Herbert Beerbohm Tree
Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree was an English actor and theatre manager. Tree began performing in the 1870s. By 1887, he was managing the Haymarket Theatre, winning praise for adventurous programming and lavish productions, starring in many of its productions. In 1899, he helped fund the rebuilding, became manager, of His Majesty's Theatre. Again, he promoted a mix of Shakespeare and classic plays with new works and adaptations of popular novels, giving them spectacular productions in this large house, playing leading roles, his wife, actress Helen Maud Holt played opposite him and assisted him with management of the theatres. Although Tree was regarded as a versatile and skilled actor in character roles, by his years, his technique was seen as mannered and old fashioned, he founded the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in 1904 and was knighted, for his contributions to theatre, in 1909. His famous family includes his siblings, explorer Julius Beerbohm, author Constance Beerbohm and half-brother caricaturist Max Beerbohm.
His daughters were Viola, an actress and Iris, a poet. A grandson was the actor Oliver Reed. Born in Kensington, London as Herbert Draper Beerbohm, Tree was the second son and second child of Julius Ewald Edward Beerbohm and his wife Constantia Beerbohm; the senior Beerbohm was of Lithuanian origin. Draper was an Englishwoman, they had four children. Tree's younger brother was the author and explorer Julius Beerbohm, his sister was author Constance Beerbohm. A younger half-brother was the parodist and caricaturist Max Beerbohm, born from their father's second marriage. Max jokingly claimed that Herbert added the "Tree" to his name because it was easier for audiences than shouting "Beerbohm! Beerbohm!" at curtain calls. The latter part of his surname, "bohm", is north German dialect for "tree". Tree's early education included Mrs Adams's Preparatory School at Frant, Dr Stone's school in King's Square and Westbourne collegiate school in Westbourne Grove, London. After these, he attended Schnepfenthal College in Thuringia, Germany.
Upon his return to England, he began performing with amateur troupes using the name Herbert Beerbohm Tree, while working in his father's business. In 1878 Tree played Grimaldi in Dion Boucicault's The Life of an Actress at the Globe Theatre. For the next six years, he performed on tour in the British provinces, playing character roles, he made his London debut late in 1878 at the Olympic Theatre under the management of Henry Neville. His first real success was as the elderly Marquis de Pontsablé in Madame Favart, in which he toured towards the end of 1879. Another London engagement was as Prince Maleotti in a revival of Forget-me-Not at the Prince of Wales's Theatre in 1880, his first London success came in 1884 as the Rev. Robert Spalding in Charles Hawtrey's adaptation of The Private Secretary. Tree embellished the comic elements of the role, his next role was Paolo Marcari in Called Back by Hugh Conway. The contrast between this dashing Italian spy and his timid parson in Hawtrey's play, showed his versatility as a character actor.
Other appearances over the next two years included roles in revivals of A. W. Pinero's The Magistrate and W. S. Gilbert's Engaged. In 1886, he played Iago in Othello and Sir Peter Teazle in The School for Scandal with F. R. Benson's company at Bournemouth; the same year, in London, he made a success at the Haymarket Theatre, in the character role of Baron Harzfeld in Jim the Penman by Charles Young. In 1887, at age thirty-four, Tree took over the management of the Comedy Theatre in the West End of London, his first production was a successful run of the Russian revolutionary play The Red Lamp by W. Outram Tristram, in which Tree took the role of Demetrius. In the year, he became the manager of the prestigious Haymarket Theatre. Since the departure of the Bancrofts in 1885, that theatre's reputation had suffered. Tree restored it during his tenure, he appeared on stage in some thirty plays during the following decade. While popular farces and melodramas like Trilby anchored the repertoire, Tree encouraged the new drama, staging Maeterlinck's The Intruder, Ibsen's An Enemy of the People and Wilde's A Woman of No Importance, among others.
