The Murray River is Australia's longest river, at 2,508 kilometres in length. The Murray rises in the Australian Alps, draining the western side of Australia's highest mountains, meanders across Australia's inland plains, forming the border between the states of New South Wales and Victoria as it flows to the northwest into South Australia, it turns south at Morgan for its final 315 kilometres. The water of the Murray flows through several terminal lakes that fluctuate in salinity including Lake Alexandrina and The Coorong before emptying through the Murray Mouth into the southeastern portion of the Indian Ocean referenced on Australian maps as the Southern Ocean, near Goolwa. Despite discharging considerable volumes of water at times before the advent of largescale river regulation, the mouth has always been comparatively small and shallow; as of 2010, the Murray River system receives 58 percent of its natural flow. It is Australia's most important irrigated region, it is known as the food bowl of the nation.
The Murray River forms part of the 3,750 km long combined Murray–Darling river system which drains most of inland Victoria, New South Wales, southern Queensland. Overall the catchment area is one seventh of Australia's total land mass; the Murray carries only a small fraction of the water of comparably-sized rivers in other parts of the world, with a great annual variability of its flow. In its natural state it has been known to dry up during extreme droughts, although, rare, with only two or three instances of this occurring since official record keeping began; the Murray River makes up most of the border between the Australian states of Victoria and New South Wales. Where it does, the border is the top of the bank of the Victorian side of the river; this was determined in a 1980 ruling by the High Court of Australia, which settled the question as to which state had jurisdiction in the unlawful death of a man, fishing by the river's edge on the Victorian side of the river. This boundary definition can be ambiguous, since the river changes its course over time, some of the river banks have been modified.
West of the line of longitude 141°E, the river continues as the border between Victoria and South Australia for 11 km, where this is the only stretch where a state border runs down the middle of the river. This was due to a miscalculation during the 1840s, when the border was surveyed. Past this point, the Murray River is within the state of South Australia; the following major settlements are located along the course of the river, with population figures from the 2011 Census: The Murray River support a variety of river life adapted to its vagaries. This includes a variety of native fish such as the famous Murray cod, trout cod, golden perch, Macquarie perch, silver perch, eel-tailed catfish, Australian smelt, western carp gudgeon, other aquatic species like the Murray short-necked turtle, Murray River crayfish, broad-clawed yabbies, the large clawed Macrobrachium shrimp, as well as aquatic species more distributed through southeastern Australia such as common longnecked turtles, common yabbies, the small claw-less paratya shrimp, water rats, platypus.
The Murray River supports fringing corridors and forests of the river red gum. The health of the Murray River has declined since European settlement due to river regulation, much of its aquatic life including native fish are now declining, rare or endangered. Recent extreme droughts have put significant stress on river red gum forests, with mounting concern over their long-term survival; the Murray has flooded on occasion, the most significant of, the flood of 1956, which inundated many towns on the lower Murray and which lasted for up to six months. Introduced fish species such as carp, weather loach, redfin perch, brown trout, rainbow trout have had serious negative effects on native fish, while carp have contributed to environmental degradation of the Murray River and tributaries by destroying aquatic plants and permanently raising turbidity. In some segments of the Murray River, carp have become the only species found. Between 2.5 and 0.5 million years ago the Murray River terminated in a vast freshwater lake called Lake Bungunnia.
