Malmö is the largest city of the Swedish county of Skåne County, the third-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg, the sixth-largest city in Scandinavia, with a population of 312,012 inhabitants in 2017 out of a municipal total of 338,230. The Malmö Metropolitan Region is home to over 700,000 people, the Øresund Region, which includes Malmö, is home to 4 million people. Malmö was one of the earliest and most industrialized towns of Scandinavia, but it struggled with the adaptation to post-industrialism. Since the construction of the Øresund Bridge, Malmö has undergone a major transformation with architectural developments, it has attracted new biotech and IT companies, students through Malmö University, founded in 1998; the city contains many historic buildings and parks, is a commercial center for the western part of Scania. The earliest written mention of Malmö as a city dates from 1275, it is thought to have been founded shortly before that date, as a fortified quay or ferry berth of the Archbishop of Lund, some 20 kilometres to the north-east.
Malmö was for centuries Denmark's second-biggest city. Its original name was Malmhaug, meaning "Gravel pile" or "Ore Hill". In the 15th century, Malmö became one of Denmark's largest and most visited cities, reaching a population of 5,000 inhabitants, it became the most important city around the Øresund, with the German Hanseatic League frequenting it as a marketplace, was notable for its flourishing herring fishery. In 1437, King Eric of Pomerania granted the city's arms: argent with a griffin gules, based on Eric's arms from Pomerania; the griffin's head as a symbol of Malmö extended to the entire province of Scania from 1660. In 1434, a new citadel was constructed at the beach south of the town; this fortress, known today as Malmöhus, did not take its current form until the mid-16th century. Several other fortifications were constructed, making Malmö Sweden's most fortified city, but only Malmöhus remains. Lutheran teachings spread during the 16th century Protestant Reformation, Malmö became one of the first cities in Scandinavia to convert to this Protestant denomination.
In the 17th century, Malmö and the Scanian region came under control of Sweden following the Treaty of Roskilde with Denmark, signed in 1658. Fighting continued, however. By the dawn of the 18th century, Malmö had about 2,300 inhabitants. However, owing to the wars of Charles XII of Sweden and to bubonic plague epidemics, the population dropped to 1,500 by 1727; the population did not grow much until the modern harbor was constructed in 1775. The city started to expand and the population in 1800 was 4,000. 15 years it had increased to 6,000. In 1840, Frans Henrik Kockum founded the workshop from which the Kockums shipyard developed as one of the largest shipyards in the world; the Southern Main Line was built between 1856 and 1864. In 1870, Malmö overtook Norrköping to become Sweden's third-most populous city, by 1900 Malmö had strengthened this position with 60,000 inhabitants. Malmö continued to grow through the first half of the 20th century; the population had swiftly increased to 100,000 by 1915 and to 200,000 by 1952.
In 1914 Malmö hosted the Baltic Exhibition. The large park Pildammsparken was planted for this large event; the Russian part of the exhibition was never picked down, owing to the outbreak of World War I. On 18 and 19 December 1914, the Three Kings Meeting was held in Malmö. After a somewhat infected period, which included the dissolution of the Swedish-Norwegian Union, King Oscar II was replaced with King Håkon VII in Norway, the younger brother of the Danish King Christian X; as Oscar died in 1907, his son Gustav V became the new King of Sweden, the tensions within Scandinavia were still unclear, but during this historical meeting, the Scandinavian Kings found internal understanding, as well as a common line about remaining neutral in the ongoing war. Within sports, Malmö has been associated with football. IFK Malmö participated in the first edition of Allsvenskan 1924/25, but from the mid-1940s Malmö FF started to rise, since it has been one of the most prominent clubs within Swedish football.
