housing units at an average density of 76 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.6% White, 0.8% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American, 3.0% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 3.4% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. 9.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 15.5% were of German, 12.3% English, 10.6% Irish, 7.1% Italian and 7.0% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 89.7% spoke only English at home. There were 93,382 households out of which 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. The median income for a household in the county was $57,535, the median income for a family was $65,858. Males had a median income of $50,410 versus $33,763 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,963. About 3.9% of families and 5.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over. Unemployment in the county is just under 7%, lower than the state's average. County government is by a five-person four-year term elected board of supervisors with a board-appointed county manager and his/her department administrators; the Placer County Sheriff's Office provides court protection, jail administration, coroner services for all of Placer County.
It provides patrol and other police services for the uni
Live Oak, Sutter County, California
Live Oak is an incorporated city in Sutter County, United States. It is part of the Yuba City Metropolitan Statistical Area within the Greater Sacramento CSA, includes a hamlet named Stafford; the population was 8,392 at the 2010 census. Live Oak is located at 39°16′28″N 121°39′43″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.5 square miles, all of it land. Live Oak is an agricultural community located in the fertile Sacramento Valley. Rich farmlands, the Feather River, the Sutter Buttes surround Live Oak. Live Oak's climate consists of hot, dry summers and prolonging wet, cool winters, a Mediterranean climate. Summers are hot and dry but a delta breeze occurs at times; this doesn't last long. Heat waves occur during lasting for 3 -- 5 days on average. Temperatures range from 105 to 110 degrees. Dry months range from mid to late May to early to mid September; the hottest month is July with temperatures averaging around 96 to 100 degrees with no rain but it isn't rare for some rain to arrive from the Southwest Monsoon.
Winters are prolonging wet and foggy. Wet months range from mid October to mid April. January is the wettest and coolest month with rainfall averaging between 4 and 6 inches but during El Niño season, rainfall averages 10 to 12 inches which causes major flooding. During the La Niña season, rainfall averages 4 inches or below, causing drought problems during summer. In the winter, temperatures average 45 to 50 degrees. Foggy and cloudy weather can last up to 2 to 4 weeks known as Tule fog. Snow occurs rarely; the record amount of snow was 3.8 inches in 2002. The 2010 United States Census reported that Live Oak had a population of 8,392; the population density was 4,491.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Live Oak was 4,491 White, 138 African American, 130 Native American, 978 Asian, 17 Pacific Islander, 2,173 from other races, 465 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4,093 persons; the Census reported that 7,972 people lived in households, 22 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 398 were institutionalized.
There were 2,331 households, out of which 1,161 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,402 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 296 had a female householder with no husband present, 147 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 121 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 13 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 400 households were made up of individuals and 186 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.42. There were 1,845 families; the population was spread out with 2,571 people under the age of 18, 816 people aged 18 to 24, 2,356 people aged 25 to 44, 1,753 people aged 45 to 64, 896 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.1 males. There were 2,498 housing units at an average density of 1,336.9 per square mile, of which 1,535 were owner-occupied, 796 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.6%.
5,306 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,666 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,229 people, 1,729 households, 1,393 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,277.8 people per square mile. There were 1,818 housing units at an average density of 956.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 49.67% White, 1.57% African American, 1.89% Native American, 9.63% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 32.62% from other races, 4.54% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 48.61% of the population. There were 1,729 households out of which 48.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.7% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.4% were non-families. 17.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.43 and the average family size was 3.85. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.0% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,754, the median income for a family was $31,075. Males had a median income of $22,901 versus $20,852 for females; the per capita income for the city was $9,571. About 26.0% of families and 30.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.4% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over. Live Oak Child Care Center ages 3–5 Live Oak Headstart Preschool Live Oak Luther Elementary School kindergarten-4 Live Oak Middle School grades 5-8 Live Oak High School grades 9-12 Encinal Elementary School grades K-8 Nuestro Elementary School grades K-8 In the California State Legislature, Live Oak is in the 4th Senate District, represented by Republican Jim Nielsen, in the 3rd Assembly District, represented by Republican James Gallagher. Federally, Live Oak is in Cal
John Joseph Montgomery
John Joseph Montgomery was an American inventor, physicist and professor at Santa Clara University in Santa Clara, California, best known for his invention of controlled heavier-than-air flying machines. In the 1880s Montgomery, a native of Yuba City, California made manned flight experiments in a series of gliders in the United States in Otay Mesa near San Diego, California. Although not publicized in the 1880s, these early flights were first described by Montgomery as part of a lecture delivered at the International Conference on Aerial Navigation at Chicago, 1893; these independent advances came after gliding flights by European pioneers such as George Cayley's coachman in England and Jean-Marie Le Bris in France. Although Montgomery never claimed firsts, his gliding experiments of the 1880s are considered by some historians and organizations to have been the first controlled flights of a heavier-than-air flying machine in America or in the Western Hemisphere, depending on source. Montgomery devised different control methods for his gliders, including weight shifting for roll and an elevator for pitch.