Lake Bungunnia was formed by earth movements that blocked the Murray River near Swan Reach during this period. At its maximum extent Lake Bungunnia covered 33,000 km2, extending to near the Menindee Lakes in the north and to near Boundary Bend on the Murray in the south; the draining of Lake Bungunnia occurred 600,000 years ago. Deep clays deposited by the lake. Higher rainfall would have been required to keep such a lake full. A species of Neoceratodus lungfish existed in Lake Bungunnia; the noted Barmah Red Gum Forests owe their existence to the Cadell Fault. About 25,000 years ago, displacement occurred along the Cadell fault, raising the eastern edge of the fault, which runs north-south, 8 to 12 m above the floodplain; this created a complex series of events. A section of the original Murray River channel immediately
Burke and Wills expedition
The Burke and Wills expedition was organised by the Royal Society of Victoria in Australia in 1860–61 of 19 men, led by Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills, with the objective of crossing Australia from Melbourne in the south, to the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north, a distance of around 3,250 kilometres. At that time most of the inland of Australia had not been explored by non-Indigenous people and was unknown to the European settlers; the expedition left Melbourne in winter. Bad weather, poor roads and broken-down wagons meant. After dividing the party at Menindee on the Darling River Burke made good progress, reaching Cooper Creek at the beginning of summer; the expedition established a depot camp at the Cooper, Burke and two other men pushed on to the north coast. The return journey was plagued by delays and monsoon rains, when they reached the depot at Cooper Creek, they found it had been abandoned just hours earlier. Burke and Wills died on or about 30 June 1861. Several relief expeditions were sent out.
All together, seven men lost their lives, only one man, the Irish soldier John King, crossed the continent with the expedition and returned alive to Melbourne. Gold was discovered in Victoria in 1851 and the subsequent gold rush led to a huge influx of migrants, with the local population increasing from 29,000 in 1851 to 139,916 in 1861; the colony became wealthy and Melbourne grew to become Australia's largest city and the second largest city of the British Empire. The boom lasted forty years and ushered in the era known as "marvellous Melbourne"; the influx of educated gold seekers from England and Germany led to rapid growth of schools, learned societies and art galleries. The University of Melbourne was founded in 1855 and the State Library of Victoria in 1856; the Philosophical Institute of Victoria was founded in 1854 and became the Royal Society of Victoria after receiving a Royal Charter in 1859. By 1855 there was speculation about possible routes for the Australian Overland Telegraph Line to connect Australia to the new telegraph cable in Java and Europe.
There was fierce competition between the colonies over the route with governments recognising the economic benefits that would result from becoming the centre of the telegraph network. A number of routes were considered including Ceylon to Albany in Western Australia, or Java to the north coast of Australia and either onto east coast, or south through the centre of the continent to Adelaide; the Victorian government organised the Burke and Wills expedition to cross the continent in 1860. The South Australian government offered a reward of £2000 to encourage an expedition to find a route between South Australia and the north coast. In 1857 the Philosophical Institute formed an Exploration Committee with the aim of investigating the practicability of fitting out an exploring expedition. While interest in inland exploration was strong in the neighbouring colonies of New South Wales and South Australia, in Victoria enthusiasm was limited; the anonymous donation of £1,000 to the Fund Raising Committee of the Royal Society failed to generate much interest and it was 1860 before sufficient money was raised and the expedition was assembled.
The Exploration Committee called for offers of interest for a leader for the Victorian Exploring Expedition. Only two members of the Committee, Ferdinand von Mueller and Wilhelm Blandowski, had any experience in exploration but due to factionalism both were outvoted. Several people were considered for the post of leader and the Society held a range of meetings in early 1860. Robert O'Hara Burke was selected by committee ballot as the leader, William John Wills was recommended as surveyor and third-in-command. Burke had no experience in exploration and it is strange that he was chosen to lead the expedition. Burke was an Irish-born ex-officer with the Austrian army, became police superintendent with no skills in bushcraft. Wills was more adept than Burke at living in the wilderness, but it was Burke's leadership, detrimental to the mission. Rather than take cattle to be slaughtered during the trip the Committee decided to experiment with dried meat; the weight was to slow the expedition down appreciably.
