Serampore is a city and a municipality of Hooghly district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the headquarter of the Srirampore subdivision, it is a part of the area covered by Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority. It is a pre-colonial city on the west bank of the Hooghly River, it was part of Danish India under the name Frederiknagore from 1755 to 1845. It is probable that the name'Srirampur' originated either from'Sripur','Sri Ram' or both, or it could originate from'Seetarampore' as there was a famous'Ram-Seeta' temple. Serampore City was grown up joining by Mahesh, Akna, Gopinathpur, Chatra, Naoga, Shimla - sataghara villages. Here some aristocratic localities came up, namely Goswamipara, Mukherjeepara, Chakravartipara, Beniapara etc. whose inhabitants were Brahmins of different groups and sects. The city is several centuries old and has witnessed both the growth and decline of the feudal system, the coming of the Danes and their settlement and a cultural renaissance initiated by the British following the construction of the east Indian railway, along with subsequent industrial development.
There were three main phases in the process of urbanisation of Serampore: The Pre-urbanisation phase. Before the Mughal era, the region between the Saraswati and Hooghly rivers was a thriving local community. After this there arose the need for local artisana along with "service class" people who came from the neighbouring villages and settled on granted land. In this way, colonies such as Patuapara, Dhulipara, Dutta Bagan, Khash Bagan were formed; this along with the fact that Sheoraphuli was a distribution point for local marketable goods produced in different parts of Hughli, induced many families - the Barujibis, Deys, Das etc. - to come to settle here before 1755. The cultivating classes settled in such places as Sadgoppara, Lankabaganpara; the Jele-Kaibarta and'Sani' Muchi, were in the locality from the beginning, had their own areas. The local Sunni Muslims, descendants of Mughal soldiers and artisans, lived in Mullickpara, Mussalman Para and here a mosque still bears witness to their existence.
During the Mughal period and Mahesh were populated. The hot humid climate of the area suited the textile industry and the local land was well known for its cotton and silk weaving; the Hindu weavers used to manufacture fine cotton pieces, while the Muslim weavers monopolised silk manufacture. In the fertile land, paddy and betel-leaf were grown in abundance; the Kaibarta used the marshy land for fishing. In pre-urbanisation age, communication was by way of the river. Besides this, there was the'Badshahi Sadak' or the grand trunk road. Before Danes arrived in this region, the Sheoraphuli Hat was the main internal trade centre and had close commercial links with Barisal, Dhaka, Mymensingh and other districts of East Bengal. Between the 14th and 18th centuries, many foreign merchants, such as the French and Dutch - established their trading outposts, or "Kuthis", here and were involved in trade and commerce. During the Muslim period, the villagers on the bank of the Hooghly and Saraswati were included in the zamindaries of Sheoraphuli.
The urbanization phase began with the acquisition of land in the area by the Danes in the early 18th century, as part of the Danish colonial empire. In 1755, the Danish East India Company sent a representative from its Tranquebar office to the Nawab of Bengal, their intention was to secure a parwana allowing them the right to do business in Bengal. They obtained the parwana by paying fifty thousand rupees in cash to Nawab Alivardi Khan, along with many gifts, acquiring three bighas of land at Sripur on the riverfront and another fifty-seven bighas at Akna for the building of a new factory and port, which the Danes governed from Tranquebar. Subsequently, the Danes acquired the Serampore and Pearapur mahals by paying an annual rent of 1601 rupees to the zamindar of Sheoraphuli in North Serampore. By 1770 the Danish merchants were beginning to make significant progress in trade and commerce in the area. Danish prosperity was assisted by the able administrative performance of Colonel Ole Bie, appointed the first Crown regent of Serampore in 1776.
