An overpass is a bridge, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway. An overpass and underpass together form a grade separation. Stack interchanges are made up of many overpasses; the world's first railroad flyover was constructed in 1843 by the London and Croydon Railway at Norwood Junction railway station to carry its atmospheric railway vehicles over the Brighton Main Line. The first flyover in India was opened on 14 April 1965 at Kemps Corner in Mumbai; the 48-foot-long bridge was constructed in about seven months by Shirish Patel at a cost of ₹17.5 lakh. In North American usage, a flyover is a high-level overpass, built above main overpass lanes, or a bridge built over what had been an at-grade intersection. Traffic engineers refer to the latter as a grade separation. A flyover may be an extra ramp added to an existing interchange, either replacing an existing cloverleaf loop with a higher, faster ramp that bears left, but may be built as a right or left exit. A cloverleaf or partial cloverleaf contains some 270 degree loops, which can slow traffic and can be difficult to construct with multiple lanes.
Where all such turns are replaced with flyovers only 90 degree turns are needed, there may be four or more distinct levels of traffic. Depending upon design, traffic may flow in all directions near open road speeds. For more examples see Freeway interchange. A pedestrian overpass allows pedestrians safe crossing over busy roads without impacting traffic. Railway overpasses are used to replace level crossings as a safer alternative. Using overpasses allows for unobstructed rail traffic to flow without conflicting with vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Rapid transit systems use complete grade separation of their rights of way to avoid traffic interference with frequent and reliable service. Railroads use balloon loops and flying junctions instead of flat junctions, as a way to reverse direction and to avoid trains conflicting with those on other tracks. Footbridge Skyway Stack interchange Viaduct Wildlife crossing Overpass at Encyclopædia Britannica
Mercedes-Benz in Formula One
Mercedes-Benz, through its subsidiary Mercedes-Benz Grand Prix Limited, is involved in Formula One as a constructor under the name of Mercedes-AMG Petronas Motorsport. The team is based in Brackley, United Kingdom, using a German licence. Mercedes-Benz competed in the pre-war European Championship winning three titles and debuted in Formula One in 1954, running a team for two years; the team is known by their nickname, the "Silver Arrows". After winning their first race at the 1954 French Grand Prix, driver Juan Manuel Fangio won another three Grands Prix to win the 1954 Drivers' Championship and repeated this success in 1955. Despite winning two Drivers' Championships, Mercedes-Benz withdrew from motor racing in response to the 1955 Le Mans disaster and did not return to Formula One until rejoining as an engine supplier in association with Ilmor, a British independent high-performance autosport engineering company acquired by Mercedes, in 1994. In addition to its factory team, Mercedes supplies engines to Racing Point and Williams.
The manufacturer has collected more than 160 wins as engine supplier and is ranked fourth in Formula One history. Six Constructors' and ten Drivers' Championships have been won with Mercedes-Benz engines. Mercedes has become one of the most successful teams in recent Formula One history, having achieved consecutive Drivers' and Constructors' Championships from 2014 to 2018. In 2014, Mercedes managed 11 one-two finishes beating McLaren's 1988 record of 10; the record was extended the following year with 12 one-two finishes. Mercedes collected 16 victories in 2014 and 2015 apiece breaking McLaren and Ferrari's record of 15. In 2016, they extended this record with 19 wins. Mercedes-Benz competed in Grand Prix motor racing in the 1930s, when the Silver Arrows dominated the races alongside rivals Auto Union. Both teams were funded by the Nazi regime, winning all European Grand Prix Championships after 1934, of which Rudolf Caracciola won three for Mercedes-Benz. In 1954, Mercedes-Benz returned to what was now known as Formula One under the leadership of Alfred Neubauer, using the technologically advanced Mercedes-Benz W196.
The car was run in both the conventional open-wheeled configuration and a streamlined form, which featured covered wheels and wider bodywork. Juan Manuel Fangio, the 1951 champion, transferred mid-season from Maserati to Mercedes-Benz for their debut at the French Grand Prix on 4 July 1954; the team had immediate success and recorded a 1–2 victory with Fangio and Karl Kling, as well as the fastest lap. Fangio went on winning the championship; the success continued into the 1955 season, with Mercedes-Benz developing the W196 throughout the year. Mercedes-Benz again dominated the season, with Fangio taking four races, his new teammate Stirling Moss winning the British Grand Prix. Fangio and Moss finished second in that year's championship; the 1955 disaster at the 24 Hours of Le Mans on 11 June, which killed Mercedes-Benz sportscar driver Pierre Levegh and more than 80 spectators led to the cancellations of the French, German and Swiss Grands Prix. At the end of the season, the team withdrew including Formula One.