The Exploration Committee of the Royal Society of Victoria included: Sir William Foster Stawell, Chief Justice of Victoria Dr David Elliott Wilkie MD. Treasurer Dr John Macadam, Honorary Secretary Professor Georg Neumayer Dr Ferdinand von Mueller, Government Botanist Sir Frederick McCoy, Melbourne University's first professor The Hon. Captain Andrew Clarke Dr Richard Eades, Mayor of Melbourne Charles Whybrow Ligar, Government Surveyor General The Hon Sir Francis Murphy, Speaker of the Legislative Assembly Lieutenant John Randall Pascoe, JP Captain Francis Cadell Alfred Selwyn Esq. Government Geologist Reverend Father Dr John Ignatius Bleasdale Clement Hodgkinson Esq. Dr J William McKenna Edward Wilson, Editor of the Argus Dr William Gilbee Sizar Elliott Esq. Dr Solomon Iffla Angus McMillan Esq. James Smith Esq. John Watson Esq. Camels had been used in desert exploration in other parts of the world, but by 1859 only seven camels had been imported into Australia; the Victorian Government appointed George James Landells to purchase 24 camels in India for use in desert exploration.
The animals arrived in Melbourne in June 1860 and the Exploration Committee purchased an additional six from George Coppin's Cremorne Gardens. The camels were hous
Georg von Neumayer
Georg Balthazar von Neumayer, was a German polar explorer and scientist, a proponent of the idea of international cooperation for meteorology and scientific observation. Born in Kirchheimbolanden, Neumayer finished his education in geophysics and hydrography in Munich, Bavaria in 1849. To obtain practical experience he made a voyage to South America, after his return gave a series of lectures at Hamburg on Maury's theories of the ocean, recent improvements in navigation, he decided to go to Australia, shipped as a sailor before the mast, arrived at Sydney in 1852. After trying his fortune on the goldfields, Neumayer gave lectures on navigation to seamen, spent some time in Tasmania at the observatory in Hobart, he returned to Germany in 1854 convinced that Australia offered a great field for scientific exploration, obtained the support of the King of Bavaria and encouragement from leading British scientists. He sailed again for Australia and arrived in Melbourne in January 1857, he asked the government of Victoria to provide him with a site for an observatory, about £700 for a building, about £600 a year for expenses.
He had brought with him a collection of magnetical and meteorological instruments valued at £2000, provided by the King of Bavaria. Neumayer suggested as a suitable site a block of land not far from the present position of the observatory, but this was not granted, he was, allowed the use of the buildings of the signal station on Flagstaff Hill creating the Flagstaff Observatory for Geophysics and Nautical Science at what is now Flagstaff Gardens in Melbourne, Australia. From 1 March 1858 he carried on the systematic registration of nautical data. A few weeks he added regular observations on atmospheric electricity and changes in the magnetic elements. Between 1858 and 1863, he, a team of assistants, extracted data from hundreds of ship logbooks, analysed to find the best route of maximum speed and safety for sailing ships travelling between Europe and Australia. To obtain the logbooks he placed advertisements in the Victorian Government Gazette, posted signs at the Melbourne Customs House, requesting the masters of arriving vessels to deposit their logbooks at his offices in the Flagstaff Observatory with a promise they would be returned within four days.
More than 600 logs were examined and the information extracted was analysed and the conclusions published in the second half of a book published in 1864. William John Wills, second-in-command of the Burke and Wills expedition succeeded J. W. Osborne as Neumayer's assistant at the Flagstaff Observatory until the expedition departed from Melbourne on 20 August 1860. Neumayer was a member of the Exploration Committee of the Royal Society of Victoria which organised the Expedition. Neumayer joined the Expedition at Swan Hill, he remained with Burke and Wills as far as the Darling River at Bilbarka, before returning to the settled districts of Victoria. He published in 1860, Results of the Magnetical and Meteorological Observations from March 1858 to February 1859, did a large amount of travelling in Victoria in connection with his magnetic survey of the colony, he published his Results of the Meteorological Observations 1859-1862 and Nautical Observations 1858-1862 in 1864, in the same year returned to Germany.