The Danes established a bazaar and allowed private godowns, or warehouses to be maintained. The town developed and became elegant and prosperous, merchants of both foreign and indigenous origin began to arrive and live there; the Danes were dependent on their factors for obtaining commodities, but they got involved in collection of merchandise directly from the producers, offered incentives to the artisans in the form of earnest money for making high quality products. They created a class of trading middlemen, such as agents, banias and stevedores. Sobharan Basak and Anandaram Dhoba, the two local textile businessmen, were appointed as the first'factors' for the Danes. Nandalal Chakravarty was their first agent, subsequently he was promoted to "Dewan". Patita Paban Roy, who came from Katulpur in Bankura, Saphali Ram Dey were appointed agents for the supplying of saltpetre. Brothers Raghuram Goswami and Raghavram Goswami came to Serampore from their home villa
James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones is an American actor. His career has spanned more than 60 years, he has been described as "one of America's most distinguished and versatile" actors and "one of the greatest actors in American history". Since his Broadway debut in 1957, Jones has won many awards, including a Tony Award for his role in The Great White Hope, which earned him a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor in a Leading Role for the film version of the play. Jones has won three Emmy Awards, including two in the same year in 1990, he is known for his voice roles as Darth Vader in the Star Wars film series and Mufasa in Disney's The Lion King, as well as many other film and television roles. Jones has been said to possess "one of the best-known voices in show business, a stirring basso profondo that has lent gravel and gravitas" to his projects, including live-action acting, voice acting, commercial voice-overs. In 1970, he won a Grammy Award for Great American Documents; as a child, Jones had a stutter.
In his episode of Biography, he said he overcame the affliction through poetry, public speaking, acting, although it lasted for several years. A pre-med major in college, he went on to serve in the United States Army during the Korean War before pursuing a career in acting. On November 12, 2011, he received an Honorary Academy Award. On November 9, 2015, Jones received the Voice Arts Icon Award. On May 25, 2017, he received an Honorary Doctor of Arts degree from Harvard University and concluded the event's benediction with "May the Force be with you". James Earl Jones was born in Arkabutla, Mississippi, on January 17, 1931, to Ruth Jones, a teacher and maid, Robert Earl Jones, a boxer and chauffeur who left the family shortly after James Earl's birth, he became a stage and screen actor in New York and Hollywood. Jones and his father became reconciled then, his parents were African-American, Jones has learned they had Irish and Native American ancestry. From the age of five, Jones was raised by his maternal grandparents, John Henry and Maggie Williams, who had moved from Mississippi in the Great Migration and had a farm in Jackson, Michigan.
Jones found the transition to living with his grandparents in Michigan traumatic, developed a stutter so severe that he refused to speak. When his family moved to the more rural Brethren, Michigan, a teacher helped him overcome his stutter, he remained functionally mute for eight years. He credits his English teacher, Donald Crouch, who discovered he had a gift for writing poetry, with helping him end his silence. Crouch urged him to challenge his reluctance to speak. "I was a stutterer. I couldn't talk. So my first year of school was my first mute year, those mute years continued until I got to high school." After being educated at the Browning School for boys in his high school years and graduating as vice president of his class from Dickson Rural Agricultural School in Brethren, Jones attended the University of Michigan where he was a pre-med major. He excelled, he felt comfortable within the structure of the military environment and enjoyed the camaraderie of his fellow cadets in the Pershing Rifles Drill Team and Scabbard and Blade Honor Society.
During the course of his studies, Jones discovered. Instead, he focused on drama at the University of Michigan School of Music, Theatre & Dance with the thought of doing something he enjoyed, before, he assumed, he would have to go off to fight in the Korean War. After four years of college, Jones graduated from the university in 1955. With the war intensifying in Korea, Jones expected to be deployed as soon as he received his commission as a second lieutenant; as he waited for his orders, he worked as a part-time stage crew hand at the Ramsdell Theatre in Manistee, where he had earlier performed. Jones was commissioned in mid-1953, after the Korean War's end, reported to Fort Benning to attend the Infantry Officers Basic Course, he received his Ranger Tab. He was to report to Fort Leonard Wood, but his unit was instead sent to establish a cold weather training command at the former Camp Hale near Leadville, Colorado, his battalion became a training unit in the rugged terrain of the Rocky Mountains.
