click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Svante Arrhenius

Svante August Arrhenius was a Swedish scientist. A physicist, but referred to as a chemist, Arrhenius was one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry, he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1903. In 1905, he became director of the Nobel Institute. Arrhenius was the first to use basic principles of physical chemistry to estimate the extent to which increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are responsible for the Earth's increasing surface temperature. In the 1960s, David Keeling demonstrated that human-caused carbon dioxide emissions are large enough to cause global warming. Arrhenius' contributions to science are memorialized by the Arrhenius equation, Arrhenius acid, lunar crater Arrhenius, Martian crater Arrhenius, the mountain of Arrheniusfjellet, the Arrhenius Labs at Stockholm University. Arrhenius was born on 19 February 1859 at Vik, near Uppsala, Kingdom of Sweden, United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, the son of Svante Gustav and Carolina Thunberg Arrhenius, his father had been a land surveyor for Uppsala University.

At the age of three, Arrhenius taught himself to read without the encouragement of his parents, by watching his father's addition of numbers in his account books, became an arithmetical prodigy. In life, Arrhenius was profoundly passionate about mathematical concepts, data analysis and discovering their relationships and laws. At age eight, he entered the local cathedral school, starting in the fifth grade, distinguishing himself in physics and mathematics, graduating as the youngest and most able student in 1876. At the University of Uppsala, he was dissatisfied with the chief instructor of physics and the only faculty member who could have supervised him in chemistry, Per Teodor Cleve, so he left to study at the Physical Institute of the Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm under the physicist Erik Edlund in 1881, his work focused on the conductivities of electrolytes. In 1884, based on this work, he submitted a 150-page dissertation on electrolytic conductivity to Uppsala for the doctorate.

It did not impress the professors, among whom was Cleve, he received a fourth-class degree, but upon his defense it was reclassified as third-class. Extensions of this work would earn him the 1903 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Arrhenius put forth 56 theses in his 1884 dissertation, most of which would still be accepted today unchanged or with minor modifications; the most important idea in the dissertation was his explanation of the fact that solid crystalline salts disassociate into paired charged particles when dissolved, for which he would win the 1903 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Arrhenius's explanation was that in forming a solution, the salt disassociates into charged particles, to which Michael Faraday had given the name ions many years earlier. Faraday's belief had been that ions were produced in the process of electrolysis, that is, an external direct current source of electricity was necessary to form ions. Arrhenius proposed that in the absence of an electric current, aqueous solutions of salts contained ions.

He thus proposed. The dissertation did not impress the professors at Uppsala, but Arrhenius sent it to a number of scientists in Europe who were developing the new science of physical chemistry, such as Rudolf Clausius, Wilhelm Ostwald, J. H. van't Hoff. They were far more impressed, Ostwald came to Uppsala to persuade Arrhenius to join his research team. Arrhenius declined, however, as he preferred to stay in Sweden-Norway for a while and had received an appointment at Uppsala. In an extension of his ionic theory Arrhenius proposed definitions for acids and bases, in 1884, he believed that acids were substances that produce hydrogen ions in solution and that bases were substances that produce hydroxide ions in solution. In 1885 Arrhenius next received a travel grant from the Swedish Academy of Sciences, which enabled him to study with Ostwald in Riga, with Friedrich Kohlrausch in Würzburg, with Ludwig Boltzmann in Graz and with van't Hoff in Amsterdam. In 1889 Arrhenius explained the fact that most reactions require added heat energy to proceed by formulating the concept of activation energy, an energy barrier that must be overcome before two molecules will react.

The Arrhenius equation gives the quantitative basis of the relationship between the activation energy and the rate at which a reaction proceeds. In 1891 he became a lecturer at the Stockholm University College, being promoted to professor of physics in 1895, rector in 1896. About 1900, Arrhenius became involved in setting up the Nobel Prizes, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1901. For the rest of his life, he would be a member of the Nobel Committee on Physics and a de facto member of the Nobel Committee on Chemistry, he used his positions to attempt to deny them to his enemies. In 1901 Arrhenius was elected against strong opposition. In 1903 he became the first Swede to be awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry. In 1905, upon the founding of the Nobel Institute for Physical Research at Stockholm, he was appointed rector of the institute, the position where he remained until retirement in 1927. In 1911 he won the first Willard Gibbs Award, he was elected an Honorary Member of the Netherlan

Andreas Mikroutsikos

Andreas Mikroutsikos is a Greek composer, singer and TV presenter. His top hits were Hameno Nisi, To Koutsouraki and Oso Girizei i Gi. In 1991 Greece participated in the Eurovision Song Contest with his song Anixi sung by Sophia Vossou, finishing in 13th place. An album with the same title was released the same year. During the 1990s, Mikroutsikos presented. By moving from Mega Channel to ANT1 he was the first to introduce reality shows to the Greek public, his shows have been criticised despite good TV ratings. Mikroutsikos presented the first and second series of the famous reality show Big Brother on the ANT1 channel, he presented ANT1's music academy Fame Story. Mikroutsikos moved to Alpha TV; the show was banned by the Greek authorities after an episode in which a woman accused her husband of forcing her to agree to bestiality sexual acts with their dog. Mikroutsikos defended himself by saying that all the things presented through his popular show were pieces of the puzzle of our life and by closing our eyes we just ignore the problem.