In 1867 he brought out his Discussion of the Meteorological and Magnetical Observations made at the Flagstaff Observatory, in 1869 appeared his valuable Results of the Magnetic Survey of the Colony of Victoria—1858-1864. He organized the "Gazelle Expedition." and was director of the hydrographic organisation "Deutsche Seewarte". He chaired the International Polar Commission in 1879 together with Karl Weyprecht, founding the first International Polar Year 1882/83 and the Antarctic Year 1901. In 1895, von Neumayer had established the German Commission for South Polar Exploration, which culminated in the First German Antarctica Expedition in 1901, the so-called Gauss expedition. In 1890 he co-authored the first cloud atlas. Polar explorer Roald Amundsen came to study under Neumayer in 1900. In the same year, Neumayer was designated a Commander of the Order of Merit of the Bavarian Crown. Neumayer died in 1909 in Neustadt an der Weinstraße, he gave his name to the German Polar Research Station in Antarctica, the now abandoned "Neumayer Station".
This year-round manned station is covered with ice and snow and is situated in the Weddell-Sea area. The successor was the Neumayer Station II, abandoned itself; the only station in use now is the Neumayer Station III. Research topics are permanent observations of the Earth's magnetic field, seismological registrations, infrasonic and air chemistry investigations. Georg Neumayer, "Die internationale Polarforschung". Georg Neumayer, "Auf zum Südpol". Georg Neumayer, "Description and system of working of the Flagstaff Observatory". In J. Macadam, Transactions of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria: From January to December 1858 inclusive. Vol. III.. Georg Neumayer, "Results of the Magnetic Survey of the Colony of Victoria. Executed during the years 1858-1864". Edward Heis and George Neumayer, "On Meteors in the Southern Hemisphere". R. W. Home, "Neumayer and the search for a global physics", Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 123 2011, pp. 2–10. Douglas Morr
A vertical-lift bridge or just lift bridge is a type of movable bridge in which a span rises vertically while remaining parallel with the deck. The vertical lift offers several benefits over other movable bridges such as the bascule and swing-span bridge. Speaking they cost less to build for longer moveable spans; the counterweights in a vertical lift are only required to be equal to the weight of the deck, whereas bascule bridge counterweights must weigh several times as much as the span being lifted. As a result, heavier materials can be used in the deck, so this type of bridge is suited for heavy railroad use. Although most vertical-lift bridges use towers, each equipped with counterweights, some use hydraulic jacks located below the deck. An example is the 52-foot span bridge at St Paul Avenue in Milwaukee. Another design used balance beams to lift the deck, with pivoting bascules located on the top of the lift towers. An example of this kind was built at La Salle in Illinois, USA; the biggest disadvantage to the vertical-lift bridge is the height restriction for vessels passing under it.
This is a result of the deck remaining suspended above the passageway. Ryde Bridge – road – Ryde, New South Wales – opened 1935, now permanently lowered Hexham Bridge – road – Hexham, New South Wales – opened 1952 Harwood Bridge – road – Harwood Island, New South Wales – opened 1966 Bridgewater Bridge – road & rail – Bridgewater, Tasmania – opened 1946 Clyde River Bridge – road – Batemans Bay, New South Wales – opened 1956 Hobart Bridge – road – Hobart, Tasmania – opened 1943, closed 1964 and demolished afterwards BudabrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Schelde – opened 1955 EuropabrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Schelde – opened 1972 VerbrandebrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Schelde – opened 1968 HumbeekbrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Willebroek – opened 1968 BrielenbrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Schelde – opened 1968 RingbrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Willebroek – opened 1986 VredesbrugNL – road – zeekanaal Brussel-Schelde – opened 1952 Guaíba Bridge - road - Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul - opened 1958 Bridges 5, 11 and 21 on the Welland Canal, all built during the late 1920s as part of the Fourth Canal expansion project.