Subsequent designs used hinged, pilot-operated trailing edge flaps on the wings for roll control, full wing warping systems for roll and for both pitch and roll. In the early 1880s Montgomery began studying the anatomy of a variety of large soaring birds to determine their basic characteristics, like wing area, total weight and curved surfaces, he made detailed observations of birds in flight large soaring birds such as eagles, hawks and pelicans which soared on thermals near San Diego Bay. He attempted to achieve manned flight with ornithopters. In 1883, he built and experimented with a series of three ornithopters but found that human strength was insufficient to generate the necessary lift, he abandoned flapping-wing flight, preferring instead to emulate soaring birds with fixed-wing craft. He reasoned that it would be possible to solve the physics of gliding and soaring flight and add a motor. Montgomery first tested his concepts for the design and control of gliders with small-scale, free flight models.
His first glider in 1883-84 had a cambered airfoil based on the curve of the seagull wing. Pitch was controlled by an operable elevator and roll was controlled by pilot weight shift. Yaw was uncontrolled; this aircraft design served as the basis for three gliders over the period 1883-1886. In the spring of 1884, Montgomery made flights of up to 600 feet from the rim of Otay Mesa. During experiments with this craft, Montgomery found that the glider would not respond well to side gusts, he returned to ornithology and noted how turkey vultures had significant dihedral and twisted their wings as a form of lateral balance. Emulating these control methods, in 1884-1885 he incorporated hinged flaps into the trailing edge of a second glider; these were held under spring tension for automatic balance in gusts, but were connected through cables to the pilot's seat so they could be operated mechanically by the pilot for roll control. In essence these flaps were early ailerons; the second glider had a flat plate airfoil, considerable dihedral for stability and an operable elevator for pitch control.
Montgomery devised an inclined rail system so the piloted glider could roll from the top of a hill and attain enough speed for flight. In the winter of 1885-86, Montgomery constructed a third glider, it had a cambered airfoil modeled after the wings of a vulture, though the leading and trailing edges were turned upward slightly. The wing, was "gull" shaped. Controls allowed the pilot to vary the angle of incidence of the left and right wing either in unison or independently. Dihedral and an operable elevator were included. Montgomery concluded that a better understanding of aerodynamics was needed for the design of a proper airfoil. In an 1893 speech, Montgomery said that flights were made in these three craft during the period 1884-1886, with the occasional assistance of at least three friends and two younger brothers. Of the flight trials with the second craft Octave Chanute's account in 1893 noted "several trials were made, but no effective lift could be obtained." Of the third craft Chanute wrote "this last apparatus proved an entire failure, as no effective lifting effect could be obtained from the wind sufficient to carry the 180 lbs. it was designed to bear."Montgomery's own account made clear that he considered the technology of the second and third gliders of 1885 and 1886 as effective, but the airfoil designs were a disappointment in terms of lift-generation as they produced much shorter gliding flights in comparison to the first craft of 1884.
He realized he was getting farther from understanding the mechanism of lift and began controlled laboratory experiments to investigate airfoils. In 1886, he considered filing a patent caveat for lateral balancing, but did not. About 1885 Montgomery began a long series of experiments with a whirling arm device, a smoke chamber, a water current table and large wooden surfaces angled into the wind in order to understand the physics of flow around curved surfaces, he used dried bird wings placed in wind currents to observe the effect. His work in the 1880s confirmed that mechanical systems used by a pilot could preserve lateral balance and some degree of equilibrium in gliding flight, his experiments confirmed the value of a cambered surface for obtaining lift. In 1893 Montgomery visited the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, intending to attend a lecture by electrical expert Nikola Tesla. Upon arrival, he heard of the International Conference on Aerial Navigation to take place the first