Jones was promoted to first lieutenant prior to his discharge. He moved to New York, he worked as a janitor to support himself. Jones began his acting career at the Ramsdell Theatre in Michigan. In 1953, he was a stage carpenter. During the 1955 -- 57 seasons, he was an stage manager, he performed his first portrayal of Shakespeare's Othello in this theater in 1955. His early career included an appearance in the ABC radio anthology series Theatre-Five. Jones is an accomplished stage actor, he has acted in many Shakespearean roles: Othello, King Lear, Oberon in A Midsummer Night's Dream, Abhorson in Measure for Measure, Claudius in Hamlet. In 1973, Jones played Hickey on Broadway at the Circle in the Square Theater in a revival of "The Iceman Cometh." Jones played Lennie on Broadway in the 1974 Brooks Atkinson Theatre production of the adaptation of John Steinbeck's novella, Of Mice and Men, with Kevin Conway as George and Pamela Blair as Curley's Wife. Jones received Kennedy Center H
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
Puri is a city and a Municipality in the state of Odisha in eastern India. It is the district headquarters of Puri district and is situated on the Bay of Bengal, 60 kilometres south of the state capital of Bhubaneswar, it is known as Sri Jagannatha Dhama after the 12th-century Jagannatha Temple located in the city. It is one of the original Char Dham pilgrimage sites for Hindus. Puri is known by several names since the ancient times, was locally known as "Sri Kshetra" and Lord Jagannatha temple is known as "Badadeula". Puri and the Jagannatha Temple were invaded 18 times by Muslim rulers, from the 4th century AD till the early 19th century with the objective of looting the treasures of the temple. Odisha, including Puri and its temple, were part of British India from 1803 till India attained independence in August 1947. Though princely states do not exist in India today, the heirs of the Gajapati Dynasty of Khurda still perform the ritual duties of the temple; the temple town monasteries. The economy of Puri is dependent on the religious importance of the Jagannatha Temple to the extent of nearly 80 percent.
The 24 festivals, including 13 major ones, held every year in the temple complex contribute to the economy. Sand art and applique art are some of the important crafts of the city. Puri has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India. Puri, located on the east coast of India on the Bay of Bengal, is in the centre of the Puri district, it is delimited by the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, the Mauza Sipaurubilla on the west, Mauza Gopinathpur in the north and Mauza Balukhand in the east. It is within the 67 kilometres coastal stretch of sandy beaches that extends between Chilika Lake and the south of Puri city. However, the administrative jurisdiction of the Puri Municipality extends over an area of 16.3268 square kilometres spread over 30 wards, which includes a shore line of 5 kilometres. Puri is in the coastal delta of the Mahanadi River on the shores of the Bay of Bengal. In the ancient days it was near to Sisupalgarh.
The land was drained by a tributary of the Bhargavi River, a branch of the Mahanadi River. This branch underwent a meandering course creating many arteries altering the estuary, formed many sand hills; these sand hills could be cut through by the streams. Because of the sand hills, the Bhargavi River, flowing to the south of Puri, moved away towards the Chilika Lake; this shift resulted in the creation of two lagoons, known as Sar and Samang, on the eastern and northern parts of Puri respectively. Sar lagoon has a length of 5 miles in an east-west direction and a width of 2 miles in north-south direction; the estuary of the Bhargavi River has a shallow depth of just 5 feet and the process of siltation continues. According to a 15th-century Odia writer Saraladasa, the bed of the unnamed stream that flowed at the base of the Blue Mountain or Neelachal was filled up. Katakarajavamsa, a 16th-century chronicle, attributes filling up of the bed of the river which flowed through the present Grand Road, as done during the reign of King Narasimha II of Eastern Ganga dynasty.