They have won Allsvenskan 23 times in all between 1943/44 and 2017. By 1971, Malmö reached 265,000 inhabitants, but this was the peak which would stand for more than 30 years. By the mid-1970s Sweden experienced a recession that hit the industrial sector hard. Kockums shipyard had become a symbol of Malmö as its largest employer and, when shipbuilding ceased in 1986, confidence in the future of Malmö plummeted among politicians and the public. In addition, many middle-class families moved into one-family houses in surrounding municipalities such as Vellinge Municipality, Lomma Municipality and Staffanstorp Municipality, which profiled themselves as the suburbs of the upper-middle class. By 1985, Malmö had lost 35,000 inhabitants and was down to 229,000; the Swedish financial crises of the early 1990s exacerbated Malmö's decline as an industrial city. However, from 1994 under
Atmospheric dispersion modeling
Atmospheric dispersion modeling is the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse in the ambient atmosphere. It is performed with computer programs that include algorithms to solve the mathematical equations that govern the pollutant dispersion; the dispersion models are used to estimate the downwind ambient concentration of air pollutants or toxins emitted from sources such as industrial plants, vehicular traffic or accidental chemical releases. They can be used to predict future concentrations under specific scenarios. Therefore, they are the dominant type of model used in air quality policy making, they are most useful for pollutants that are dispersed over large distances and that may react in the atmosphere. For pollutants that have a high spatio-temporal variability and for epidemiological studies statistical land-use regression models are used. Dispersion models are important to governmental agencies tasked with protecting and managing the ambient air quality; the models are employed to determine whether existing or proposed new industrial facilities are or will be in compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in the United States and other nations.
The models serve to assist in the design of effective control strategies to reduce emissions of harmful air pollutants. During the late 1960s, the Air Pollution Control Office of the U. S. EPA initiated research projects that would lead to the development of models for the use by urban and transportation planners. A major and significant application of a roadway dispersion model that resulted from such research was applied to the Spadina Expressway of Canada in 1971. Air dispersion models are used by public safety responders and emergency management personnel for emergency planning of accidental chemical releases. Models are used to determine the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous or toxic materials, Accidental releases may result in fires, spills or explosions that involve hazardous materials, such as chemicals or radionuclides; the results of dispersion modeling, using worst case accidental release source terms and meteorological conditions, can provide an estimate of location impacted areas, ambient concentrations, be used to determine protective actions appropriate in the event a release occurs.
Appropriate protective actions may include evacuation or shelter in place for persons in the downwind direction. At industrial facilities, this type of consequence assessment or emergency planning is required under the Clean Air Act codified in Part 68 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations; the dispersion models vary depending on the mathematics used to develop the model, but all require the input of data that may include: Meteorological conditions such as wind speed and direction, the amount of atmospheric turbulence, the ambient air temperature, the height to the bottom of any inversion aloft that may be present, cloud cover and solar radiation. Source term and temperature of the material Emissions or release parameters such as source location and height, type of source and exit velocity, exit temperature and mass flow rate or release rate. Terrain elevations at the source location and at the receptor location, such as nearby homes, schools and hospitals; the location and width of any obstructions in the path of the emitted gaseous plume, surface roughness or the use of a more generic parameter "rural" or "city" terrain.
Many of the modern, advanced dispersion modeling programs include a pre-processor module for the input of meteorological and other data, many include a post-processor module for graphing the output data and/or plotting the area impacted by the air pollutants on maps. The plots of areas impacted may include isopleths showing areas of minimal to high concentrations that define areas of the highest health risk; the isopleths plots are useful in determining protective actions for responders. The atmospheric dispersion models are known as atmospheric diffusion models, air dispersion models, air quality models, air pollution dispersion models. Discussion of the layers in the Earth's atmosphere is needed to understand where airborne pollutants disperse in the atmosphere; the layer closest to the Earth's surface is known as the troposphere. It extends from sea-level to a height of about 18 km and contains about 80 percent of the mass of the overall atmosphere; the stratosphere extends from 18 km to about 50 km.