The Mercedes name returned to Formula One for the 2010 season after their owners, Daimler AG, bought a minority stake in the Brawn GP team with Aabar Investments purchasing 30% on 16 November 2009, with Ross Brawn continuing his duties as team principal and the team retaining its base and workforce in Brackley, close to the Mercedes-Benz Formula One engine plant in Brixworth. Following the purchase of the team, as well as a sponsorship deal with Petronas, the team was rebranded as Mercedes GP Petronas Formula One Team; the team has a complex history. BAR, who had formed a partnership with Honda became Honda Racing F1 Team in 2006 when BAT withdrew from the sport, it again changed hands in 2008, when Honda withdrew, was purchased by the team's management, naming it Brawn GP after team principal Ross Brawn. Brawn used engines from Mercedes-Benz High Performance Engines, despite running on a low budget, Jenson Button won six of the first seven races and the 2009 Drivers' Championship, while Brawn won the Constructors' Championship.
It was the first time in the sport's sixty-year history that a team won both titles in its maiden season. The team hired German drivers Nico Rosberg, seven-time world champion Michael Schumacher, who returned to Formula One after a three-year absence, Nick Heidfeld as the test and reserve driver. Of Brawn's 2009 drivers, Jenson Button signed for McLaren, whilst Rubens Barrichello moved to Rosberg's former seat with Williams team for 2010. With the acquisition of Brawn, the team ended its involvement with McLaren, parent company Daimler AG sold back the 40% shareholding in the McLaren Group, while continuing to supply engines to the team; the team's performance during 2010 was not so competitive as under Brawn, with the team behind the leading three teams of Ferrari, McLaren, Red Bull. Their best results came from Rosberg finishing on the podium three times, scoring third places at Sepang and Silverstone. Rosberg finished in seventh place, but Schumacher had a disappointing return, being beaten by his teammate and finishing the season without a single race win, pole position, or fastest lap for the first time since his début season in 1991.
He was involved in a controversy in Hungary aft
2009 Formula One World Championship
The 2009 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 63rd season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 60th Formula One World Championship, contested over 17 events commencing with the Australian Grand Prix on 29 March and ending with the inaugural Abu Dhabi Grand Prix on 1 November. Jenson Button and Brawn GP secured the Drivers' Championship and Constructors' Championship titles in the Brazilian Grand Prix, the penultimate race of the season, it was both Button and Brawn's first Championship success, Brawn becoming the first team to win the Constructors' Championship in their debut season. Button was the tenth British driver to win the championship, following Lewis Hamilton's success in 2008 it was the first time the Championship had been won by English drivers in consecutive seasons, the first time since Graham Hill and Jackie Stewart that consecutive championships have been won by British drivers. Notable was the success of Red Bull Racing, as well as the poor performance of McLaren and Ferrari compared to the previous season.
Ten teams participated in the Championship after several rule changes were implemented by the FIA to cut costs to try to minimise the impact of the global financial crisis. There were further changes to try to improve the on-track spectacle with the return of slick tyres, changes to aerodynamics and the introduction of Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems presenting some of the biggest changes in Formula One regulations for several decades; the Brawn team, formed as a result of a management buyout of the Honda team, won six of the first seven races, their ability to make the most of the new regulations being a deciding factor in the Championship. The Red Bull, McLaren and Ferrari teams caught up in an unpredictable second half of the season, with the season being the first time since 2005 that all participating teams had scored World Championship points. Sebastian Vettel and Button's teammate Rubens Barrichello were his main challengers over the season, winning six races between them to finish in second and third respectively.
The following teams and drivers competed in the 2009 FIA Formula One World Championship: Teams competed with tyres supplied by Bridgestone. The Chinese Grand Prix was brought forward from its October date to April to become the third round of the championship. Abu Dhabi made its first appearance on the F1 calendar under the name Abu Dhabi Grand Prix with a race being held at the Yas Marina Circuit on Yas Island in Abu Dhabi on 1 November – the final round of the 2009 season; that meant the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix was the new final round of the 2009 season, replacing the Brazilian Grand Prix as the traditional final round since 2004. The Japanese Grand Prix changed circuits from the Fuji Speedway in Oyama to the Suzuka Circuit in Suzuka; the Canadian Grand Prix and the French Grand Prix were removed from the calendar. The FIA released preliminary technical regulations for the 2009 season on 22 December 2006, were revised several times to accommodate the findings of the Overtaking Working Group and the increasing need for cost-cutting in the sport in the wake of the economic crisis.