Mikroutsikos was nicknamed "realitaras". Mikroutsikos has been married three times, with Maria Dimitriadi, trainer Foteini Georganta and TV presenter Dimitra Roubessi, he had a long-term relationship with singer Sophia Vossou. Mikroutsikos has a son, from his first marriage with Maria Dimitriadi, he is the brother of Thanos Mikroutsikos. Mikroutsikos, the son of a mathematician, has a degree in mathematics himself; as a youngster, he was a member of the Revolutionary Communist Movement of Greece. Andreas Mikroutsikos on IMDb

Great man theory

The great man theory is a 19th-century idea according to which history can be explained by the impact of great men, or heroes. The theory is attributed to the Scottish philosopher and essayist Thomas Carlyle who gave a series of lectures on heroism in 1840 published as On Heroes, Hero-Worship, The Heroic in History, in which he states: Universal History, the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here, they were the leaders of these great ones. Carlyle stated that "The history of the world is but the biography of great men", reflecting his belief that heroes shape history through both their personal attributes and divine inspiration. In his book On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History, Carlyle saw history as having turned on the decisions, works and characters of "heroes", giving detailed analysis of six types: The hero as divinity, poet, man of letters, king. Carlyle argued that the study of great men was "profitable" to one's own heroic side.

As Sidney Hook notes, a common misinterpretation of the theory is that "all factors in history, save great men, were inconsequential.", whereas Carlyle is instead claiming that great men are the decisive factor, owing to their unique genius. Hook goes on to emphasise this uniqueness to illustrate the point: "Genius is not the result of compounding talent. How many battalions are the equivalent of a Napoleon? How many minor poets will give us a Shakespeare? How many run of the mine scientists will do the work of an Einstein?"American scholar Frederick Adams Woods supported the great man theory in his work The Influence of Monarchs: Steps in a New Science of History. Woods investigated 386 rulers in Western Europe from the 12th century until the French revolution in the late 18th century and their influence on the course of historical events; this theory is contrasted with "history from below", which emphasizes the life of the masses in addition to the leader. An overwhelming wave of smaller events causes certain developments to occur.

The Great Man approach to history was most fashionable with professional historians in the 19th century. For example, all information on the post-Roman "Migrations Period" of European History is compiled under the biography of Attila the Hun; this heroic view of history was strongly endorsed by some philosophers, such as Léon Bloy, Kierkegaard and Max Weber, but it fell out of favor after World War II. In Fear and Trembling, Kierkegaard writes that "to be able to fall down in such a way that the same second it looks as if one were standing and walking, to transform the leap of life into a walk to express the sublime and the pedestrian—that only these knights of faith can do—this is the one and only prodigy."Hegel, proceeding from providentialist theory, argued that "what is real is reasonable" and World-Historical individuals are World-Spirit's agents. Hegel wrote: "Such are great historical men—whose own particular aims involve those large issues which are the will of the World-Spirit." Thus, according to Hegel, a great man does not create historical reality himself but only uncovers the inevitable future.

In Untimely Meditations, Nietzsche writes that "the goal of humanity lies in its highest specimens". Although Nietzsche's body of work shows some overlap with Carlyle's line of thought Nietzsche expressly rejected Carlyle's hero cult in Ecce Homo; this theory rests on two main assumptions, as pointed out by the Villanova University: Every great leader is born possessing certain traits that will enable them to rise and lead, on instinct The need for them has to be great for these traits to arise, allowing them to leadThis theory, history, claims these great leaders as heroes that were able to rise against the odds to defeat rivals, while inspiring followers along the way. Theorists say that these leaders were born with a specific set of traits and attributes that make them ideal candidates for leadership and roles of authority and power; this theory relies heavily on born rather than made, nature rather than nurture and cultivates the idea that those in power deserve to lead and shouldn't be questioned because they have the unique traits that make them suited for the position.

One of the most forceful critics of Carlyle's formulation of the great man theory was Herbert Spencer, who believed that attributing historical events to the decisions of individuals was an unscientific position. He believed that the men Carlyle called "great men" were products of their social environment: You must admit that the genesis of a great man depends on the long series of complex influences which has produced the race in which he appears, the social state into which that race has s

Steel Gauntlet

Steel Gauntlet is the third novel of the military science fiction StarFist Saga, written by David Sherman and Dan Cragg. In Steel Gauntlet, St. Cyr, a maniacal sadist who has reinvented the doctrine of armored warfare has taken control of the planet Diamunde, 34th FIST is deployed as part of a larger force in a full-scale war to remove him from power; the Marines are to make an opposed landing, establish a "planethead" and hold for relief by the army. These Marines are going to have to fight tanks, something nobody has trained to do in several centuries, and beside the tactical and strategic problems presented by the armor, the overall commander of the Confederation force is a political admiral with a talent for making bad choices. The 34th FIST will have its hands full on this mission, heavy casualties are certain

Juan Chavez House

The Juan Chavez House is a historic two-story adobe house in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It was built in 1914-1917 by Juan Chavez, a native of San Acacia, New Mexico who lived here with his wife Candelabria and their sons. Chavez worked for a liquor wholesaler. During prohibition, which lasted from 1920 to 1933, he stored bootlegged alcohol in the upstairs bedroom. In 1948, the house was purchased by Louis Gross Sr. who sold his own wine, made in Bernalillo, New Mexico. The house was inherited by his son, it has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since February 9, 1984. The house was remodelled as a hair salon by Frank Vallejos in 1989

F. A. Mitchell-Hedges

Frederick Albert Mitchell-Hedges was an English adventurer and writer. Mitchell-Hedges was known for his connection to the Mitchell-Hedges crystal skull, claimed to have been found with his adopted daughter Anna Mitchell-Hedges in Lubaantun, British Honduras in 1924. Archival evidence shows that the elder Mitchell-Hedges bought the skull at a Sotheby's auction in 1943, other of his finds are in question. Born in London in 1882, Mitchell-Hedges attended school until he was 16. During his younger years, he worked for John Hedges, in his stockbroking company. While Mike expressed interest in exploring at a young age, John was against the idea of his son travelling, making their relationship a difficult one. After a trip to Canada, he married Lillian Clarke in 1906; the two lived apart from each other and whilst they had no children of their own they adopted Canadian orphan Anne Marie Le Guillon, today known as Anna Mitchell-Hedges. Mitchell-Hedges continued to travel well into his latter years until he died in 1959.

Shortly following his 16th birthday, Mitchell-Hedges took his first trip with Brooke Mee on an expedition to Norway. The trip lasted three weeks and upon returning to London Mitchell-Hedges had high hopes of becoming an explorer. After marrying Lillian, Mitchell-Hedges took a trip to Canada where he met and adopted Anne Marie Le Guillon, he continued to travel through Central America. He found himself in Mexico where he was captured by Pancho Villa and worked as a spy in New York and back to Central America. Mitchell-Hedges had a growing interest in the lost city of Atlantis which continued to influence his curiosity for travel. While on his many excursions, Mitchell-Hedges made claims of having "discovered" Indian tribes and "lost cities", documented years, sometimes centuries, before. In addition, Mitchell-Hedges made claims of finding "the cradle of civilisation" in the Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua, stated that the Bay Islands of Honduras were remnants of the lost civilisation of Atlantis. For a time in the 1930s the adventurist had a weekly radio show out of New York City on Sunday evenings.

Talking over a background of "jungle drums", Mitchell-Hedges would tell dramatic tales of his trips including narrow escapes from death at the hands of "savages" or from jungle animals ranging from a jaguar to a vicious attacking iguana. Among other findings, Mitchell-Hedges' claim to fame was his "discovery" of a "crystal skull", he claimed to have found it with his daughter Anna at the Maya ruin of Lubaantun while on an expedition to British Honduras in the 1920s. However, he made no record of the skull until the late 1940s, after a crystal skull was auctioned off by Sydney Burney at Sotheby's in October 1943. Moreover in December 1943, F. A. Mitchell-Hedges disclosed in a letter to his brother that he had acquired the skull in an auction from Burney, paying £400. Controversies continued when identical measurements were found between Sotheby's skull and Mitchell-Hedges' skull, leaving the authenticity of this artifact questionable at best. Mitchell-Hedges' crystal skull was retained in the possession of his adopted daughter until her death on 11 April 2007.

Prior to her death, the skull was only shown to the public periodically, making it hard for the skull to be accessed and tested for authenticity. Since Anna's death the skull has been examined and despite many previous claims, the skull has been dated as post-Columbus era. Based on microscopic evidence, the skull's tool markings are a result of modern equipment and not of tools found in ancient Maya sites. Mitchell-Hedges is said to have inspired the character Indiana Jones. However, neither George Lucas nor Steven Spielberg—co-creators of the successful concept and franchise—have indicated that any specific individual inspired their character, other than the generic stock heroes popularised in the matinée series and pulp magazines of the 1930s and 1940s. Books and other titles written by Mitchell-Hedges include: Battles With Giant Fish Danger, My Ally Land of Wonder and FearConcerning Land of Wonder and Fear, prominent British archaeologist J. Eric S. Thompson commented that "to me the wonder was how he could write such nonsense and the fear how much taller the next yarn would be".

Mitchell-Hedges self-submitted entry in Who's Who, 1928 at the Wayback Machine Annotated timeline of Mitchell-Hedges' life by Raymond John Howgego