The third layer is the mesosphere. There are other layers above 80 km, but they are insignificant with respect to atmospheric dispersion modeling; the lowest part of the troposphere is called the atmospheric boundary layer or the planetary boundary layer. The air temperature of the atmosphere decreases with increasing altitude until it reaches what is called an inversion layer that caps the Convective Boundary Layer to about 1.5 to 2.0 km in height. The upper part of the troposphere is called the free troposphere and it extends up to the tropopause. In tropical and mid-latitudes during daytime, the Free convective layer can comprise the entire troposphere, up to 10 km to 18 km in the Intertropical convergence zone; the ABL is of the most important with respect
European Environment Agency
The European Environment Agency is the agency of the European Union which provides independent information on the environment. ĐỊT ĐỊT ĐỊT The European Environment Agency is the agency of the European Union which provides independent information on the environment. Its goal is to help those involved in developing and evaluating environmental policy, to inform the general public; the EEA was established by the European Economic Community Regulation 1210/1990 and became operational in 1994, headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark. The agency is governed by a management board composed of representatives of the governments of its 33 member states, a European Commission representative and two scientists appointed by the European Parliament, assisted by a committee of scientists; the current Executive Director of the agency is Professor Hans Bruyninckx, appointed for a five-year term. He is the successor of Professor Jacqueline McGlade; the member states of the union are members. It was the first EU body to open its membership to the 13 candidate countries.
The EEA has six cooperating countries. The 33 member countries include the 28 EU Member States together with Iceland, Norway and Turkey; the six Balkan countries are cooperating countries: Albania and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Kosovo under the UN Security Council Resolution 1244/99. These cooperation activities are integrated into Eionet and are supported by the EU under the "Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance"; the EEA is an active member of the EPA Network. The 33 member countries include the 28 European Union member states together with Iceland, Norway and Turkey; the six Western Balkan countries are cooperating countries: Albania and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Serbia as well as Kosovo under the UN Security Council Resolution 1244/99. The European Environment Agency reported in 2017 that climate-related extreme events accounted ca €400 billion of economic losses in EEA area from 1980 to 2013, were responsible for 85,000 deaths during 1980-2013; the European environment information and observation network is a partnership network of the EEA and the countries.
The EEA is responsible for coordinating its activities. To do so, the EEA works together with national focal points national environment agencies or environment ministries which are responsible for coordinating national networksof the National Reference Centres involving many institutions. Apart from the NFPs and NRCs, Eionet covers six European Topic Centres in the areas of air and climate change, biological diversity, climate change impacts and adaptation, land use and spatial information and analysis and sustainable consumption and production. In February 2012, the European Parliament's Committee on Budgetary Control published a draft report, identifying areas of concern in the use of funds and its influence for the 2010 budget such as a 26% budget increase from 2009 to 2010 to €50 600 000. and questioned that maximum competition and value-for-money principles were honored in hiring possible fictitious employees. The EEA's Executive Director refuted allegations of irregularities in a public hearing.
On 27 March 2012 Members of the European Parliament voted on the report and commended the cooperation between the Agency and NGOs working in the environmental area. On 23 October 2012, the European Parliament voted and granted the discharge to the European Environment Agency for its 2010 budget. In April 2013, the MEPs granted the discharge to the EEA for its 2011 budget. In addition to its 33 members and six Balkan cooperating countries, the EEA cooperates and fosters partnerships with its neighbours and other countries and regions in the context of the European Neighbourhood Policy: EaP states: Belarus, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Georgia UfM states: Algeria, Israel, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestinian Authority, Tunisia other ENPI states: Russia Central Asia states: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, UzbekistanAdditionally the EEA cooperates with multiple international organizations and the corresponding agencies of the following countries: United States of America Canada PR China The 26 official languages used by the EEA are: Bulgarian, Croatian, German, English, Estonian, French, Icelandic, Lithuanian, Malti, Norwegian, Portuguese, Slovak, Slovene and Turkish.
Agencies of the European Union EU environmental policy List of atmospheric dispersion models List of environmental organizations Confederation of European Environmental Engineering Societies Coordination of Information on the Environment European Agency for Safety and Health at Work Environment Agency European Environment Agency website European Topic Centre on Land Use and Spatial Information European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity Model Documentation System The European Environment Agency's near real-time ozone map The European Climate Adaptation Platform Climate-ADAPT EnviroWindows
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century; the 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data, it was not until after the elucidation of the laws of physics and more the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. An important domain of weather forecasting is marine weather forecasting as it relates to maritime and coastal safety, in which weather effects include atmospheric interactions with large bodies of water. Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology.