According to the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system the climate of Puri is classified as Aw. The city has tropical climate. Humidity is high throughout the year; the temperature during summer touches a maximum of 36 °C and during winter it is 17 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1,337 millimetres and the average annual temperature is 26.9 °C. The weather data is given in the following table. Puri, the holy land of Lord Jagannatha known by the popular vernacular name Shrikhetra, has many ancient names in the Hindu scriptures such as the Rigveda, Matsya purana, Brahma Purana, Narada Purana, Padma Purana, Skanda Purana, Kapila Purana and Niladrimahodaya. In the Rigveda, in particular, it is mentioned as a place called Purushamandama-grama meaning the place where the Creator deity of the world – Supreme Divinity deified on an altar or mandapa was venerated near the coast and prayers offered with Vedic hymns. Over time the name got changed to Purushottama Puri and further shortened to Puri, the Purusha came to be known as Jagannatha.
Sages like Bhrigu and Markandeya had their hermitage close to this place. Its name is mentioned, conforming to the deity worshipped, as Srikshetra, Purusottama Dhāma, Purusottama Kshetra, Purusottama Puri and Jagannath Puri. Puri, however, is the popular usage, it is known by the geographical features of its location as Shankhakshetra, Neelāchala, Neelāchalakshetra, Neelādri. In Sanskrit, the word "Puri" means town or city, is cognate with polis in Greek. Another ancient name is Charita as identified by General Alexander Cunningham of the Archaeological Survey of India, spelled as Che-li-ta-lo by Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang; when the present temple was built by the Eastern Ganga king Anantavarman Chodaganga in the 11th and 12th centuries AD, it was called Purushottamkshetra. However, the Moghuls, the Marathas and early British rulers called it Purushottama-chhatar or just Chhatar. In Moghul ruler Akbar's Ain-i-Akbari and subsequent Muslim historical records it was known as Purushottama. In the Sanskrit drama Anargha Raghava Nataka as well, authored by Murari Mishra, a play
Self-Realization Fellowship is a worldwide spiritual organization founded by Paramahansa Yogananda in 1920 and incorporated as a non-profit religious organization in 1935, to serve as Yogananda’s instrument for the preservation and worldwide dissemination of his writings and teachings, including Kriya Yoga. Yogananda wrote in God Talks With Arjuna: The Bhagavad Gita that the science of Kriya Yoga was given to Manu, the original Adam, through him to Janaka and other royal sages. Self-Realization Fellowship continues to disseminate Paramahansa Yogananda's teachings following his stated Aims and Ideals. SRF publishes Yogananda teachings of home-study lessons, writings including Autobiography of a Yogi and recorded talks, it coordinates the Worldwide Prayer Circle, which it describes as a network of groups and individuals who pray for those in need of physical, mental, or spiritual aid, who pray for world peace and harmony. SRF is based at Mount Washington in Los Angeles, the international headquarters for SRF and for Yogoda Satsanga Society of India.
YSS was founded by Yogananda in 1917. In countries outside the Indian subcontinent the organization is known as Self-Realization Fellowship. Paramahansa Yogananda founded SRF/YSS in 1920 and served as head until his death in March 1952; the first president and head of SRF/YSS after Yogananda was Rajarsi Janakananda, president until his death in February 1955. Daya Mata was the next head and president of Self Realization Fellowship/YSS from 1955 until her death on November 30, 2010. According to Linda Johnsen in Today's Woman in World Religions, the new wave today is women, as many major Indian gurus have passed on their spiritual mantle to women, such as Yogananda to the American born Daya Mata and to Mrinalini Mata. In 2010, Mrinalini Mata became the next president of SRF/YSS, with an official announcement on January 9, 2011, holding this position until her death on August 3, 2017, she was "one of the close disciples of Paramahansa Yogananda chosen and trained by him to help guide his society after his passing."
