Radiotjänst i Kiruna
Radiotjänst i Kiruna AB is Sweden's TV licensing body. It is a private corporation, formed in 1988 and based in Kiruna, upon its formation took over the administration and handling of TV licences from the state-owned telecommunications company Televerket; the company is a subsidiary of the three Swedish public service broadcasters Sveriges Television, Sveriges Radio and Sveriges Utbildningsradio. Under Swedish law everyone who owns a television receiver is required to pay the license fee 2400 SEK per year; the fee is collected by Radiotjänst but administered by Swedish government office Swedish National Debt Office by means of a special account, the so-called “rundradiokontot”. This fee applied to any household with a TV-receiver. If a household had no way to receive a TV broadcast, but owned a device which could theoretically receive a signal it was still required to pay the fee. Radiotjänst claimed that the current regulation for TV tax included any device that could theoretically be configured to receive a streamed video signal since at least one channel of Swedish public service TV was on the net in its entirety, but this interpretation was struck down by the Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden on June 13, 2014.
Radiotjänst employs around 120 people. On top of this several hundred licensing inspectors stationed around the country, and additional inspectors are employed on freelance basis. The TV-license collects around 7 000 million SEK a year; the cost of running Radiotjänst amounts to 146 million SEK. After the Riksdag voted on November 14, 2018 to change the licensing system from a television licence fee to a general public service tax on personal income, the functions of Radiotjänst i Kiruna will be wound down from until its formal dissolution on December 31, 2019, with its functions being taken over by the Swedish Tax Agency and the Legal and Administrative Services Agency. Television licence Television licensing in Sweden Radiotjänst website Radiotjänst website in English
Saint James's Church, Stockholm
Saint James's Church is a church in central Stockholm, dedicated to apostle Saint James the Greater, patron saint of travellers. It is mistakenly called St Jacob's; the confusion arises because Swedish, like many other languages, uses the same name for both James and Jacob. Arguably the most central church in the Swedish capital, surrounded by the popular park Kungsträdgården, the Royal Opera, the square Gustav Adolfs torg. A bust of Swedish tenor Jussi Björling stands outside; the church took a long time to complete. As a consequence it includes a wide range of architectural styles, such as Late Gothic and Baroque; the building is based on the design of multiple architects over the centuries: Willem Boy, Hans Ferster, Göran Joshuae Adelcrantz and Carl Hårleman, Carl Möller and Agi Lindegren. The origin of the church dates back to a chapel belonging to the Solna parish and at the time built on the outskirts of the parish, it is first mentioned in 1311, archaeological excavations in 1948 and one more documented its location just south of the present church and reconstructions showed its extent was limited to 8×13 meters.
The parish itself is believed to be a century or so younger than the chapel as the church is first mentioned as ecclesia parrochialis in the 1430s. For defensive purposes the demolition of the church, together with other churches on the ridges surrounding the medieval city, was ordered by King Gustav Vasa following the Reduction in 1527, it is therefore believed the church was built in brick rather than wood, since the king needed bricks for his defensive structures. However, in 1580 King John III ordered a church to be rebuilt on the same location, as part of his attempt to incorporate the urban conglomeration on the northern ridges into the city. Construction on the present church was led by master-builder Heinrich van Huwen and started in 1588; as completed by the time for the death of John III, the design of Willem Boy included a central nave flanked by two tall aisles resting on sandstone columns. Charles IX's intentions to make the northern suburbs an independent city motivated him to order the church to be lengthened by two bays in 1630.
The first Over-Governor of Stockholm Klas Flemming employed master mason Hans Ferster and stone-cutter Heinrich Blume in 1633, which resulted in the star-ribbed vaults completed in 1642. The following year the southern portico was begun by Blume together with the Renaissance gables of the transepts destroyed in the fire of 1723; the church could be inaugurated November 26, 1643, in the presence of Queen Christina. At that time, the northern ridges had been divided into two parishes separated by the northbound esker Brunkebergsåsen. However, the church interior was only completed and a sacristy was added in 1698. A fire destroyed the roof in 1723. A new central tower designed by Göran Joshuae Adelcrantz was inaugurated in 1739 The many steeples of the church was designed by Carl Hårleman; the exterior was repainted in a grey-white colour in the 1770s. During the 19th century, most of the 17th-century interior was hastily replaced, including both the southern and northern galleries, the retable, the organ gallery.
