Swedish War of Liberation

The Swedish War of Liberation known as Gustav Vasa's Rebellion and the Swedish War of Secession, was a rebellion and a civil war in which the Swedish nobleman Gustav Vasa deposed the Danish-Norwegian king Christian II as regent of the Kalmar Union in Sweden. King Christian II and his ally, the Swedish Archbishop Gustav Trolle, the scion of a prominent unionist noble family, had tried to eliminate the separatist Sture party among the Swedish nobility by executing a large number of them in the Stockholm Bloodbath; the King was unpopular for imposing high taxes on the peasantry. Furthermore and Danish nobles and commoners held most Swedish castles and this provoked the native Swedish nobles; the war started in January 1521 when Gustav Vasa was appointed hövitsman over Dalarna by representatives of the population in the northern part of the province. After Gustav Vasa sacked the copper mine of Kopparberg and the town of Västerås, more men joined his army. In 1522, the Hanseatic city of Lübeck allied with the Swedish rebels.

After the capture of Stockholm in June 1523, the rebels controlled Sweden, on 6 June Gustav Vasa was elected King of Sweden in the town of Strängnäs. By September, Swedish Finland was controlled by Gustav Vasa's supporters. By the Treaty of Malmö signed on 1 September 1524, Sweden seceded from the Kalmar Union. In 1520, Gustav Vasa traveled to the Swedish province of Dalarna, disguised as a farmer to avoid detection by King Christian's scouts. In December, Gustav Vasa arrived in the city of Mora, where he asked the peasantry for their help in his revolt against Christian II; the peasants refused his request, so Gustav Vasa decided to travel north to find men who would support his revolt. Shortly thereafter, a couple of refugees arrived in Mora, where they told the peasantry about the brutality of Christian II and his men; the people of Mora decided to find Gustav Vasa and join his revolt. They sent two skilled skiers to find him. In Sälen, they caught up with him. Back in Mora, on New Year's Eve, 1521, Gustav Vasa was appointed to "hövitsman" by envoys from all the parishes of North Dalarna.

In February, Gustav Vasa sacked Kopparberg. Shortly thereafter, the peasantry of Bergslagen joined the revolt. Gustav Vasa's army had now grown to over 1,000 men; when news of the Swedish revolt reached Christian II, he sent a force of Landknechten to crush the rebellion. In April 1521, the union forces confronted Gustav Vasa's men at Brunnbäck Ferry, the King's army was crushed; this victory improved the Swedish rebels' morale. In Dalarna, an emergency mint was established in order to produce the copper coins necessary to finance the war; the rebel army continued south to Västerås, which they sacked. When words of Gustav Vasa's success spread across Sweden, the supporters of the Sture family decided to join the revolt. By the end of April 1521, Gustav Vasa controlled Dalarna, Gästrikland, Närke, Västmanland. Battle of Falun Battle of Brunnbäck Ferry Battle of Västerås Conquest of Uppsala Conquest of Kalmar Conquest of Stockholm "Sweden". Myths of the Nations. Deutsches Historisches Museum. Retrieved 29 March 2007.

Sundberg, Ulf. "Befrielsekriget 1521–1523". Svenskt Militärhistoriskt Bibliotek. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2013. Ganse, Alexander. "Swedish War of Liberation, 1521–1523". World History at KMLA. Retrieved 29 March 2007. Henrikson, Alf. "Svensk Historia". Pp. 205–213. Retrieved 25 December 2009

HD 195564

HD 195564 is the Henry Draper Catalogue designation for a star in the southern constellation of Capricornus. It is faintly visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of 5.65. Parallax measurements from the Hipparcos spacecraft give us an estimate of its distance as around 80 light years; this appears to be a wide binary system as a faint companion star shares a common proper motion with the brighter primary component. Based upon the spectrum of light emitted by the primary, it has a stellar classification of G2 V; this indicates that it is a G-type main sequence star, generating energy through the process of thermonuclear fusion in its core region. It has an estimated mass of 1.097 times the mass of the Sun, but a measured radius, 1.867 times as large. As a result, it shines with 2.705 times the luminosity of the Sun. The abundance of elements in this star is similar to that in the Sun, although it is an older star with an age of around 8.2 billion years. The effective temperature of the stellar atmosphere is 5,421 K, giving it the yellow-hued glow of an ordinary K-type star.

