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Swedish Air Force Museum

The Swedish Air Force Museum is located at Malmen Airbase in Malmslätt, just outside Linköping, Sweden. Malmen is where Baron Carl Cederström, nicknamed the "Flyer Baron" founded his flying school in 1912. Malmen Airbase is home to the Royal Swedish Airschool operating SAAB 105 jet trainers. Along with the Swedish Army Museum in Stockholm, Flygvapenmusem constitutes the government agency Statens försvarshistoriska museer; the museum’s collection of artifacts includes aircraft, engines and uniforms. The museum has a knowledge centre, with library and archives, containing literature, plans and personal files relating to aviation; the museum is part of the National Swedish Museums of a government agency. The establishment of the Swedish Air Force Museum was aided by the Östergötland Society for Aviation History. Today, ÖFS acts as a support organisation for the museum, works at tasks such as the restoration of aircraft; the museum has been in existence since 1984, served both as the Östgöta Air Force Wing squadron museum and a storage building in Ryd.

The inauguration of the museum in 1984 marked the beginning of a public aviation museum at Malmen – the cradle of Swedish aviation. In 1989, the museum underwent an additional expansion with a second exhibition hall, enabling it to exhibit a large collection of aircraft from the decade following 1910 to today’s JAS 39 Gripen. In 2010 the museum rebuild; the exhibitions are now divided in themes, for example: 1. Pioneers in aviation, describing the early developments in Swedish aviation history in the period 1910 - 1926. 2. Between the wars, describing the establishment of the Swedish Airforce and the early developments of the Swedish aviation industry in the period 1926-1939. 3. The Second World War, when the Swedish Airforce increased in size and the first SAAB planes joined in the period 1939 - 1945. 4. Aviation technology 5. Sweden during the Cold War, showing preparations made in case of war in the period of the 1950s - 1980s; the various exhibitions including the displayed aircraft are shown on three levels in the museum.

There are two large hangar sized exhibition halls with a large number of aircraft and a third downstairs showing the DC-3, shot down in 1952 and found in 2003. After interim storage, the plane was placed in its final location at the Swedish Air Force Museum on 13 May 2009. There is a Cafe, at the museum. Across the road from the museum there is a parking lot; the Air Force Museum won the award for the 2011 Swedish Museum of the year. The Air Force Museum won the prize for the 2010 Exhibition of the Year; the 2011 Swedish Museum of the Year award is sponsored by the Swedish chapter of the International Council of Museums and the Association of Swedish Museums. The award for the 2010 Exhibition of the Year is sponsored by FORUM for exhibitors. A German built Junkers Ju 86 twin-engined bomber, a wide range of British, American and Swedish-made aircraft reveal the diversity of types flown by the Swedish Air Force including aircraft from every stage of Swedish military aviation. Noteworthy exhibition objects from the pioneering days of World War I include an Albatros B.

IIa trainer, as well as Nieuport and Bréguet combat aircraft. All service aircraft of significance from the post-war years are exhibited, from the Saab J 29 "Flying Barrel", a sturdy fighter of the 1950s, to the contemporary 4th generation multirole fighter JAS 39 Gripen. New exhibitions have been added, based around the salvaged Tp 79 ELINT aircraft, shot down by a Soviet MiG-15 in 1952. There is a Saab 39 Gripen simulator in the museum. Just outside the museum an English Electric Canberra, Vickers Varsity and Douglas C-47A Skytrain are on display but not yet restored. There was a Hunting-Percival Pembroke outside the museum. However, this has been moved for restoration. List of aerospace museums Swedish Air Force Historic Flight Swedish Air Force Museum

Isorenieratene

Isorenieratene is a carotenoid light harvesting pigment with the chemical formula C40H48. Isorenieratene and its derivatives are useful to marine chemists studying the carbon cycle as biomarkers that indicate photic zone anoxia. Isorenieratene is produced by green sulfur bacteria which perform photosynthesis using hydrogen sulfide rather than water: H2S + CO2 → SO42− + organic compoundsSuch anoxygenic photosynthesis requires reduced sulfur and light; this combination of conditions is unusual nowadays, since it requires stratified water columns to achieve a sharp density gradient, i.e. a constrained basin with fresh water flowing, or warm water on top of cooler water. Green sulfur bacteria are found in meromictic lakes and ponds and some sinkholes; some marine environments, such as certain fjords and the Black sea fulfill these criteria. In the early history of the Earth, these conditions were present in all oceans at depths of about 100 m. At such depths, sunlight has a different wavelength profile than at the surface, so isorenieratene is used instead of chlorophyll to harvest light for photosynthesis.