Slick tyres returned for the first time. Bridgestone continued to be the sole supplier of tyres, drivers still had to use both compounds of tyre during a race. Soft tyres were differentiated by a green marking around the sides of the tyres, rather than a white marking in a groove as used in 2008. Further, wet tyres were renamed "intermediate" and extreme-weather tyres were renamed "wet"; the aerodynamic regulations were radically altered for the 2009 season. The front wings were made wider, while rear wings were changed to be higher and narrower; as well as the changes in the dimensions of the wings, bodywork became much more regulated with many of the additional components seen in previous seasons removed, making 2009 cars noticeably different in appearance than in previous years. The diffuser at the rear of the car upwards. Many other minor chassis components were standardised; the aim of the new aerodynamic regulations, as well as the reintroduction of slick tyres, was to decrease reliance on aerodynamic downforce and increase mechanical grip with the aim of making wheel-to-wheel racing easier.
For the first time, cars were allowed to use driver adjustable bodywork, in the form of adjustable flaps in the front wing. The flaps could be adjusted by up to six degrees, limited to only two adjustments per lap. Adjustable front wings were designed to improve downforce when following another car, another change designed to improve overtaking. Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems, a regenerative braking device designed to recover some of the vehicle's kinetic energy dissipated as heat during braking, were introduced for the 2009 season; the recovered energy can be stored electrically, in a battery or supercapacitor, or mechanically, in a flywheel, for use as a source of additional accelerative power at the driver's discretion by way of a boost button on the steering wheel. The regulations limit the additional power to around 82 hp of 400kJ for six seconds a lap; the systems were not made compulsory, because of concerns about both limited performance gains and safety implications only four teams opted to use the system during the season.
While the FIA were planning on introducing a budget cap to limit the amount of spending by Formula One teams in 2008, the amount was not agreed upon and the budget cap idea was dropped. Instead, costs were brought down by a complete ban on in-season testing, a forced reduction in wind tunnel usage, the sharing of more data dur
Alain Menu is a Swiss racing driver, working for Team BMR as a driving coach. He was one of the most successful touring car drivers of the 1990s, winning the prestigious British Touring Car Championship twice, he drove for Chevrolet in the World Touring Car Championship between 2005 and 2012 with a best finish of second in 2012. The son of a farmer, Menu was born in Geneva. Like many drivers who build a career in touring cars, Menu began his career in single-seater racing, reaching the International Formula 3000 championship in 1991 after two years in the British Formula 3 Championship and one year in the British Formula 3000 Championship, in which he finished runner-up in 1990. However, for the next year he returned to Great Britain to race a BMW 3 Series in the British Touring Car Championship, showing promise before being injured mid-season in a quadbike accident at Knockhill; as a result of this accident, he was unable to jog for exercise again – he instead took up cycling as his main exercise.
In 1993, Menu began a six-year association with Renault in the BTCC, who had just entered the series with the GB Motorsport run Renault 19. He finished second in a wet round two at Donington Park behind team mate Tim Harvey. At the next round at Oulton Park, he crashed out of fifth place late on in the race. Menu collided with Nissan Primera of Tiff Needell on the final lap of round eight at Silverstone, dropping Menu for seventh to eighth and forcing Needell into the pits; the Renault team missed the double header at Knockhill and returned to the grid for round ten at Oulton Park. The car had been revised and Menu was sixth after the first few corners having started eighth; the first year of their partnership was not successful, with the 19 little better than a midfield runner in the hands of Menu and reigning champion Tim Harvey. However, Menu did manage to win one race at a rain-soaked Donington Park late in the season. For 1994, the 19 was replaced by the Renault Laguna, which proved to be a much better package all-round.
Alfa Romeo had dominated the first four races and Menu did not finish on the podium until Silverstone. At Oulton Park, Alfa Romeo were told to run their cars without their disputed aerodynamic aids and they left the circuit in protest; this set fastest lap. He collided with Julian Bailey at the first corner of the British Grand Prix support race at Silverstone, triggering a pileup that red flagged the race, he took pole position for round fifteen at Oulton Park by nearly a second over BMW driver Joachim Winkelhock but made a poor start and finished third. Menu scored four further podiums in the last four races to finish second in the championship behind Gabriele Tarquini; the running of the Renault team was taken over by WilliamsF1 for the 1995 season and Menu was joined by former Toyota driver Will Hoy. Despite little testing, Menu qualified third for the season opener at Donington Park and went on to finish second in the race, he took pole position for the first race at Thruxton and held on to take a narrow victory over Cleland.