He supported new playwrights by producing special "Monday night" performances of their new plays. Tree mounted critically acclaimed productions of Hamlet, Henry IV, Part 1 and The Merry Wives of Windsor, establishing himself as a Shakespearean leading man; the Times thought his Hamlet a "notable success", but not everyone agreed: W. S. Gilbert said of it, "I never saw anything so funny in my life, yet it was not in the least vulgar." His Haymarket seasons were broken by visits to the United States in January 1895 and November 1896, occasional visits to the provinces. With the profits he had accumulated at the Haymarket, Tree helped finance the rebuilding of Her Majesty's Theatre in grand Louis XV style, he managed it. He lived in the theatre for two decades following its completion in 1897 until his death in 1917. For his personal use, he had a banqueting hall and living room installed in the massive, square French-style dome; the theatre historian W. J. MacQueen-Pope, wrote of the theatre, Simply to go to His Majesty's was a thrill.
As soon as you entered it, you sensed the atmosphere... In Tree's time it was graced by f
Svengali (1954 film)
Svengali is a 1954 British drama film directed by Noel Langley and starring Hildegard Knef, Donald Wolfit and Terence Morgan. A svengali hypnotises an artist's model into becoming a great opera singer, but she struggles to escape from his powers, it was based on the novel Trilby by George Du Maurier. Donald Wolfit was a last-minute replacement for actor Robert Newton, who left three weeks into filming and can still be seen in some long shots. Amongst the end credits is the acknowledgement: "The producer expresses his grateful appreciation for the magnificent singing voice of Madame Elizabeth Schwarzkopf." Hildegard Knef as Trilby O'Ferrall Donald Wolfit as Svengali Terence Morgan as Billy Bagot Derek Bond as The Laird Paul Rogers as Taffy David Kossoff as Gecko Hubert Gregg as Durian Noel Purcell as Patrick O'Ferrall Alfie Bass as Carrell Harry Secombe... Barizel Peter Illing... Police Inspector Joan Haythorne... Mrs. Bagot Hugh Cross... Dubose David Oxley... Dodor Richard Pearson... Lambert Michael Craig...
Zouzou Arnold Bell... Tout Martin Boddey... Doctor Cyril Smith... 1st Stage Manager Marne Maitland... 2nd Stage Manager Elisabeth Schwarzkopf... Trilby O'Ferrall Under the heading, "Sixth Filming of Novel Fails to Hypnotize", The New York Times critic described the film as "a stylized curio that seems out of place in the atomic age...as old-fashioned as side whiskers and bustles". DVD Talk, comparing it to the 1931 John Barrymore version posited that "the 1954 British film fleshes out the characters of Trilby and Billy and adds a lot of color and subtlety, but the results suggest that a more flamboyant approach might have worked better than the lush but tame version that resulted; the Eastmancolor production aims for an evocative atmosphere akin to John Huston's gorgeous Moulin Rouge, photographed in Technicolor by Oswald Morris. Svengali was made on a fraction of that film's budget, though does look handsome for what it is." Svengali on IMDb
Hypnosis is a human condition involving focused attention, reduced peripheral awareness, an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion. The term may refer to an art, skill, or act of inducing hypnosis. There are competing related phenomena. Altered state theories see hypnosis as an altered state of mind or trance, marked by a level of awareness different from the ordinary state of consciousness. In contrast, nonstate theories see hypnosis as, variously, a type of placebo effect, a redefinition of an interaction with a therapist or form of imaginative role enactment. During hypnosis, a person is said to have heightened concentration. Hypnotised subjects are said to show an increased response to suggestions. Hypnosis begins with a hypnotic induction involving a series of preliminary instructions and suggestion; the use of hypnotism for therapeutic purposes is referred to as "hypnotherapy", while its use as a form of entertainment for an audience is known as "stage hypnosis". Stage hypnosis is performed by mentalists practicing the art form of mentalism.
