Sveriges Television AB, Sweden's Television, is the Swedish national public television broadcaster, funded by a public service tax on personal income set by the Riksdag. Prior to 2019, SVT was funded by a television licence fee payable by all owners of television sets; the Swedish public broadcasting system is modeled after the system used in the United Kingdom, Sveriges Television shares many traits with its British counterpart, the BBC. SVT is a public limited company that can be described as a quasi-autonomous non-government organisation. Together with the other two public broadcasters, Sveriges Radio and Sveriges Utbildningsradio, it is owned by an independent foundation, Förvaltningsstiftelsen för Sveriges Radio AB, Sveriges Television AB och Sveriges Utbildningsradio AB, The foundation's board consists of 13 politicians, representing the political parties in the Riksdag and appointed by the Government; the foundation in turn appoints the members of the SVT board. SVTs regulatory framework is governed by Swedish law.
SVT and Sveriges Radio were a joint company, but since 1979 they and Sveriges Utbildningsradio are sister companies sharing some joint services. SVT maintained a monopoly in domestic terrestrial broadcasting from the start in 1956 until the held TV4 started broadcasting terrestrially in 1992, it is barred from accepting advertisements except in the case of sponsors for sporting events. Until the launch of the Swedish language satellite television channel TV3 in 1987, Sveriges Television provided the only Swedish television available to the public. SVT is still the biggest TV network in Sweden, with an audience share of 36.4 percent. When radio broadcasting was organized in the 1920s, it was decided to adopt a model similar to the one of the British Broadcasting Company in the United Kingdom; the radio would be a monopoly funded by a license fee and organized as a limited company, AB Radiotjänst, owned by the radio industry and the press. The transmitters were owned by the state through Telegrafverket and the press held a monopoly on newscasts through Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå.
AB Radiotjänst was one of 23 founding broadcasting organizations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950. Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå lost its monopoly on newscasts de jure in 1947 and de facto in 1956, but otherwise the same model would be applied to television, it was decided to start test transmissions of television in June 1954. The first transmissions were made on 29 October 1954 from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. In 1956, the Riksdag made the decision to permanent television broadcasting. Transmissions were started in Sweden by Radiotjänst on 4 September the same year using the new Nacka transmitter. A television license for those owning a television set was introduced in October. Television started broadcasting in 1957. At the same time, Radiotjänst was renamed its ownership changed; the state and the press would have equaled 40% shares, while the company would own 20%. In 1958, the first newscast, was broadcast. During the 1960s a second TV channel was discussed; the discussions resulted in the start of TV2 on 5 December 1969.
The first channel was named TV1 and the two channels were supposed to broadcast in "stimulating competition" within the same company. The first stage of the main headquarters building and TV studios for Sveriges Television, called TV-huset, was inaugurated on Oxenstiernsgatan in the Östermalm district in Stockholm on 30 October 1967; the completion of the second stage of TV-huset and its official opening was on 5 December 1969, the same day as the start of operations of TV2, making it one the largest television studios in Europe at that time. 1970 saw the start of the first regional programme, Sydnytt from Malmö. More regional news programmes launched in 1972 and the entire country was covered by regional news programmes by 1987 when ABC from Stockholm started; when TV2 started the news programmes were reorganized. Aktuellt was cut and replaced with TV-nytt, in charge of the main 19:30 bulletin on TV1 as well as news updates on both channels. In addition, the two channels would get one "commenting bulletin" each.
TV2 got TV1 got Nu. In 1972, the news was reorganized once again. Rapport was moved to the 7:30 slot on TV2, Aktuellt was revived and would broadcast at 6 and 9 on TV1; those timeslots would stay unchanged for the following decades. In 1966, the first colour broadcast was made, with regular colour broadcasts being introduced in 1970. Teletext started in 1978. At the end of the 1970s, SR was reorganized. From 1 July 1979, Sveriges Radio AB became the mother of four companies: Sveriges Riksradio for national radio, Sveriges Lokalradio AB for local radio, Sveriges Utbildningsradio for educational broadcasting and Sveriges Television for television. SVT would provide all television broadcasting, except for educational programming, the responsibility of Sveriges Utbildningsradio; the abbreviation SVT was chosen over the arguably more logical "STV" as that abbreviation was occupied by Scottish Television in the EBU. The Swedish EBU membership is jointly held by SVT, SR and UR; the two channels were reorganized in 1987.