Menu was running third in round seven at Silverstone when he was forced to retire with mechanical issues but he was able to take part in the second race of the day and he finished fourth. Third place in round nine at Oulton Park was the start of five successive mid-season podiums that kept him second in the championship behind Rickard Rydell and Cleland. Menu was third in the championship after round 21 at Snetterton but three consecutive wins finished the year and elevated him back up to second in the standings. Menu was partnered with Hoy once again in 1996; the main rival for the Renault team was Audi Sport UK and their 4-wheel drive car, driven by Frank Biela. The season opener at Donington Park saw Menu finish third behind team mate Biela. Menu had to start the second race of the day from the back of the grid having failed the ride height check after race one, he recovered to seventh before having to retire with mechanical problems. Menu took pole position for the next event at Brands Hatch, but was demoted to second at the start by Biela and those positions stuck until the finish line.
The next event at Thruxton saw Menu spin at Church corner in race one and ditch his car into the nearby woodland, he was unhurt but the damage left him on the sidelines for race two. Menu worked his way up into the lead of race one at Snetterton but immediately slowed down with car problems and retired, he took the first win of the year for Renault in the next meeting at Brands Hatch, winning both races. After this, Menu won twice more on his way to second in the championship, 92 points shy of champion Frank Biela, he was joined by Renault Spider champion Jason Plato. The car was much more competitive for that year and Menu won the first four races of the season. Rounds five and six at Thruxton took place in wet conditions and the Renaults front row lock-out translated into two third-placed finishes for Menu, he was nudged into a spin in round eight at Brands Hatch by Anthony Reid's Nissan, but was able to rejoin the race and finish fourth while Reid finished fourteenth. Menu started on pole for a wet round eleven at Donington Park, although the two Audis got a better start and led into the first corner.
Menu was able to cleanly retake second despite a misted up windscreen. Contact with James Thompson at Knockhill meant Menu retired for the only time that season. Just before round 19 at Thruxton, Menu p
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition. The terminology can be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, includes off-road racing such as motocross. Four- wheeled motorsport competition is globally governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile; the Union Internationale Motonautique governs powerboat racing while the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale governs air sports. In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, starting city to city racing. In 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom. Following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular.
After World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became established. Motorsports became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, their appropriate organisations. Motor racing is the subset of motorsport activities which involve competitors racing against each other; the Red Bull RB8, the 2012 Formula One World Championship winning car Formula racing is a set of classes of motor vehicles, with their wheels outside, not contained by, any bodywork of their vehicle. These have been globally classified as specific'Formula' series - the most common being Formula One, many others include the likes of Formula 3, Formula Ford, Formula Renault and Formula Palmer Audi. However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series. More new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the'Formula' moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former ` Formula' series include Formula Two.
Formula One is a class of single-seat and open-wheel grand prix closed course racing, governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, organized by the owned company Formula One Group. The formula regulations contain a strict set of rules which govern vehicle power and size. Formula E is a class of open-wheel auto racing; the series was conceived in 2012, the inaugural championship started in Beijing on 13 September 2014. The series is sanctioned by the FIA and races a spec chassis/battery combination with manufacturers allowed to develop their own electric power-trains; the series has gained significant traction in recent years. A series originated on June 1909 in Portland, Oregon at its first race. Shortly after, Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909 and held races that ranged from 50-200 miles, its premier race is the Indianapolis 500 which began on May 11th, 1911 and a tradition was born. Today, Indycar operates a full schedule with over 40 different drivers; the current schedule includes 14 tracks over the course of 17 races per season.
Josef Newgarden was crowned current champion of the Indycar Series at Sonoma Raceway on September 17th, 2017 in Sonoma, California. Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, similar to a North American'stock car'. Sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, specialised racing types; the premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June. Sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies. Stock car racing is a set of vehicles that race over a speedway track, organized by NASCAR. While once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. Bootleggers throughout the Carolinas are credited for the origins of NASCAR due to the resistance during the prohibition. Many of the vehicles were modified to increase top speed and handling, to provide the bootleggers with an advantage toward the vehicles local law enforcement would use in the area.