Mrinalini Mata had held the position of SRF/YSS vice-president from 1966 until she became president in 2011. On August 30, 2017, Brother Chidananda was elected as the next and current president with a unanimous vote of the SRF Board of Directors. Self-Realization Fellowship has over 500 temples, ashrams and meditation circles around the world. In the U. S. there are seven temples in California: Berkeley, Hollywood, Encinitas, Pacific Palisades, San Diego. In Arizona there is a temple in Phoenix. Retreat centers are located in Pacific Palisades, CA, Encinitas, CA, Valley Center, CA, Greenfield, VA. In Europe, there is a retreat center in Germany. There is a retreat in Armação, Brazil. There are meditation circles located in 54 countries. SRF has a sister organization in India called Yogoda Satsanga Society of India, founded by Yogananda in 1917, headquartered in Dakshineswar. YSS oversees 200 kendras, mandalis and ashrams throughout India and Nepal, including meditation centers, 21 educational institutions, a variety of charitable facilities.
Encinitas. After his return from India in 1936, Paramahansa Yogananda took up residence at the SRF hermitage in Encinitas, California, a surprise gift from his disciple Rajarsi Janakananda, it was while at this hermitage that Yogananda wrote his famous Autobiography of a Yogi and other writings plus creating an "enduring foundation for the spiritual and humanitarian work of Self‑Realization Fellowship/Yogoda Satsanga Society of India." This property now includes a retreat center. A main temple and an overflow temple are nearby on Second St. Hollywood. In 1942 Yogananda formally opened the SRF Hollywood Temple on Sunset Blvd. Hollywood, California, the oldest SRF temple in America. Meghan Markle, Duchess of Sussex's parents, Doria Ragland and Thomas Markle, Sr. were married by Brother Bhaktananda at Paramahansa Yogananda's Self-Realization Fellowship temple in Hollywood, California on December 23, 1979. San Diego. Paramahansa Yogananda established an oasis of peace in San Diego on September 5, 1943, during the conflict of World War II.
Located in San Diego’s Bankers Hill neighborhood, the Self-Realization Fellowship San Diego Temple is just minutes from downtown. The thriving cypress trees lining the front walkway of the temple were planted by Yogananda himself, he dedicated the Temple as a Church of All Religions with the following prayer: “Heavenly Father, may this church be blessed with the vibrations of Self-perception of Thy presence, when we discuss theology and philosophy, may we not get sidetracked by the pitfalls of intellectual egotism and blind emotion, but travel straight to the highway of Self-Realization and truth which leads to Thee.” Pacific Palisades. The Self-Realization Fellowship Lake Shrine lies a few blocks from the Pacific Ocean, on Sunset Boulevard in Pacific Palisades, California, it was dedicated by Yogananda, on 20 August 1950 The site has lush gardens, a large, natural spring-fed lake, framed by natural hillsides, is home to a variety of flora and fauna, including swans, koi, water turtles, lotus flowers.
The entire property is a natural amphitheater. Many thousands of visitors come each year to enjoy the scenic beauty and serenity of this spiritual sanctuary. One noticeable landmark, visible from all parts of the grounds, is the huge golden lotus archway, painted white topped with enormous gold lotus b
Paramahansa Yogananda, born Mukunda Lal Ghosh, was an Indian yogi and guru who introduced millions of Indians and westerners to the teachings of meditation and Kriya Yoga through his organization Yogoda Satsanga Society of India and Self-Realization Fellowship. In 1946, he published his autobiography, titled Autobiography of a Yogi, on the list of the "100 best spiritual books of the 20th Century" created by HarperSan Francisco, a division of HarperCollins Publishers; the book has been reprinted since and is known as "the book that changed the lives of millions." Yogananda was born in India, to a devout family. According to his younger brother, from his earliest years young Mukunda's awareness and experience of the spiritual was far beyond the ordinary. In his youth he sought out many of India's Hindu sages and saints, hoping to find an illuminated teacher to guide him in his spiritual quest. In 1910 Yogananda's seeking after various saints ended when, at the age of 17, he met his guru, Swami Yukteswar Giri.