Carotene

Paris Theatre

The Paris Theatre was a cinema located at 12 Lower Regent Street in central London, converted into a studio by the BBC for radio broadcasts requiring an audience. It was used for several decades by the BBC as the main venue for comedy programmes broadcast on BBC Radios 2 and 4; the venue had a capacity of under 400 and a stage twelve inches from the floor, giving it an intimate feeling helpful for radio comedy with an audience. Shows recorded there included panel game shows such as I'm Sorry I Haven't A Clue, comedy such as Hi Gang!, Dad's Army and Don't Stop Now - It's Fundation and non-audience shows such as The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. In addition to comedy, the BBC recorded performances by musical artists at the Paris Theatre, including acts such as T. Rex, AC/DC, the Beatles, David Bowie, Leonard Cohen 1968, Shakin' Stevens, Streetwalkers, Jeff Beck, Deep Purple, Hawkwind, Status Quo, Sad Café, Dr. Feelgood, Mahavishnu Orchestra, Fleetwood Mac, Led Zeppelin, Joni Mitchell, Pink Floyd, Barclay James Harvest, Rod Stewart, Simple Minds, the Screaming Blue Messiahs, the Pretenders and the Wailers.

Some of these performances were recorded in front of live studio audiences as part of the In Concert and Sounds of the Seventies series, several of these acts have subsequently released tapes of sessions recorded at the studio, such as Led Zeppelin's BBC Sessions album. It was the London home of the BBC's Radio 1 Club in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the Paris Theatre was closed in 1995, being replaced by the BBC Radio Theatre in Broadcasting House. The demise of the Paris Theatre was marked with a commemorative concert and broadcast of the last show to be recorded at the theatre, namely the final show in series two of The Skivers. Paris Studios, from the History of the BBC at BBC Online

Franz-Benno Delonge

Franz-Benno Delonge was a designer of German-style board games. He has been nominated for multiple best game awards, including Spiel des Jahres and International Gamers Awards. TransAmerica won the Mensa best mind game award for 2003, he died of cancer on September 2, 2007. Delonge started boardgaming as a child spending extended periods of time with his grandmother and her sisters; these three widows enjoyed all kinds of card and board games, the most popular card game in Bavaria was for four players. Although quite hard, they made sure. While enjoying the success of TransAmerica, he would prefer to play other games he designed, like Dos Rios, Hellas or Big City, he considered his best work to have been Manila. TransAmerica was the game he thought was easiest for him to design, found that simple rules can have unexpected consequences. Dos Rios, on the other hand, he felt was the hardest game to work to completion, which took around 5 years to improve from basic design to publishable product. Big City is a game with a modular board, each board section representing a neighbourhood of a new and growing city.

Players draw cards representing development lots on those neighbourhoods, turn the cards in to build residences and other special buildings. If a building is larger than a single space multiple cards must be turned in, representing the adjacent lots; some buildings have restrictions on where they can be placed, points are scored based on the size and type of building, with bonuses for location, the adjacent buildings. Players have an opportunity to build a streetcar line, which provides bonus points for buildings. TransAmerica, was Delonge's greatest success, won a Mensa Best Mind Game award. Players have to build track to connect their five randomly and secretly assigned cities. Delonge attributed much of its success to the simplicity of the rules. Fjords TransEuropa Hellas Zahltag Goldbräu Dos Rios Nah Dran! Manila Kunstmarkt Zanzibar Container Franz-Benno Delonge Interview by Dave Shapiro, The Game Journal. Luding Entry for Franz-Benno Delonge. Franz-Benno Delonge at BoardGameGeek

