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Sweden

Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund Strait. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area; the capital city is Stockholm. Sweden has a total population of 10.3 million. Persons who have foreign backgrounds are defined as persons who are foreign born, or born in Sweden with foreign born parents, it has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre and the highest urban concentration is in the central and southern half of the country. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. In spite of the high latitude, Sweden has warm continental summers, being located in between the North Atlantic, the Baltic Sea and the vast Eurasian Russian landmass.

The general climate and environment varies from the south and north due to the vast latitudal difference and much of Sweden has reliably cold and snowy winters. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested and includes a portion of the Scandinavian Mountains. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century.

Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809. The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into a personal union, which peacefully dissolved in 1905. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. In 2014 Sweden celebrated 200 years of peace breaking Switzerland's record for peace. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy, with Legislative power vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag, it is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks highly in quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, gender equality and human development.

Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum. It is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; the name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia.

The etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic *Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania; this period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC. As

Jean-Baptiste-Zacharie Bolduc

Jean-Baptiste-Zacharie Bolduc was a Québécois Jesuit. His career started as a missionary in the Pacific Northwest, he worked in the Catholic medical efforts in Québec. Jean-Baptiste Bolduc was born in Saint-Joachim and ordained as a priest on 22 August 1841. Along with Antoine Langlois, another Catholic priest, Bolduc was sent to aid Catholic conversion efforts in the Pacific Northwest, with the two priests sailing from Boston on 14 September 1841, their vessel visited the port of Valparaíso at the end of December, where they waited for 63 days for another ship to continue ferrying them. A tour of the Polynesian Triangle commenced, with the Gambier Islands visited first; the Kingdom of Tahiti was reached on 5 May 1842. The two priests had a meeting with Queen Pōmare IV to explain their status as British subjects rather than French. Next their ship sailed for the Kingdom of the voyage ending on 21 June; the priests were greeted by fellow Catholic Louis Désiré Maigret, who informed them that they had to wait several days for the next ship to visit Honolulu, the Hudson's Bay Company barge Cowlitz.

Bolduc occupied his time by teaching at a school for Native Hawaiian children. The Cowlitz departed for the Columbia River on the 18th; the priests disembarked at Fort George on 19 September, where they met priests from the Methodist Mission departing for the United States of America. Plying the Columbia on a canoe, the priests were greeted by John McLoughlin at Fort Vancouver on 15 October. Traveling through the Willamette Valley and Oregon City, the two Jesuits reached St. Paul on 17 October. Waiting for them was their superior, Vicar general François Blanchet, after having the men join him in performing religious services, gave them their appointments. Bolduc was to winter at the St. Francis Xavier Mission. On 30 October Bolduc reached the church still under construction, he found many Cowlitz "still infidels, who do not want to give up their superstitions at all to submit to the yoke of the gospel." Despite this a former slave freed by Modeste Demers gave valuable service as a translator, many Cowlitzes requested baptisms when near death.

He witnessed an eruption of Mount St. Helens on 5 December. Bolduc was eager to explore the northern Puget Sound, along with Vancouver Island, to locate the site of a permanent missionary station, he joined James Douglas and a detachment of HBC employees at Fort Nisqually on 10 March 1843. Douglas was leading the party to Vancouver Island to establish Fort Victoria. Departing on the Beaver on the 13th, the party reached Whidbey Island the next day. A temporary chapel was constructed out of sailing pine by several HBC employees. Bolduc estimated that a gathering of 1,200 Klallams and Songhees was convened on the 19th, a Sunday, to hear his sermon. After the sermon he prepared to visit islands within the Puget Sound; as his expected vessel was delayed, Bolduc hired the services of several new converts to escort him to Whidbey Island. Manned by a Cowichan noble and ten of his servants, Bolduc's rented canoe sailed south on 24 March and reached the island the next day. Bolduc spent several days waiting for a prominent nobleman among the Lower Skagit tribe.

Netlam had sailed north to Vancouver prior to Bolduc's arrival, expecting to accompany the priest to his village. After returning to his residency, Netlam promised to order the construction of a house for Bolduc. Over 200 men created a dwelling with the dimensions of 28 by 25 feet in two days. Bolduc was pleased with the gesture, he went on to perform baptisms, hold prayer sessions and teach canticles to Skagit and Klallam inhabitants. While there was rapt interest in canticles, the language barriers prevented an effective explanation of Catholic theology, he additionally stated that "During my stay among them I had experienced only comforts from them." Bolduc departed on 3 April for Fort Nisqually and thence on to St. Francis Xavier Mission, he left the Mission in October 1844 for a school in the Willamette Valley for the children of American and French-Canadian farmers, where he remained throughout 1845. Departing from the Pacific Northwest in 1850, Bolduc attended the Séminaire de Québec for a year.

He acted as Vicar of Saint-Roch, along with serving as chaplain of the naval hospital in Québec City from 1851 to 1867. From 1851 to his death, Bolduc was chaplain of an asylum. Additional he served as Prosecutor of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec from 1867 until 1899

Osama Malik

Osama "Ozzie" Malik is an Australian football player. Malik signed for Adelaide United's youth squad at the commencement of the A-League 2008–09 season. Prior to this he had been plying his trade for local clubs Croydon Kings and Adelaide Raiders where he made his senior debut at the age of 17. In early 2008, Malik spent two weeks on trial at Italian club Torino. Adelaide United manager Aurelio Vidmar called up Osama to the first team squad as a replacement for injured striker Paul Agostino for the FIFA Club World Cup. There, Malik made his professional debut on 14 December 2008 in the match against Gamba Osaka, replacing Cristiano in the 77th minute. On 3 June 2009, Malik signed a one-year deal with the North Queensland Fury as an under-21 player after playing most of the last year at Adelaide Galaxy. For the 2011 -- 12 season, Malik signed with manager Rini Coolen. However, on 17 May 2011 Adelaide United approached North Queensland Fury asking for an early release, granted, allowing Malik to play for Adelaide United for the remainder of the 2010–11 Season.

Malik was signed by Melbourne City in January 2016. 1 – includes Club World Cup statistics. Adelaide UnitedFFA Cup: 2014Melbourne CityFFA Cup: 2016Personal Honours Adelaide United Rising Star: 2011–12 Best Team Man Award: 2013–14 Adelaide United profile Osama Malik at goal.com