Meteorological phenomena are described and quantified by the variables of Earth's atmosphere: temperature, air pressure, water vapour, mass flow, the variations and interactions of those variables, how they change over time. Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local and global levels. Meteorology, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry are sub-disciplines of the atmospheric sciences. Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology; the interactions between Earth's atmosphere and its oceans are part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport and construction; the word meteorology is from the Ancient Greek μετέωρος metéōros and -λογία -logia, meaning "the study of things high in the air". The ability to predict rains and floods based on annual cycles was evidently used by humans at least from the time of agricultural settlement if not earlier.
Early approaches to predicting weather were practiced by priests. Cuneiform inscriptions on Babylonian tablets included associations between rain; the Chaldeans differentiated 46 ° halos. Ancient Indian Upanishads contain mentions of seasons; the Samaveda mentions sacrifices to be performed. Varāhamihira's classical work Brihatsamhita, written about 500 AD, provides evidence of weather observation. In 350 BC, Aristotle wrote Meteorology. Aristotle is considered the founder of meteorology. One of the most impressive achievements described in the Meteorology is the description of what is now known as the hydrologic cycle; the book De Mundo noted If the flashing body is set on fire and rushes violently to the Earth it is called a thunderbolt. They are all called ` swooping bolts'. Lightning is sometimes smoky, is called'smoldering lightning". At other times, it travels in crooked lines, is called forked lightning; when it swoops down upon some object it is called'swooping lightning'. The Greek scientist Theophrastus compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the Book of Signs.
The work of Theophrastus remained a dominant influence in the study of weather and in weather forecasting for nearly 2,000 years. In 25 AD, Pomponius Mela, a geographer for the Roman Empire, formalized the climatic zone system. According to Toufic Fahd, around the 9th century, Al-Dinawari wrote the Kitab al-Nabat, in which he deals with the application of meteorology to agriculture during the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, he describes the meteorological character of the sky, the planets and constellations, the sun and moon, the lunar phases indicating seasons and rain, the anwa, atmospheric phenomena such as winds, lightning, floods, rivers, lakes. Early attempts at predicting weather were related to prophecy and divining, were sometimes based on astrological ideas. Admiral FitzRoy tried to separate scientific approaches from prophetic ones. Ptolemy wrote on the atmospheric refraction of light in the context of astronomical observations. In 1021, Alhazen showed that atmospheric refraction is responsible for twilight.
St. Albert the Great was the first to propose that each drop of falling rain had the form of a small sphere, that this form meant that the rainbow was produced by light interacting with each raindrop. Roger Bacon was the first to calculate the angular size of the rainbow, he stated. In the late 13th century and early 14th century, Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī and Theodoric of Freiberg were the first to give the correct explanations for the primary rainbow phenomenon. Theoderic went further and explained the secondary rainbow. In 1716, Edmund Halley suggested that aurorae are caused by "magnetic effluvia" moving along the Earth's magnetic field lines. In 1441, King Sejong's son, Prince Munjong of Korea, invented the first standardized rain gauge; these were sent throughout the Joseon dynasty of Korea as an official tool to assess land taxes based
China Meteorological Administration
The China Meteorological Administration, headquartered in Beijing, is the national weather service for the People's Republic of China. The agency was established in December 1949 as the Central Military Commission Meteorological Bureau, it replaced the Central Weather Bureau formed in 1941. In 1994, the CMA was transformed from a subordinate governmental body into one of the public service agencies under the State Council. Meteorological bureaus are established in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, excluding meteorological services at Hong Kong and Taiwan. 14 meteorological bureaus at sub-provincial cities including 4 cities which have been designated in the state development plan), 318 meteorological bureaus at prefecture level and 2,300 bureaus at county level. National Meteorological Center National Satellite Meteorological Centre National Climate Center National Meteorological Information Centre Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences Meteorological Observation Center China Meteorological Administration Training Centre Department of Capital Construction & Real Estate Management Logistic Service Centre Audio-Visual Publicity Center China Meteorological News Press, Meteorological Press.