The use of hypnosis as a form of therapy to retrieve and integrate early trauma is controversial. Research indicates that hypnotizing an individual may aid the formation of false-memories; the term "hypnosis" comes from the ancient Greek word ύπνος hypnos, "sleep", the suffix -ωσις -osis, or from ὑπνόω hypnoō, "put to sleep" and the suffix -is. The words "hypnosis" and "hypnotism" both derive from the term "neuro-hypnotism", all of which were coined by Étienne Félix d'Henin de Cuvillers in 1820; these words were popularized in English by the Scottish surgeon James Braid around 1841. Braid based his practice on that developed by Franz Mesmer and his followers, but differed in his theory as to how the procedure worked. A person in a state of hypnosis has focused attention, has increased suggestibility; the hypnotized individual appears to heed only the communications of the hypnotist and responds in an uncritical, automatic fashion while ignoring all aspects of the environment other than those pointed out by the hypnotist.
In a hypnotic state an individual tends to see, feel and otherwise perceive in accordance with the hypnotist's suggestions though these suggestions may be in apparent contradiction to the actual stimuli present in the environment. The effects of hypnosis are not limited to sensory change, it could be said. For example, in 1994, Irving Kirsch characterised hypnosis as a "nondeceptive placebo", i.e. a method that makes use of suggestion and employs methods to amplify its effects. In Trance on Trial, a 1989 text directed at the legal profession, legal scholar Alan W. Scheflin and psychologist Jerrold Lee Shapiro observed that the "deeper" the hypnotism, the more a particular characteristic is to appear, the greater extent to which it is manifested. Scheflin and Shapiro identified 20 separate characteristics that hypnotized subjects might display: "dissociation"; the earliest definition of hypnosis was given by Braid, who coined the term "hypnotism" as an abbreviation for "neuro-hypnotism", or nervous sleep, which he contrasted with normal sleep, defined as: "a peculiar condition of the nervous system, induced by a fixed and abstracted attention of the mental and visual eye, on one object, not of an exciting nature."Braid elaborated upon this brief definition in a work, Hypnotic Therapeutics: The real origin and essence of the hypnotic condition, is the induction of a habit of abstraction or mental concentration, in which, as in reverie or spontaneous abstraction, the powers of the mind are so much engrossed with a single idea or train of thought, as, for the nonce, to render the individual unconscious of, or indifferently conscious to, all other ideas, impressions, or trains of thought.
The hypnotic sleep, therefore, is the antithesis or opposite mental and physical condition to that which precedes and accompanies common sleep Therefore, Braid defined hypnotism as a state of mental concentration that leads to a form of progressive relaxation, termed "nervous sleep". In his The Physiology of Fascination, Braid conceded that his original terminology was misleading, argued that the term "hypnotism" or "nervous sleep" should be reserved for the minority of subjects who exhibit amnesia, substituting the term "monoideism", meaning concentration upon a single idea, as a description for the more alert state experienced by the others. A new definition of hypnosis, derived from academic psychology, was provided in 2005, when the Society for Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association, published the following formal definition: Hypnosis involves an introduction to the procedure during which the subject is told that suggestions for imaginative experiences will be presented.
The hypnotic induction is an extended initial suggestion for using one's imagination, may contain further
Derren Brown is an English mentalist and author. Since his television debut with Derren Brown: Mind Control in 2000, Brown has produced several other shows for the stage and television in both series and specials, his 2006 stage show Something Wicked This Way Comes and his 2012 show Svengali won him two Laurence Olivier Awards for Best Entertainment. He has written books for magicians as well as the general public. Brown does not claim to possess any supernatural powers and his acts are designed to expose the methods of those who do assert such claims, such as faith healers and mediums. In his performances, he says that his effects are achieved through "magic, psychology and showmanship". Derren Brown was born in London, on 27 February 1971, the son of Chris and Bob Brown, he has a brother nine years his junior. He was educated at Whitgift School in Croydon, where his father was a swimming coach, studied Law and German at the University of Bristol. While there, he attended a hypnotist show by Martin S Taylor, which inspired him to turn to illusion and hypnosis as a career.