Woodwalton

Wood Walton is a village and civil parish in Cambridgeshire, England. Wood Walton lies 6 miles north of Huntingdon and just east of the A1. Wood Walton is situated within Huntingdonshire, a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire as well as being a historic county of England; the civil parish of Wood Walton is spread over a wide area, the main village dissected by the East Coast Main Line. To the north of the village in the area known as "Church End" stands the parish church of St Andrew visible from passing trains; the church was listed as one of Songs of Praise's favourite churches. The church dates from around 1200 and is layered in history: the south aisle was added in 1250, a clerestory was added in the 16th century, it received a major remodelling in the 1850s, it is now in the keeping of the Friends of Friendless Churches. Further north are the earthworks of Woodwalton Castle, a motte-and-bailey castle which held the manor of the parish. In 1886 a hoard of Roman coins was dug up in the parish.

The village stands at the edge of an area of special scientific interest. In 1085 William the Conqueror ordered that a survey should be carried out across his kingdom to discover who owned which parts and what it was worth; the survey took place in 1086 and the results were recorded in what, since the 12th century, has become known as the Domesday Book. Starting with the king himself, for each landholder within a county there is a list of their estates or manors. Wood Walton was listed in the Domesday Book in the Hundred of Normancross in Huntingdonshire. In 1086 there was just one manor at Wood Walton; the Domesday Book does not explicitly detail the population of a place but it records that there were 19 households at Wood Walton. There is no consensus about the average size of a household at that time. Using these figures an estimate of the population of Wood Walton in 1086 is that it was within the range of 66 and 95 people; the Domesday Book uses a number of units of measure for areas of land that are now unfamiliar terms, such as hides and ploughlands.

In different parts of the country, these were terms for the area of land that a team of eight oxen could plough in a single season and are equivalent to 120 acres. By 1086, the hide had become a unit of tax assessment rather than an actual land area; the survey records that there were six ploughlands at Wood Walton in 1086 and that there was the capacity for a further ploughland. In addition to the arable land, there was 16 acres of meadows and 250 acres of woodland at Wood Walton; the tax assessment in the Domesday Book was known as geld or danegeld and was a type of land-tax based on the hide or ploughland. It was a way of collecting a tribute to pay off the Danes when they attacked England, was only levied when necessary. Following the Norman Conquest, the geld was used to raise money for the King and to pay for continental wars. Having determined the value of a manor's land and other assets, a tax of so many shillings and pence per pound of value would be levied on the land holder. While this was two shillings in the pound the amount did vary.

For the manor at Wood Walton the total tax assessed was five geld. By 1086 there was a church at Wood Walton. By contrast to the East Coast Main Line railway running north south through the parish, Ordnance Survey maps from the 1920s show a number of simple agricultural tramways on the fen north of Woodwalton village; the two longest ran north from Castle Hill Farm and south from Speechleys Farm and a wharf on New Dyke. As a civil parish, Wood Walton has a parish council; the parish council is elected by the residents of the parish who have registered on the electoral roll. A parish council is responsible for providing and maintaining a variety of local services including allotments and a cemetery; the parish council reviews all planning applications that might affect the parish and makes recommendations to Huntingdonshire District Council, the local planning authority for the parish. The parish council represents the views of the parish on issues such as local transport and the environment; the parish council raises its own tax to pay for these services, known as the parish precept, collected as part of the Council Tax.

The parish council has five councillors. Wood Walton was in the historic and administrative county of Huntingdonshire until 1965. From 1965, the village was part of the new administrative county of Peterborough. In 1974, following the Local Government Act 1972, Wood Walton became a part of the county of Cambridgeshire; the second tier of local government is Huntingdonshire District Council, a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire and has its headquarters in Huntingdon. Huntingdonshire District Council has 52 councillors representing 29 district wards. Huntingdonshire District Council collec

History of Baku

Baku is the capital of Azerbaijan Republic, the capital of Shirvan, Baku Khanate, Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and Azerbaijan SSR and the administrative center of Russian Baku governorate. Baku is derived from the old Persian Bagavan, which translates to "City of God". A folk etymology explains the name Baku as derived from the Persian Bādkube, meaning "city where the wind blows", due to frequent winds blowing in Baku. However, the word Bādkube was invented only in the 16th or 17th century, whereas Baku was founded at least before the 5th century AD. Starting from the 13th century AD the name of Baku begins to appear in mediaeval European Sources. Spelling of the name varies from Vahcüh, to Bakhow, Baca and Backu. On the coins minted by Shirvanshahs name appears as Bakuya. Various different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etymology of the word Baku. According to L. G. Lopatinski and Ali Huseynzade "Baku" is derived from Turkic word for "hill". K. P. Patkanov, a specialist in Caucasian history explains the name as "hill" but in Lak language.