China Weather TV The Special Administrative Regions operate their own meteorological units outside of CMA: Hong Kong Observatory Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau Official website Official website "CMA Supercomputing site history on Top500.org". Top500.org
Turkish State Meteorological Service
Turkish State Meteorological Service is the Turkish government bureau commissioned with producing the meteorological and climatic data pertaining to Turkey. It is responsible to the Ministry of Forestry. Official website of the Service
Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time. People have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia and formally since the 19th century. Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere at a given place and using meteorology to project how the atmosphere will change. Once calculated by hand based upon changes in barometric pressure, current weather conditions, sky condition or cloud cover, weather forecasting now relies on computer-based models that take many atmospheric factors into account. Human input is still required to pick the best possible forecast model to base the forecast upon, which involves pattern recognition skills, knowledge of model performance, knowledge of model biases; the inaccuracy of forecasting is due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere, the massive computational power required to solve the equations that describe the atmosphere, the error involved in measuring the initial conditions, an incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes.
Hence, forecasts become less accurate as the difference between current time and the time for which the forecast is being made increases. The use of ensembles and model consensus help narrow the error and pick the most outcome. There are a variety of end uses to weather forecasts. Weather warnings are important forecasts because they are used to protect property. Forecasts based on temperature and precipitation are important to agriculture, therefore to traders within commodity markets. Temperature forecasts are used by utility companies to estimate demand over coming days. On an everyday basis, people use weather forecasts to determine. Since outdoor activities are curtailed by heavy rain and wind chill, forecasts can be used to plan activities around these events, to plan ahead and survive them. In 2009, the US spent $5.1 billion on weather forecasting. For millennia people have tried to forecast the weather. In 650 BC, the Babylonians predicted the weather from cloud patterns as well as astrology.
In about 350 BC, Aristotle described weather patterns in Meteorologica. Theophrastus compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the Book of Signs. Chinese weather prediction lore extends at least as far back as 300 BC, around the same time ancient Indian astronomers developed weather-prediction methods. In New Testament times, Christ himself referred to deciphering and understanding local weather patterns, by saying, "When evening comes, you say,'It will be fair weather, for the sky is red', in the morning,'Today it will be stormy, for the sky is red and overcast.' You know how to interpret the appearance of the sky, but you cannot interpret the signs of the times."In 904 AD, Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, translated into Arabic from an earlier Aramaic work, discussed the weather forecasting of atmospheric changes and signs from the planetary astral alterations. Ancient weather forecasting methods relied on observed patterns of events termed pattern recognition. For example, it might be observed that if the sunset was red, the following day brought fair weather.
This experience accumulated over the generations to produce weather lore. However, not all of these predictions prove reliable, many of them have since been found not to stand up to rigorous statistical testing, it was not until the invention of the electric telegraph in 1835 that the modern age of weather forecasting began. Before that, the fastest that distant weather reports could travel was around 100 miles per day, but was more 40–75 miles per day. By the late 1840s, the telegraph allowed reports of weather conditions from a wide area to be received instantaneously, allowing forecasts to be made from knowledge of weather conditions further upwind; the two men credited with the birth of forecasting as a science were an officer of the Royal Navy Francis Beaufort and his protégé Robert FitzRoy. Both were influential men in British naval and governmental circles, though ridiculed in the press at the time, their work gained scientific credence, was accepted by the Royal Navy, formed the basis for all of today's weather forecasting knowledge.
Beaufort developed the Wind Force Scale and Weather Notation coding, which he was to use in his journals for the remainder of his life. He promoted the development of reliable tide tables around British shores, with his friend William Whewell, expanded weather record-keeping at 200 British Coast guard stations. Robert FitzRoy was appointed in 1854 as chief of a new department within the Board of Trade to deal with the collection of weather data at sea as a service to mariners; this was the forerunner of the modern Meteorological Office. All ship captains were tasked with collating data on the weather and computing it, with the use of tested instruments that were loaned for this purpose. A storm in 1859 that caused the loss of the Royal Charter inspired FitzRoy to develop charts to allow predictions to be made, which he called "forecasting the weather", thus coining the term "weather forecast". Fifteen land stations were established to use the telegraph to transmit to him daily reports of weather at set times leading to the first gale warning service.
His warning service for shipping was initiated in February 1861, with the use of telegraph communications. The first daily weather forecasts were published in The Times in 1861. In the following year a system was introduced of hoistin