He describes his first meeting with Yukteswar as a rekindling of a relationship that had lasted for many lifetimes: We entered a oneness of silence. Eloquence flowed in soundless chant from heart of master to disciple. With an antenna of irrefragable insight I sensed that my guru knew God, would lead me to Him; the obscuration of this life disappeared in a fragile dawn of prenatal memories. Dramatic time! Past and future are its cycling scenes; this was not the first sun to find me at these holy feet! On Yukteswar informed Yogananda that he had been sent to him by Mahavatar Babaji for a special purpose. After passing his Intermediate Examination in Arts from the Scottish Church College, Calcutta, in June 1915, he graduated with a degree similar to a current day Bachelor of Arts or B. A. from Serampore College, the college having two entities, one as a constituent college of the Senate of Serampore College and the other as an affiliated college of the University of Calcutta. This allowed him to spend time at Yukteswar's ashram in Serampore.
In 1915, he became Swami Yogananda Giri. In 1917, Yogananda founded a school for boys in Dihika, West Bengal, that combined modern educational techniques with yoga training and spiritual ideals. A year the school relocated to Ranchi. One of the school's first batch of pupils was his youngest brother, Bishnu Charan Ghosh, who learnt yoga asanas there and in turn taught asanas to Bikram Choudhury; this school would become the Yogoda Satsanga Society of India, the Indian branch of Yogananda's American organization, Self-Realization Fellowship. In 1920, Yogananda went to the United States aboard the ship City of Sparta, as India's delegate to an International Congress of Religious Liberals convening in Boston; that same year he founded the Self-Realization Fellowship to disseminate worldwide his teachings on India's ancient practices and philosophy of Yoga and its tradition of meditation. For the next several years, he lectured and taught on the East Coast and in 1924 embarked on a cross-continental speaking tour.
Thousands came to his lectures. During this time he attracted a number of celebrity followers, including soprano Amelita Galli-Curci, tenor Vladimir Rosing and Clara Clemens Gabrilowitsch, the daughter of Mark Twain; the following year, he established an international center for Self-Realization Fellowship in Los Angeles, which became the spiritual and administrative heart of his growing work. Yogananda was the first Hindu teacher of yoga to spend a major portion of his life in America, he lived in the United States from 1920 to 1952, interrupted by an extended trip abroad in 1935–1936, to visit his guru in India though he undertook visits to other living western saints like Therese Neumann, the Catholic Stigmatist of Konnersreuth, places of spiritual significance en route. In 1935, he returned to India to visit his guru Yukteswar Giri and to help establish his Yogoda Satsanga work in India. During this visit, as told in his autobiography, he met with Mahatma Gandhi, initiated him into the liberating technique of Kriya Yoga as Gandhi expressed his interest to receive the Kriya Yoga of Lahiri Mahasaya.
While in India, Yukteswar gave Yogananda the monastic title of Paramahansa. Paramahansa is a title indicating the highest spiritual attainment. In 1936, while Yogananda was visiting Calcutta, Yukteswar attained mahasamadhi in the town of Puri. After returning to America, Yogananda continued to lecture and establish churches in southern California, he took up residence at the SRF hermitage in Encinitas, California, a surprise gift from his disciple Rajarsi Janakananda. It was while at this hermitage that Yogananda wrote his famous Autobiography of a Yogi and other writings. At this time he created an "enduring foundation for the spiritual and humanitarian work of Self‑Realization Fellowship/Yogoda Satsanga Society of India."The last four years of his life were spent in seclusion with some of his inner circle of disciples at his desert ashram in Twentynine Palms, California to finish his writings and to finish revising books and lessons written over the years. During this period he gave public lectures.
He told his close disciples, "I can do much more now to reach others with my pen." In the days leading up to his death, Yogananda began hi