In addition, there are Bridges 13, 17 and 18 on the Welland Recreational Waterway. However, these bridges have not been operational since 1973. Bridges 13 and 18 have had their counterweights removed while the machinery for Bridge 17 has been dismantled. In addition, Bridge 18 no longer possesses its towers. Burlington Canal Lift Bridge, over the Burlington Canal, Ontario. Information is available from Built 1962. Pretoria Bridge over the Rideau Canal in Ottawa, Ontario Selkirk Lift Bridge over the Red River in Selkirk, Manitoba Victoria Bridge over the Saint Lawrence River connecting Saint-Lambert and Montreal, Quebec. Second Narrows Bridge Vancouver, BC over Burrard Inlet. Okanagan Lake Bridge in Kelowna, BC across Okanagan Lake – replaced in 2008. Shippagan Bridge Shippagan, NB over Shippagan Bay. Sir Ambrose Shea Bridge, Placentia, NL. Built 1961. Haimen Bridge, across Hai River in Tianjin Pont Gustave-Flaubert – crossing the Seine at Rouen, this lift bridge is the highest vertical-lift bridge in Europe, allowing ships up to 55 m tall to pass under it.
It is 670 m long, with a span of 116 metres. A striking design feature, the two road sections are mounted outside the central towers; the bridge was designed by François Gillard and Aymeric Zublena and opened to road traffic on 25 September 2008. It is named after the author Gustave Flaubert, born in Rouen. Pont de Recouvrance – over the river Penfeld in Brest – road & tramway Pont Levant de CriméeFR – over the Ourcq Canal; the central lift span is 117m long and can be lifted vertically up to 53m to let tall ships pass underneath. The bridge is 575m long with the central lift span weighing around 2,600 tonnes, its width varies from 32 to 45m and it will be used by cars, trams and pedestrians. It will reduce traffic congestion in Bordeaux. Structurae gives a length of 110 m for the lift span, making it the longest vertical-lift span in Europe. Rethe Lift Bridge in Hamburg, from 1934 Karnin Lift Bridge, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Kattwyk Bridge, in Hamburg, has a lift span 100 m long, one of the longest in Europe It's opened in a regular schedule every two hours.
Ponte Due GiugnoES – road – Fiumicino, Rome– rebuilt in 1945 Ampera Bridge – an automobile lift bridge located in Palembang that cross the Musi River. This bridge is still used since 1970 never lift its road deck again, its counterweights removed in 1990. Chikugo River Lift Bridge – connecting Ōkawa and Saga, Saga. Constructed as a railway bridge in 1935, it is 507 m long, with a central span 24 m long that weighs 48 t and rises 23 m; the railway closed in 1987, but the bridge reopened to pedestrians in 1996 and was designated an important cultural property in 2003. Rotterdam -'De Hef', designed by Pieter Joosting, opened October 31, 1927 Gouwe – three identical lift bridges crossing the Gouwe river at Alphen aan den Rijn and Waddinxveen, built in 1930. Botlek BridgeNL – in Rotterdam Finland Railway Bridge, in Saint-Petersburg Rostov-on-Don Railway Bridge, in Rostov-on-Don The two-storey bridge Reichsbahnbrücke https://de.wikipedia.o
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
The Loddon River, an inland river of the north–central catchment, part of the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the lower Riverina bioregion and Central Highlands and Loddon Mallee regions of the Australian state of Victoria. The headwaters of the Loddon River rise on the northern slopes of the Great Dividing Range east of Daylesford and descend to flow north into the Little Murray River, near Swan Hill; the river is impounded by the Cairn Laanecoorie reservoirs. An anabranch of the Loddon River may be found in the upper reaches of the river; the Loddon River is the second longest river in Victoria after the Goulburn and, along with the Avoca River, drains a substantial part of central Victoria. From source to mouth, the river is joined by nineteen minor tributaries; the river rises below Musk near Trentham and Lyonville from where it heads northward to Glenlyon and on to Loddon Falls. It flows northward through Guildford and Newstead, 40 kilometres west of Bendigo. After Newstead the river flows into the Cairn Curran Reservoir before emerging at Baringhup and continuing north to Eddington.