TV1 was renamed Kanal 1 and contained all programmes produced in Stockholm, while TV2 consisted of the ten regional districts and the Rapport news desk. Broadcasts in Nicam Stereo were made permanent in 1988; this year saw the launch of a channel called SVT World in southern Finland, broadcasting content from SVT for Finland-Swedes. The channel, renamed SVT4, was rebr
ABBA are a Swedish pop group formed in Stockholm in 1972 by Agnetha Fältskog, Björn Ulvaeus, Benny Andersson and Anni-Frid Lyngstad. The group's name is an acronym of the first letters of their first names, they became one of the most commercially successful acts in the history of popular music, topping the charts worldwide from 1974 to 1982. ABBA won the Eurovision Song Contest 1974 at The Dome in Brighton, UK, giving Sweden its first triumph in the contest, they are the most successful group to have taken part in the competition. Estimates of ABBA's total record sales are around 140 million to 500 million records worldwide, making them one of the best-selling music artists of all time. ABBA are the first group from a non-English-speaking country to achieve consistent success in the charts of English-speaking countries, including the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States, they have a joint record eight consecutive number-one albums in the UK. The group enjoyed significant success in Latin America, recorded a collection of their hit songs in Spanish.
During the band's active years, it was composed of two couples: Agnetha Fältskog and Björn Ulvaeus, Anni-Frid Lyngstad and Benny Andersson. With the increase of their popularity, their personal lives suffered which resulted in the collapse of both marriages; the relationship changes were reflected in the group's music, with latter compositions featuring darker and more introspective lyrics. After ABBA disbanded in January 1983, Andersson and Ulvaeus achieved success writing music for the stage, while Lyngstad and Fältskog pursued solo careers with mixed success. ABBA's music declined in popularity until the purchase of ABBA's catalogue and record company Polar by Polygram in 1989 enabled the groundwork to be laid for an international re-issue of all their original material and a new Greatest Hits collection in September 1992, which became a worldwide bestseller. Several films, notably Muriel's Wedding and The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert, further revived interest in the group and spawned several tribute bands.
In 1999, ABBA's music was adapted into the successful musical Mamma Mia! that toured worldwide. A film of the same name, released in 2008, became the highest-grossing film in the United Kingdom that year. A sequel, Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again, was released in 2018. ABBA were honoured at the 50th anniversary celebration of the Eurovision Song Contest in 2005, when their hit "Waterloo" was chosen as the best song in the competition's history; the group was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2010. In 2015, their song "Dancing Queen" was inducted into the Recording Academy's Grammy Hall of Fame. On April 27, 2018, it was announced that the band had recorded two new songs after 35 years of being inactive, named "I Still Have Faith in You" and "Don’t Shut Me Down". On September 18, 2018, in an interview, Andersson said that they are still working on the songs, with a third one written. Benny Andersson became a member of a popular Swedish pop-rock group, the Hep Stars, that performed covers, amongst other things, of international hits.
The Hep Stars were known as "the Swedish Beatles". They set up Hep House, their equivalent of Apple Corps. Andersson played the keyboard and started writing original songs for his band, many of which became major hits, including "No Response" that hit number-three in 1965, "Sunny Girl", "Wedding", "Consolation", all of which hit number-one in 1966. Andersson had a fruitful songwriting collaboration with Lasse Berghagen, with whom he wrote his first Svensktoppen entry, "Sagan om lilla Sofie", in 1968. Björn Ulvaeus began his musical career at 18, when he fronted the Hootenanny Singers, a popular Swedish folk–skiffle group. Ulvaeus started writing English-language songs for his group, had a brief solo career alongside; the Hootenanny Singers and the Hep Stars sometimes crossed paths while touring. In June 1966, Ulvaeus and Andersson decided to write a song together, their first attempt was "Isn't It Easy to Say", a song recorded by the Hep Stars. Stig Anderson was founder of the Polar Music label.
He saw potential in the collaboration, encouraged them to write more. The two began playing with the other's bands on stage and on record, although it was not until 1969 that the pair wrote and produced some of their first real hits together: "Ljuva sextital", recorded by Brita Borg, the Hep Stars' 1969 hit "Speleman". Andersson wrote and submitted the song "Hej, Clown" for Melodifestivalen 1969, the national festival to select the Swedish entry to the Eurovision Song Contest; the song re-voting relegated Andersson's song to second place. On that occasion Andersson met his future spouse, singer Anni-Frid Lyngstad, who participated in the contest. A month the two had become a couple; as their respective bands began to break up during 1969, Andersson and Ulvaeus teamed up and recorded their first album together in 1970, called Lycka, which included original songs sung by both men. Their partners were present in the recording studio, sometimes added backing vocals. Ulvaeus still recorded and performed with the Hootenanny Singers until the middle of 1974, Andersson took part in producing their records.
Agnetha Fältskog sang with a local dance band head
Ireland in the Eurovision Song Contest
Ireland has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 52 times since making its debut at the 1965 Contest in Naples, missing only two contests since then. The contest final is broadcast in Ireland on RTÉ One. Ireland is the most successful country in the contest, with a record total of seven wins, is the only country to have won three times consecutively. Ireland's seven wins were achieved by Dana with "All Kinds of Everything", Johnny Logan with "What's Another Year" and "Hold Me Now", Linda Martin with "Why Me", Niamh Kavanagh with "In Your Eyes", Paul Harrington and Charlie McGettigan with "Rock'n' Roll Kids" and Eimear Quinn with "The Voice". Johnny Logan is the only performer to have won twice and wrote the 1992 winning entry. Ireland, who finished second with Sean Dunphy, Linda Martin, Liam Reilly and Marc Roberts, has a total of 18 top five results. Since the introduction of the semifinal round in 2004, Ireland has failed to reach the final seven times, has twice finished last in the final, in 2007 and 2013.
Ireland's only top 10 result in the last 12 contests is Jedward's eighth-place in 2011. Since its debut in 1965, Ireland has missed only two contests, in 1983 in Munich and 2002 in Tallinn. A strike at RTÉ in 1983, meant that the station lacked the resources to send a participant, so RTÉ broadcast the contest with the BBC commentary feed. Ireland was relegated in 2002. In keeping with EBU rules, RTÉ broadcast that years event as they intended to return in 2003, a TV commentator was sent to the contest in Tallinn. Raidió Teilifís Éireann is Ireland's representative broadcaster at the contest, the semi-finals are broadcast on RTÉ2 and the final on RTÉ One. All of the Irish entries have been performed in English with the exception of the 1972 entry, "Ceol an Ghrá", sung in Irish. Ireland have hosted the contest on seven occasions, all but one of these in the capital Dublin, while the 1993 Eurovision Song Contest was staged in Millstreet, a town in north-west County Cork with a population of 1,500 people.
Seán Dunphy finished second at the 1967 contest, behind Sandie Shaw, Pat McGeegan finished fourth in 1968, before Dana gave Ireland its first victory in 1970, performing "All Kinds of Everything". The country's next best result of the 1970s was in 1977, when The Swarbriggs plus two finished third; this was followed by fifth -place finishes for both Colm C. T. Wilkinson and Cathal Dunne. Johnny Logan gave Ireland a second victory in 1980, with "What's Another Year". Girl Group Sheeba finished fifth in 1981. Logan wrote the 1984 entry "Terminal 3", which finished second, performed by Linda Martin. In 1987, Logan became the first and only performer to win the contest twice, when he won with the self-penned "Hold Me Now". Ireland's most successful decade to date in the contest is the 1990s, which began with Liam Reilly finishing joint second in 1990. Ireland achieved an unequalled three consecutive victories in the contest. In 1992, 1984 runner-up Linda Martin returned to win with another Johnny Logan composition, "Why Me?".
This was followed up by Niamh Kavanagh's victory over Sonia in 1993 with "In Your Eyes" and Paul Harrington and Charlie McGettigan winning in 1994 with "Rock'n' Roll Kids". The decade saw yet another victory in 1996 when Eimear Quinn won with "The Voice". Ireland finished second in 1997 with Marc Roberts. In the 21st century, Ireland has fared less well, only reaching the top 10 on two occasions, with Brian Kennedy tenth in 2006 and Jedward eighth in 2011. Ireland finished last in the final for the first time in 2007, which happened again in 2013. Since the introduction of the semi-final round in 2004, Ireland has failed to reach the final seven times, in 2005, 2008, 2009, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017. In 2018, Ireland qualified for the first time since 2013 with Ryan O'Shaughnessy and "Together". Ireland has sent 50 entries to the Eurovision Song Contest. Ireland has been relegated once: in 2001 Gary O'Shaughnessy finished twenty-first with "Without Your Love,". In addition, six Irish entries have featured in the semi-final of the Contest.
In 2005, Donna & Joe finished fourteenth in the pre-qualifier. In 2006, Brian Kennedy finished ninth in the semi-final, ensuring an Irish presence in the Athens final. Kennedy finished tenth in the final. Ireland featured in the first semi-final in 2008 and in the second semi-final in 2009, however the representatives failed to qualify for the final in both years. Ireland's recent results in the Contest have been poor in comparison to the 1990s, coming last in 2007 and 2013. At the Contest in 2007, Ireland's representatives were traditional Irish music group Dervish performing "They Can't Stop The Spring"; the group, having automatically qualified for the final, finished last with five points, all from Albania. In 2008, Dustin the Turkey failed to qualify for the final with his song "Irelande Douze Pointe", losing out in the semi-final on May 20; the same fate befell Sinéad Mulvey and Black Daisy in the 2009 semi-final on May 14. In 2011 however, Ireland's luck changed; the duo finished in eighth place, with 119 points, thus making them Ireland's most successful entry in 10 years.
Their single Lipstick topped the iTunes charts in Austria, Germany and Sweden. Jedward represented Ireland again in 2012 with their song Waterline, but after making it through the first semi-final, were only awarded 46 points, finishing in 19th place. Seven singers have represented Ireland more than once at the Contest: Johnny Logan, Linda Martin, Niamh Kavanagh (1993, 2010
Eurovision Song Contest 1999
The Eurovision Song Contest 1999 was the 44th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Jerusalem, following Dana International's win at the 1998 contest in Birmingham, United Kingdom with the song "Diva"; this was Israel's third victory in the contest, the second time hosting the event. It was held on 29 May 1999 at the International Convention Center, the same venue that hosted it 20 years earlier. Television news anchor Yigal Ravid, singer and 1992 contestant Dafna Dekel and model/actress Sigal Shachmon were the show's hosts, it was the first time that three presenters were used to host the Contest. Israel's two previous winners, Izhar Cohen, who won in 1978 with "A-Ba-Ni-Bi" and Milk and Honey's Gali Atari who won it the next year with "Hallelujah" attended as spectators; the winner of the Contest was Charlotte Nilsson, representing Sweden with "Take Me to Your Heaven", which scored 163 points. This was the second in the 1990s. In the run-up to the Contest, many speculated that it would not be held in Israel, but would be moved to either Malta or stay at the United Kingdom.
This came about after major concerns over funding for the event from the Israeli government arose, alongside the opposition from Orthodox Jews that they would attempt to stop the Contest from coming to Israel after Dana International won the previous year's Contest. This, provided no hindrance for IBA or to the organizing team of the event, the Ussishkin Auditorium at International Convention Center in Jerusalem was selected as the venue for the 44th Contest; as of 2018, this is the last Eurovision Song Contest to have been held in a concert hall rather than in an indoor arena. Long-standing rules in place for decades were abolished during this Contest: rules that each country had to sing in one of their national languages was abolished for the first time since 1977. A majority of the participating countries, fourteen out of twenty-three, chose to sing or in English and only eight in their respective national languages. Furthermore, live music became optional for the first time in the Contest's history.
IBA took advantage of this and decided to drop the orchestra from the Contest as a way to conserve money for the show. This meant; this caused controversy for Eurovision traditionalists, with three-time winner Johnny Logan criticising the move, describing the event now as "karaoke". A compilation CD was released in Israel; the CD omitted the songs from Poland, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Since all compilation CDs have featured all the songs, it was announced in 1999 that, as of the 2000 Contest, the four biggest financial contributors to the European Broadcasting Union – Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom – would all be given automatic entry into the Contest, regardless of their average scores over the past five years. Latvia withdrew at a late stage; this gave Hungary a chance to enter the Contest. This allowed Portugal to compete as the 23rd country. Austria and Herzegovina, Denmark and Iceland returned to the Contest after being relegated from competing in 1998. Lithuania returned to the Contest for the first time in five years.
The Lithuanian delegation has had budget problems to contend with, so the EBU allowed the Lithuanians to arrive in Israel a day than everyone else. The first delegation on the other hand, to arrive were Estonia. After being relegated from the 1998 Contest, Russia's Channel One had decided not to broadcast that year's contest, in order to allow for a strong comeback in Israel. However, as only countries which had broadcast the previous year's contest were allowed to enter the next year's contest, Russia was forced to miss another year, they were joined by Finland, Hungary, Romania and Switzerland. The favourites to win the Contest came from Iceland's Selma with "All Out of Luck", Cyprus's Marlain with "Tha'Ne Erotas", after an internet poll by fans. But, while Iceland finished second to Sweden, Cyprus failed to inspire televotes, finishing second last with only two points, both from the United Kingdom. A number of controversies occurred before the Contest. Two songs selected to compete in Israel were found to be ineligible: Bosnia and Herzegovina's Hari Mata Hari were disqualified after their entry was discovered to have been released in Finland some years previously.
Both artists would represent their countries in Eurovision, in 2006 and 2002 respectively. Croatia's entry attracted objections from the Norwegian delegation, due to synthesised male vocals being used on the backing track of Doris Dragović's entry; the EBU decided to reduce the country's score by a third for the purpose of calculating its five-year average to determine participation in future contests, though it was decided to leave its placement in the 1999 result unaffected. The interval act was provided by Dana International, who performed a cover of the Stevie Wonder song "Free", which although was a smash hit in Israel at the time, caused some controversy there due to the song
Alice Babs was a Swedish singer and actress. She worked in a wide number of genres -- Elizabethan songs and opera. While she was best known internationally as a jazz singer, Babs competed as Sweden's first annual competition entrant in the Eurovision Song Contest 1958. In 1972 she was named the first non-opera singer as such. After making her breakthrough in the film Swing it magistern, she appeared in more than a dozen Swedish-language films. Despite being cast as the well-behaved, good-hearted, cheerful girl, the youth culture forming with Babs as its icon caused outrage among members of the older generation. A vicar called the Babs cult the "foot and mouth disease of cultural life". In 1958, she was the first artist to represent Sweden in the Eurovision Song Contest, finishing in 4th place with the song "Lilla stjärna"; the same year, she formed Swe-Danes with violinist Svend Asmussen. The group would tour the United States together, before dissolving in 1965. A long and productive period of collaboration with Duke Ellington began in 1963.
Among other works, Babs participated in performances of Ellington's second and third Sacred Concerts which he had written for her. Her voice had a range of more than three octaves. In 1963, her recording of "After You've Gone" reached No. 43 in the British charts. In 1943 Babs married Nils Ivar Sjöblom, their three children are Lilleba Sjöblom Lagerbäck, Lars-Ivar Sjöblom, Titti Sjöblom. Titti Sjöblom appeared with her mother in recordings and radio shows from the mid-1950s, on an early-1960s advertising for Toy Chewing Gum. At the end of Babs' career and daughter again toured together. Between 1973–2004 Babs and her husband resided in Costa del Sol, while still working in Sweden and internationally. In their years, they returned to Sweden. Babs died of complications from Alzheimer's disease at age 90 on 11 February 2014 in Stockholm. Alice Babs förlorade rättigheter Alice Babs – Swing´it Swinging at the Castle Musik ombord Swing it, fröken Sommarflickan Resan till dej Kungen av Dalarna Drömsemestern Sången om Stockholm Skådetennis Örnungar En trallande jänta Vårat gäng Sjung och le Magistrarna på sommarlov Swing it, magistern!
Thunder and Lightning Alice Babs' discography includes more than 800 recordings since her debut with Joddlarflickan in 1939. The following is a list of her recordings available on CD, listed chronologically from when they were recorded. Vax Records CD 1003 Alice Babs & Nisse Linds Hot-trio recorded: 1939–41 Naxos 8.120759 Swingflickan recorded: 1939–44 Vax Records CD 1000 Early recordings 1939–1949 Klara skivan KLA 7802-2 Joddlarflickan recorded: 1939–51 Phontastic PHONTCD 9302 Swing it! Alice Babs! recorded: 1939–53 Sonora 548493-2 Swing it, Alice! recorded: 1939–63 Sonora 529315-2 Ett glatt humör recorded: 1940–42 Odeon 7C138-35971/2 Alice Babs recorded: 1942–1947 Metronome 8573-84676-2 Guldkorn recorded: 1951–58 Metronome 4509-93189-2 Metronomeåren recorded: 1951–58 Metronome 5050467-1616-2-7 Alice Babs bästa recorded: 1951–61 Bear Family BCD 15809-AH Mitsommernacht recorded: 1953–59 Bear Family BCD 15814-AH Lollipop recorded: 1953–59 EMI 7243-5-96148-2-3 Diamanter recorded: 1958–60 EMI 7243-5-20153-2-0 Just you, just me recorded: 1958–72 Pickwick 751146 Regntunga skyar recorded: 1958–72 Metronome 4509-95438-2 Swe-Danes Scandinavian Shuffle recorded: 1959 RCA 74321-12719-2 Alice and Wonderband recorded: 1959 Real Gone Music RGM-0496 Serenade to Sweden, Alice Babs and Duke Ellington recorded: 1963 Swedish Society Discofil SWECD 401 Sjung med oss mamma recorded: 1963 Swedish Society Discofil SWECD 400 Alice Babs recorded: 1964 Swedish Society Discofil SWECD 402 Scandinavian songs recorded: 1964 Prophone PCD 050 Yesterday recorded: 1966–75 Vax Records VAXCD 1006 "Illusion" Originally recorded 1966 Vax Records CD 1008 "As time goes by" Alice Babs with Bengt Hallbergs trio and Arne Domnérus Big Band with Svend Asmussen.
Recorded 1960–1969 EMI 7243 5398942 2 Den olydiga ballongen/Hej du måne recorded: 1968–76 Prophone PCD 045 What a joy! recorded: 1972–80 Bluebell ABCD 052 There's something about me recorded: 1973–78 Prophone PCD 021 Serenading Duke Ellington recorded: 1974–75 Swedish Society Discofil SCD 3003 Om sommaren sköna – Sjunger Alice Tegnér recorded: 1974 Bluebell ABCD 005 Far away star recorded: 1977 RCA Victor 74321-62363-2 Swingtime again recorded: 1998 Sony SK 61797 A church blues for Alice recorded: 1999 Four Leaf Clover Records FLCDVD 8001 Swingtime Again with Charlie Norman recorded 1999 Prophone PCD 062 Don't be blue recorded: 2001 Vax Records Vi Minns Alice Babs released: 2014 Alice Babs on IMDb
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end