An important part to the modifications of stock cars, was to increase the performance of the vehicle while maintaining the same exterior look giving it the name Stock car racing. Many legends in NASCAR originated as bootleggers in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina like Junior Johnson. Organized oval racing began on Daytona Beach in Florida as a hobby but gained interest from all over the country; as oval racing became larger and larger, a group gathered in hopes to form a sanctioning body for the sport. NASCAR was organized in 1947. Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, including part of A1A; the highlight of the stock car calendar is the season-opening Daytona 500 nicknamed'The Great American Race', held at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. NASCAR has now held over 2,500 sanctioned events over the course of 70 seasons. Richard Petty is known as the king of NASCAR with over 200 recorded wins in the series and has competed in 1,184 races in his career.
Touring car racing is a set of vehicles, modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses. Off-Road Racing is a group
Suzuka is a city located in Mie Prefecture, Japan. As of August 2015, the city had an estimated population of 196,853 and a population density of 1,010 persons per km²; the total area was 194.46 square kilometres. Suzuka is located in northeastern Mie Prefecture, in northern Kii Peninsula, bordered by Ise Bay to the east. Parts of the city are within the borders of the Ise-no-Umi Prefectural Natural Park and the Suzuka Quasi-National Park. Mie Prefecture Yokkaichi Tsu, Mie KameyamaShiga Prefecture Kōka Suzuka, as a place name, is mentioned in the Nara period chronicle Nihon Shoki; the ancient Tōkaidō passed through Suzuka, the Nara-period provincial capital was located within its borders. During the Sengoku period, the area was controlled by Oda Nobutaka, the third son of Oda Nobunaga, who ruled from Kanbe Castle. During the Edo period, much of the area was under the control of the 15,000 koku Kambe Domain, ruled by the Honda clan from 1732 until the Meiji restoration in 1871. During this period, two post stations were located within the modern city limits: Ishiyakushi-juku and Shōno-juku, which prospered due to pilgrimage traffic to the Ise Grand Shrines.
After the start of the Meiji period, the area was organized as part of Suzuka District in 1889. The modern city of Suzuka was founded on December 1, 1942. Suzuka boasts a significant industrial market, having major factories for Sharp and Honda in its bounds; these companies outsource part of their labor to South American nationals to secure a contract-based workforce. Although the Japanese government is encouraging mandatory English-language education across the nation, in Suzuka many courses are offered by private cram schools and by publicly funded institutions supporting Portuguese and Spanish. In a controversial move, the city's governing body, from April 2004, requires all garbage information and local signage to be in Japanese and Portuguese. Suzuka International University Suzuka University of Medical Science Suzuka Junior College Suzuka National College of Technology Suzuka has 30 public elementary schools, ten public and one private middle school and five public and one private high school.
International schools: Escola Alegria de Saber - Brazilian school Formerly Suzuka had another Brazilian school: Escola Sol Nascente. Central Japan Railway Company – Kansai Main Line Kawano - Kasado Ise Railway – Ise Line Suzuka – Tamagaki – Suzuka Circuit Inō – Tokuda – Nakaseko Kintetsu Railway – Nagoya Line Nagonoura - Mida - Ise-Wakamatsu - Chiyozaki - Shiroko - Tsuzumigaura - Isoyama Kintetsu Railway – Suzuka Line Ise-Wakamatsu - Yanagi - Suzukashi - Mikkaichi - Hiratachō Higashi-Meihan Expressway Shin-Meishin Expressway Japan National Route 1 Japan National Route 23 Japan National Route 25 Japan National Route 306 Suzuka Circuit was the home of the Japanese Grand Prix from 1987 to 2006, again from 2009, it is the only figure-eight circuit in the championship, is popular with the drivers, in spite of its numerous difficult bends. Located next to the circuit is the Honda Safety Riding/Driving School, where thousands of car and motorcycle drivers have been trained, including many police officers and instructors throughout the world.
Honda Heat rugby club F. C. Suzuka Rampole football club – Le Mans, France, since May 27, 1990 – Bellefontaine, Ohio, USA, since August 7, 1991 Saitō Ryokuu – Meiji period author Nobutsuna Sasaki – author, poet Keisuke Tanimoto – professional baseball player Takafumi Ogura – professional soccer player Eisuke Nakanishi – professional soccer player Miwa Asao – beach volleyball player Official website