The river flows into Laanecoorie Reservoir at Laanecoorie and to Newbridge, where it flows due north to Bridgewater On Loddon, where waterskiing and fishing are popular recreational pursuits. The river passes Serpentine with high summer flows that commence at the small concrete weir to the Loddon Weir known as Fernihurst Weir. After the weir, water is diverted to the Waranga Western Channel. Downstream from Loddon Weir the river averages 7 to 14 metres wide, up to 26 metres wide at certain points, with a bank height of around 3 metres. 10 kilometres south of Kerang water flows are increased due to water entering from the Macorna Channel, the higher flows are maintained for the next 15 kilometres of river up to the Kerang Weir. The final stretch of the river flows through saltbush and Black Box forest; the river ends at its confluence with the Little Murray River at Benjeroop, near Swan Hill. When reasonable water levels flow, the Mill Rapid downstream of the Calder Hwy bridge provides technical whitewater kayaking of Grade 3 standard featuring a short fast run.
Access is via local roads on the west bank. Upstream of the Calder Hwy bridge kayakers and canoeists will have a pleasant paddling experience but may have to share the river with swimmers and waterskiers. At Bridgewater there is a designated 3.2-kilometre general waterskiing area, a 950-metre slalom and ski jump area. Waterskiing events held in this area include the Australian Masters in January, the pre-Moomba tournament in February and the Bridgewater Ski Club Tournament. Additionally, a 90-metre swimming area is designated at the Flour Mill Weir. Fish found between Bridgewater to Serpentine include golden perch; the water downstream from the Loddon Weir can range between 5 to 7 metres deep and provides fishing opportunities for redfin, golden perch, silver perch, carp and to a lesser extent Murray cod. A vertical slot fishway was constructed next to the Kerang Weir in 2008; the main fish species in the river's lower reaches are golden perch and Murray cod. There are weirs in Bridgewater and Kerang to keep water in the towns, but otherwise the river can dry up in summer.
There is current work going on to implement suitable environmental flows in the river. The pool upstream of the Bridgewater weir is used for watersports such as waterskiing. Both reservoirs are used for motor boats and sailing. At the Loddon Weir there is road access; the river is crossed by the Daylesford-Malmsbury Road at Glenlyon. Further river crossings are encountered at Kemps Bridge Road, the Midland Highway south of Guildford, as well as Punt Road and the Pyrenees Highway in Newstead; the river is crossed by the Baringhup Road, subsequently by the Baringhup West-Eastville Road, Rumbolds Road, Pickerings Lane, Back Eddington Road and Bendigo-Maryborough Road at Eddington. At Laanecoorie, the river is crossed by the Janevale bridge, a reinforced concrete girder bridge built in 1911, listed as a Heritage Place in the Victorian Heritage Register, northwards to Newbridge where it is crossed by the Wimmera Highway. At Bridgewater the river is crossed by the Eaglehawk-Inglewood railway line. A further road crossing is encountered to the south of Serpentine.
Road crossings between Serpentine and Loddon weirs include Lagoona Road, Borung-Hurstwood Road, Ellerslie Road, Majors Line Road, Boort-Pyramid Road, Boort-Yando Road, Canary Island-Leaghur Road, Appin South Road, Hewitt Road and Wood Lane. In Kerang the river is crossed by the Old Kerang Road, Murray Valley Highway and the Yungera railway line. After Kerang the river is crossed by West Road, O'Donoghues Bridge Road, Baulch Road and the Wells Bridge which carries the Lake Charm Road; as the river is long, indigenous peoples from various cultural groups lived near the river course. In an undefined indigenous language, the names for the river are Yolelerwil-meerin and Byerr, both with no defined meaning. In the Djadjawurrung language, the names for the river are Yarrayn, Minne-minne and Pullergil-yaluk, all with no defined meaning. In the Wembawemba language, the name for the river is Woppoon, with no defined meaning. In the Djadjawurrung and the Barababaraba languages, the name for the river is Gunbungwerro, with werro and wurru mea
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon