Swarthmore College is a private liberal arts college in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1864, with its first classes being held in 1869, Swarthmore was one of the earliest coeducational colleges in the United States, it was established to be a college "...under the care of Friends, at which an education may be obtained equal to that of the best institutions of learning in our country." By 1906, Swarthmore had dropped its religious affiliation and became non-sectarian. Swarthmore is a member of the Tri-College Consortium along with Bryn Mawr and Haverford College, a cooperative academic arrangement between the three schools. Swarthmore is affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania through the Quaker Consortium, which allows for students to cross-register for classes at all four institutions. Swarthmore offers over 600 courses a year in more than 40 areas of study, including an ABET accredited engineering program which culminates with a Bachelor of Science in engineering. Swarthmore has a variety of sporting teams with a total of 22 Division III Varsity Intercollegiate Sports Teams and competes in the Centennial Conference, a group of private colleges in Pennsylvania and Maryland.
Despite the school's small size, Swarthmore alumni have attained prominence in a broad range of fields. Graduates include five Nobel Prize winners, 11 MacArthur Foundation fellows, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 27 Truman Scholars, 10 Marshall Scholars, 201 Fulbright Grantees, many noteworthy figures in law, science, business and other fields; the name "Swarthmore" has its roots in early Quaker history. In England, Swarthmoor Hall near the town of Ulverston, was the home of Thomas and Margaret Fell in 1652 when George Fox, fresh from his epiphany atop Pendle Hill in 1651, came to visit; the visitation turned into a long association, as Fox persuaded Thomas and Margaret Fell of his views. Swarthmoor was used for the first meetings of; the College was founded in 1864 by a committee of members of the Hicksite Yearly Meetings of Philadelphia, New York and Baltimore and is the only college founded by the Hicksite branch of the Society of Friends: previous Quaker institutions, like the nearby Haverford College, were Orthodox.
It had its first classes in 1869 and Edward Parrish was the first president. Lucretia Mott and Martha Ellicott Tyson were among those Friends, who insisted that the new college of Swarthmore be coeducational. Edward Hicks Magill, the second president, served for 17 years, his daughter, Helen Magill, was in the first class to graduate in 1873. In the early 1900s, the College had a major collegiate American football program during the formation period of the soon-to-be nationwide sport, an active fraternity and sorority life; the 1921 appointment of Frank Aydelotte as President began the development of the school's current academic focus with his vision for the Honors program based on his experience as a Rhodes Scholar. During World War II, Swarthmore was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a U. S. Navy commission. Wolfgang Köhler, Hans Wallach and Solomon Asch were noted psychologists who became professors at Swarthmore, a center for Gestalt psychology.
Both Wallach, Jewish, Köhler, not, had left Nazi Germany because of its discriminatory policies against Jews. Köhler came to Swarthmore in 1935 and served until his retirement in 1958. Wallach came in 1936, first as a researcher, teaching from 1942 until 1975. Asch, Polish-American and had immigrated as a child to the US in 1920, joined the faculty in 1947 and served until 1966, conducting his noted conformity experiments at Swarthmore; the 1960s and 1970s saw the construction of new buildings – the Sharples Dining Hall in 1964, the Worth Health Center in 1965, the Dana/Hallowell Residence Halls in 1967, the Lang Music Building in 1973. They saw a 1967 review of the college initiated by President Courtney Smith, a 1969 black protest movement, in which African-American students conducted an eight-day sit-in in the admissions office to demand increased black enrollment, the establishment of the Black Cultural Center and the Women's Resource Center; the Environmental Studies program and the Intercultural Center were established in 1992, in 1993 the Lang Performing Arts Center was opened.
In 1999 the college began purchasing renewable energy credits in the form of wind power, in the 2002–2003 academic year it constructed its first green roof. In 2008, Swarthmore's first mascot, Phineas the Phoenix, made its debut. Swarthmore's Oxbridge tutorial-inspired Honors Program allows students to take double-credit seminars from their third year and write honors theses. Seminars are composed of four to eight students. Students in seminars will write at least three ten-page papers per seminar, one of these papers is expanded into a 20–30 page paper by the end of the seminar. At the end of their final year, Honors students take oral and written examinations conducted by outside experts in their field. One student in each discipline is awarded "Highest Honors
Elizabeth Jane Monroe was the First Lady of the United States from 1817 to 1825, as the wife of James Monroe, President of the United States. Due to the fragile condition of Elizabeth's health, many of the duties of official White House hostess were assumed by her eldest daughter, Eliza Monroe Hay. Born in New York City on June 30, 1768, Elizabeth was the youngest daughter of Lawrence Kortright, a wealthy merchant, Hannah Kortright. Elizabeth Monroe's paternal 2nd great grandfather, Cornelius Jansen Kortright, was born in Holland, Netherlands in the year of 1645, immigrated to New York in the year of 1663, his father, Jan Bastiaenson Van Kortrijk, was born in Holland, Netherlands in the year of 1618 and immigrated with his son to New York. Jan Bastiaenson's father, Bastiaen Van Kortrijk, was born in the city of Kortrijk in Flanders, Belgium in the year of 1586, immigrated to Holland, Netherlands in the year of 1615. Elizabeth's father was one of the founders of the New York Chamber of Commerce.
During the Revolutionary War, he was part owner of several privateers fitted out at New York, it has been documented that he owned at least four slaves. He purchased land tracts in what is now Delaware county, New York, from the sale of this land the town of Kortright, New York, was formed. Elizabeth acquired social elegance at an early age, she grew up in a household with four older siblings: Sarah, Hester and Mary. According to the parish records of Trinity Church, New York, Elizabeth's mother, died on September 6 or 7, 1777, at the age of 39; the cause of death was recorded as resulting from Child Bed. An unidentified sibling of Elizabeth, age 13 months, succumbed to fever a few days later. Mother and infant were both buried at St. George's Chapel in New York. At the time of their deaths, Elizabeth was nine years old, her father never remarried. On August 3, 1778 a year after the death of Elizabeth's mother, the home of the Lawrence Kortright family was nearly destroyed by fire during a blaze which caused damage and destruction to fifty homes near Cruger's Wharf in lower Manhattan.
A historian wrote that this blaze was due to the mismanagement of British troops while directing the firefighters. Elizabeth, age 10, with her father and siblings, survived the fire unscathed. Elizabeth first caught the attention of James Monroe in 1785 while he was in New York City serving as a member of the Continental Congress. William Grayson, James Monroe's cousin and fellow Congressman from Virginia, described Elizabeth and her sisters as having "made so brilliant and lovely an appearance" at a theater one evening, "as to depopulate all the other boxes of all the genteel male people therein." James, age twenty-six, married Elizabeth, age seventeen, on February 16, 1786, at her father's home in New York City. The marriage was performed by Reverend Benjamin Moore, recorded in the parish records of Trinity Church, New York. After a brief honeymoon on Long Island, the newlyweds returned to New York to live with her father until Congress adjourned, their first child, whom they named Eliza Kortright Monroe, was born in 1786, in Virginia.
In 1794, James was appointed United States Minister to France by President George Washington. In Paris, as wife of the American Minister during the Reign of Terror, she helped secure the release of Madame La Fayette, wife of the Marquis de Lafayette, when she learned of her imprisonment and threatened death by guillotine; the Monroes provided support and shelter to the American citizen Thomas Paine in Paris, after he was arrested for his opposition to the execution of Louis XVI. While in France, the Monroes' daughter Eliza became a friend of Hortense de Beauharnais, step-daughter of Napoleon, both girls received their education in the school of Madame Jeanne Campan. James was recalled from his Ambassadorship in 1796, due to his support of France in the opposition of the Jay Treaty; the Monroes returned to Virginia. A son, James Monroe, Jr. was born in 1799 but died in 1801. During this time, Elizabeth suffered the first of a series of seizures and collapses, which would plague her for the rest of her life, cause her to restrict social activities.
The Monroe's third child, a daughter whom they named Maria Hester, was born in Virginia in early 1802. In 1803, President Jefferson appointed James to be United States Minister to Great Britain, the United States Minister to Spain. Elizabeth found the social climate there less favorable than in France because British society resented the United States' refusal to ally against France despite the governmental change. In 1804, James was sent as a special envoy to France to negotiate the purchase of Louisiana, in addition to remaining the Ambassador to both Great Britain and Spain; that same year the Monroes were invited by Napoleon Bonaparte to attend his coronation in Paris, as part of the official American delegation. The Monroes returned to Virginia in 1807. James Monroe won election and returned to the Virginia House of Delegates, resumed his legal career. In 1811 Monroe served only four months. In April 1811, his friend President James Madison appointed Monroe Secretary of State, the Senate agreed.
However, Monroe had little to do with the War of 1812, as President Madison and the War Hawks in Congress were dominant. During the War, Elizabeth stayed inland in Virginia, on the Monroe family estates, Oak Hill in Loudoun and Ashlawn-Highland in Albemarle Counties; the war went badly, so Madison turned to Monroe for help, appointing him Secretary of War in September 1814 after the British had invade
Carl Lawson is an American football defensive end for the Cincinnati Bengals of the National Football League. He played college football at Auburn. Lawson attended Milton High School in Georgia, he had 15 sacks as a junior and 78 tackles and 27 sacks his senior year. Lawson was ranked among the top recruits in his class, he committed to Auburn University to play college football. As a true freshman at Auburn in 2013, Lawson had four sacks, he missed his sophomore year in 2014 due to a torn ACL. In 2015, Lawson played in only seven games in his junior season due to injuries, recording 17 tackles and one sack. Lawson was drafted by the Cincinnati Bengals in the fourth round, 116th overall, in the 2017 NFL Draft, he played in all 16 games with 8.5 sacks. His 8.5 sacks finished second on the team behind Geno Atkins' 9.0 and first among all rookies, earning him a spot on the PFWA All-Rookie Team. In 2018, Lawson played in eight games before suffering a season-ending torn ACL in Week 8, he was placed on injured reserve on November 5, 2018.