Complaints from the parish regarding the now dark church, caused the galleries to be rebuilt again in 1825. The church started using central heating in 1850 and gas lighting in 1862 – the 1.450 flames exceeding any other church in Stockholm. All these modifications were, restored by the work of Carl Möller who favoured a Romantic Nationalistic Neo-Renaissance style in Sweden called Vasa-renässans and Agi Lindegren who worked in a multitude of styles adopted to various contexts; the galleries were thus reshaped into the church furnished with electric light. An exterior restoration in 1910 gave the church a sandstone socle. A new restoration in 1932–37 resulted in the present rather bare interior, with no changes since except a minor restoration in 1969. History of Stockholm Religion in Sweden Church of Sweden "S:t Jacobs kyrkas historia". Stockholm domkyrkoförsamling. Retrieved 2008-01-24. "1300-tals kyrka påträffad vid Kungsträdgården". Stockholm City Museum. Retrieved 2008-01-24. Mårtelius, Johan.
"Norra Innerstaden". Guide till Stockholms arkitektur. Stockholm: Arkitektur förlag. ISBN 91-86050-41-9. "Stockholms domkyrkoförsamling". Stockholm Cathedral Parish. Retrieved 2008-01-24. - Official site
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. Theoretically wideband AM can offer good sound quality, provided the reception conditions are ideal. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies; the term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country, dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions: In the former Soviet republics, some former Eastern Bloc countries, the older 65.8–74 MHz band is used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz; this band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is being phased out in many countries.
In those countries the 87.5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used; the frequency of an FM broadcast station is an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe and Africa, only multiples are used. In the UK odd or are used. In Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. In most countries the maximum permitted frequency error is specified, the unmodulated carrier should be within 2000 Hz of the assigned frequency. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in some countries, including 1, 10, 30, 74, 500, 300 kHz. However, to minimise inter-channel interference, stations operating from the same or geographically close transmitter sites tend to keep to at least a 500 kHz frequency separation when closer frequency spacing is technically permitted, with closer tunings reserved for more distantly spaced transmitters, as interfering signals are more attenuated and so have less effect on neighboring frequencies.
Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation which conveys information by varying the frequency of a carrier wave. With FM, frequency deviation from the assigned carrier frequency at any instant is directly proportional to the amplitude of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal; because transmitted FM signals use more bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is used with the higher frequencies used by TV, the FM broadcast band, land mobile radio systems. The maximum frequency deviation of the carrier is specified and regulated by the licensing authorities in each country. For a stereo broadcast, the maximum permitted carrier deviation is invariably ±75 kHz, although a little higher is permitted in the United States when SCA systems are used. For a monophonic broadcast, again the most common permitted. However, some countries specify a lower value for monophonic broadcasts, such as ±50 kHz. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system, with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest audio frequencies within the baseband.
This can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high audio frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise; these processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively. The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used. In the Americas and South Korea, 75 µs is used; this applies to both stereo transmissions. For stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing; the use of pre-emphasis becomes a problem because of the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. Pre-emphasizing these high frequency sounds would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. Modulation control devices are used to prevent this.
Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing, at his experimental 41 MHz station W2XDG located on the 85th floor of the Empire State Building in New York City; these FM multiplex transmissions started in November 1934 and consisted of the main channel audio program and three subcarriers: a fax program, a synchronizing signal for the fax program and a telegraph “order” channel. These original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated. Two musical programs, consisting of both the Red and Blue Network program feeds of the NBC Radio Network, were transmitted using the same system of subcarrier modulation as part of a studio-to-transmitter link system. In April 1935, the AM subcarriers were replaced with much improved results.
The first FM subcarrier transmissions emanating from Major Armstrong's experimental station KE2XCC at Alpine, New Jersey occurred in 1948. These transmissions consisted of two-cha
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end