Around 100,000 years ago, the territory of modern Baku and Absheron was savanna with rich flora and fauna. Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone age. From the Bronze age there have been rock carvings discovered near Bayil, a bronze figure of a small fish discovered in the territory of the Old City; this have led some to suggest the existence of a Bronze Age settlement within the city's territory. Near Nardaran in a place called Umid Gaya, a prehistoric observatory was discovered, where on the rock the images of sun and various constellations are carved together with a primitive astronomic table. Further archeological excavations revealed various prehistoric settlements, native temples and other artifacts within the territory of the modern city and around it. In the 1st century, Romans reached Baku. Near Baku, in Gobustan, Roman inscriptions dating from 84–96 AD were discovered; the remnant of this period is the village of Ramana in the Sabunchu district of Baku. In the Life of the Apostle Bartholomew, Baku is identified as Armenian Albanus.

Some historians assume. Local church traditions record the belief that Bartholomew's martyrdom occurred at the bottom of the Maiden Tower within the Old City, where according to historical data, a Christian church was built on the site of the pagan temple of Arta. A record from the 5th-century historian Priscus of Panium was the first to mention the famous Bakuvian fires. Owing to these eternal fires Baku became a major center of ancient Zoroastrianism. Sassanid shah Ardashir I gave orders "to keep an inextinguishable fire of the god Ormazd" in the city temples. There is little or no information regarding Baku in medieval sources until the 10th century; the earliest numismatic evidence found in the city is an Abbasid coin dating from the 8th century AD. At that time Baku was a domain of the Arab Caliphate and of Shirvanshahs. During this period, they came under assault of the Khazars and the Rus. Shirvanshah Akhsitan I built a navy in Baku and repelled another Rus assault in 1170. After a devastating earthquake struck Shamakhy, the capital of Shirvan, Shirvanshah's court moved to Baku in 1191.

A mint was put into operation. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, a massive fortification was undertaken in the city and around it; the Maiden Tower, castles of Ramana, Nardaran and Mardakan, famous Sabayel castle on the island of the Baku bay was built during this period. The city walls were rebuilt and strengthened; the biggest problem of Baku during this time was the transgression of the Caspian Sea. The rising levels of the water from time to time engulfed much of the city and the famous castle of Sabayel went into the sea in the 14th century; these led to several legends about submerged cities such as Shahriyunan. Hulagu Khan occupied Baku under the domain of the Shirvan state during the third Mongol campaign in Azerbaijan and it became a winter residence for Ilkhanids. In the 14th century, the city prospered under Muhammad Oljeitu who relieved it from some of the heavy taxes. Bakuvian poet Nasir Bakui wrote a panegyric to Oljeitu thus creating the first piece of poetry in Azerbaijani language.

Marco Polo had written of Baku oil exports to Near Eastern countries. The city traded with the Golden Horde, the Moscow Princedom, European countries. In 1501, Safavid shah Ismail I laid siege to Baku; the besieged inhabitants resisted. Due to the resistance, Ismail ordered part of the fortification's wall to be undermined; the fortress's defense was destroyed and many inhabitants were slaughtered. In 1538, the Safavid Shah Tahmasp I put an end to the Shirvanshahs' reign and in 1540, Baku was recaptured by Safavid troops again. Between 1568 and 1574 there is a record of six English missions to Baku. English men named Thomas Jeffrey Duckett described Baku in their correspondence, they wrote that the "...town is a strange thing to behold, for there issueth out of the ground a marvelous quantity of oil, which serveth all the country to burn in their houses. This oil is called nefte. There is by the town of Baku, another kind of oil, white and precious, it is called petroleum"; the first oil well outside of Baku was drilled in 1594 by a craftsman named A. Mamednur oglu.

This man finished the construction of a high-efficiency oil well in the Balakhany settlement. This area was historicall