As an undergraduate, he started working as a conjuror, performing the traditional skills of close-up magic in bars and restaurants. In 1992, he started performing stage shows at the University of Bristol under the stage name Darren V. Brown. Brown cites magician and comedian Jerry Sadowitz, whom he met at the International Magic shop in Clerkenwell, London, as being instrumental in his rise to stardom. Sadowitz put him in touch with H&R publishers and Objective Productions, a production company founded by television magician Andrew O'Connor; this gave him his breakthrough show, Mind Control, his work went on to become their first award-winning product. After several further shows with Objective, Brown set up his own company Vaudeville Productions with former Objective executives Michael Vine, Andrew O’Connor, Paul Sandler, in order to produce his own shows as well as other projects with other performers, its first show was Brown's TV special, Pushed to the Edge. Brown made a brief cameo in Crooked House.
Brown appeared as himself in the Sherlock episode "The Empty Hearse", as part of a theory regarding how the title character faked his own death. Brown appeared in a skit at the beginning of the 8 Out of 10 No Deal special. An interview with Brown was featured in Richard Dawkins' two-part documentary series The Enemies of Reason. Brown explained various psychological techniques used by purported psychics and spiritual mediums to manipulate their audiences; the most notable was cold reading, a technique about which Brown talked extensively in his book Tricks of the Mind. Some video footage was used from Brown's TV special Messiah; as part of Channel 4's 3D season, Brown presented Derren Brown's 3D Magic Spectacular. The show was not a new special from Brown, rather he was the presenter for a number of other magicians and clips that were shown. However, he did include one extract in which he found an object, hidden in the streets of Venice by a volunteer. In January 2011, to celebrate ten years since his first television appearance, Channel 4 held a special Derren Brown Night.
As well as re-showing The Heist and one of his Enigma Live shows. The channel screened a special documentary; the documentary included the story of how he met his co-writer, his mother's feelings about his involvement in Russian Roulette, an emotional visit back to his old school and the Bristol bars where he first began his close-up magic. Celebrity contributors included Matt Lucas, Jo Whiley, Stephen Merchant, Simon Pegg. In January 2013, Brown was featured in a Channel 4 Deal or No Deal special, where he appeared to have predicted all the correct boxes, to win the big jackpot of £250,000; this was filmed as part of the Channel 4 Mashup. Many of Brown's shows have generated controversy. In 2007, BBC News listed two of Brown's shows in a list of examples of Channel 4's "legacy of controversy". In 2013, Brown said "Controversy has never interested me for its own sake. It's always been about doing stuff that feels dramatic."Public complaints that Russian Roulette was distasteful, made light of suicide and promoted gun culture were rejected by the regulatory authority, Ofcom, on the basis that the context and warnings given were sufficient.
The police had warned that the show might inspire copycat acts. Seance received 487 complaints to Channel 4 and 208 to Ofcom, making it the third most complained about show in history. Most were from church groups and came before transmission, i.e. before it was revealed that the attempt to contact the dead was a hoax. The show was cleared of any wrongdoing; the GMB union criticised Heist on behalf of security workers, arguing it was "irresponsible and insensitive" in light of increased attacks on staff. Channel 4 responded by arguing that it was made "very clear that attempting any form of robbery was criminal behaviour."An episode of Trick or Treat caused charity Cats Protection to complain and news reports to label Brown a "cat killer", after he appeared to convince someone to press a button though they thought it would electrocute a kitten inside a metal box. Brown responded by arguing they had misunderstood the trick, he "wasn’t g
In public relations and politics, spin is a form of propaganda, achieved through knowingly providing a biased interpretation of an event or campaigning to persuade public opinion in favor or against some organization or public figure. While traditional public relations and advertising may rely on altering the presentation of the facts, "spin" implies the use of disingenuous and manipulative tactics; because of the frequent association between spin and press conferences, the room in which these conferences take place is sometimes described as a "spin room". Public relations advisors and media consultants who develop deceptive or misleading messages may be referred to as "spin doctors" or "spinmeisters"; as such, a standard tactic used in "spinning" is to reframe, reposition, or otherwise modify the perception of an issue or event, to reduce any negative impact it might have on public opinion. For example, a company whose top-selling product is found to have a significant safety problem may "reframe" the issue by criticizing the safety of its main competitor's products or indeed by highlighting the risk associated with the entire product category.
This might be done using a "catchy" slogan or sound bite that can help to persuade the public of the company's biased point of view. This tactic could enable the company to defocus the public's attention on the negative aspects of its product; as it takes experience and training to "spin" an issue, spinning is a service provided by paid media advisors and media consultants. The largest and most powerful companies may have in-house employees and sophisticated units with expertise in spinning issues. While spin is considered to be a private sector tactic, in the 1990s and 2000s, some politicians and political staff have been accused by their opponents of using deceptive "spin" tactics to manipulate public opinion or deceive the public. Spin approaches used by some political teams include "burying" negative new information by releasing it at the end of the workday on the last day before a long weekend. Edward Bernays has been called the "Father of Public Relations"; as Larry Tye describes in his book The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays and The Birth of Public Relations, Bernays was able to help tobacco and alcohol companies use techniques to make certain behaviors more acceptable in 20th-century United States.
Tye claims. As information technology has increased since the end of the 20th century, commentators like Joe Trippi have advanced the theory that modern Internet activism spells the end for political spin. By providing immediate counterpoint to every point a "spin doctor" can come up with, this theory suggests, the omnipresence of the Internet in some societies will lead to a reduction in the effectiveness of spin; the techniques of spin include: Selectively presenting quotes that support one's position. For example, a pharmaceutical company could pick and choose two trials where their product shows a positive effect, ignoring hundreds of unsuccessful trials, or a politician's staff could handpick short speech quotations from past years which appear to show their candidate's support for a certain position. Non-denial denial Non-apology apology "Mistakes were made" is an example of distancing language used as a rhetorical device, whereby a speaker acknowledges that a situation was managed by using low-quality or inappropriate handling but evades any direct admission or accusation of responsibility by not specifying the person or organization who made the mistakes.
Grammatically, the expression uses the passive voice to focus on the action while omitting the actor. The acknowledgement of "mistakes" is framed in an abstract sense, with no direct reference to who made the mistakes; the speaker neither accuses anyone else. The word "mistakes" does not imply intent. A less evasive active voice construction would place the focus on the actor, such as: "I made mistakes" or "John Doe made mistakes." Phrasing in a way that assumes unproven claims, or avoiding the question "Burying bad news": announcing unpopular things at a time when it is believed that the media will focus on other news. In some cases, governments have released controversial reports on summer long weekends, to avoid significant news coverage. Sometimes that "other news" is supplied by deliberately announcing popular items at the same time. Misdirection and diversion Limited hangoutFor years, businesses have used fake or misleading customer testimonials by editing/spinning customers to reflect a much more satisfied experience than was the case.
In 2009, the Federal Trade Commission updated their laws to include measures to prohibit this type of "spinning" and have been enforcing these laws as of late. Several companies that verify the authenticity of the testimonials businesses present on the marketing materials in an effort to convince one to become a customer have arisen. Roberts, Alasdair S.. "Spin Control and Freedom of Information: Lessons for the United Kingdom from Canada". Public Administration. 83: 1–23. Doi:10.1111/j.0033-3298.2005.00435.x. Kathleen Hall Jamieson and Brooks Jackson: unSpun: Finding Facts in a World of Disinformation, Christian Science Monitor: The spin room – oily engine of the political meat grinder Outfoxed: OUTFOXED