The secondary companion has an apparent magnitude of 11.30, a mass just 55% that of the Sun. As measured in 1965, it had an angular separation of 3.20″ from the primary, along a position angle of 27° The pair orbit each other with an estimated period of around 510 years

Steam locomotive exhaust system

The steam locomotive exhaust system consists of those parts of a steam locomotive which together discharge exhaust steam from the cylinders in order to increase the draught through the fire. It consists of the blastpipe and chimney, although designs include second and third stage nozzles; the primacy of discovery of the effect of directing the exhaust steam up the chimney as a means of providing draft through the fire is the matter of some controversy, Ahrons devoting significant attention to this matter. The exhaust from the cylinders on the first steam locomotive – built by Richard Trevithick – was directed up the chimney, he noted its effect on increasing the draft through the fire at the time. At Wylam, Timothy Hackworth employed a blastpipe on his earliest locomotives, but it is not clear whether this was an independent discovery or a copy of Trevithick's design. Shortly after Hackworth, George Stephenson employed the same method but again it is not clear whether it was an independent discovery or a copy of a design from one of the other engineers.

The locomotives at the time employed either a single flue boiler or a single return flue, with the fire grate at one end of the flue. For boilers of this design the blast of a contracted orifice blastpipe was too strong, would lift the fire, it was not until the development of the multi-tube boiler that the centrally positioned, contracted orifice blastpipe became standard. The combination of multi-tube boiler and steam blast are cited as the principal reasons for the high performance of Rocket of 1829 at the Rainhill Trials. Soon after the power of the steam blast was discovered it became apparent that a smokebox was needed beneath the chimney, to provide a space in which the exhaust gases emerging from the boiler tubes can mix with the steam; this had the added advantage of allowing access to collect the ash drawn through the fire tubes by the draught. The blastpipe, from which steam is emitted, was mounted directly beneath the chimney at the bottom of the smokebox; the steam blast is self-regulating: an increase in the rate of steam consumption by the cylinders increases the blast, which increases the draught and hence the temperature of the fire.

Modern locomotives are fitted with a blower, a device that releases steam directly into the smokebox for use when a greater draught is needed without a greater volume of steam passing through the cylinders. An example of such situation is when the regulator is closed or the train passes through a tunnel. If a single line tunnel is poorly ventilated, a locomotive entering at high speed can cause a rapid compression of the air within the tunnel; this compressed air may enter the chimney with substantial force. This can be dangerous if the firebox door is open at the time. For this reason the blower is turned on in these situations, to counteract the compression effect; the aim of exhaust system development is to obtain maximum smokebox vacuum with minimum back pressure on the pistons. Little development of the basic principles of smokebox design took place until 1908, when the first comprehensive examination of steam-raising performance was carried out by W. F. M. Goss of Purdue University; these principles were adopted on the Great Western Railway by Churchward, developed by Samuel Ell in the 1950s using the GWR stationary testing plant.

Ell was able to double the maximum steaming rate of the GWR Manor class by minor alterations to the front end design, more than doubled the rate for an LNER V2. Andre Chapelon made a significant improvement with his Kylchap exhaust which incorporated a Kyala spreader and third stage cowl between the blastpipe and chimney; this became popular at the end of the steam era and was used on the Nigel Gresley's Mallard which holds the official world speed record for steam locomotives. Other contemporary designs include the Giesl, Lemaître exhausts which achieve the same aim by different means. Further development was carried on by Chapelon's friend Livio Dante Porta, who developed the Kylpor and Lemprex exhausts systems, developed sophisticated mathematical models to optimise their use for specific locomotives. With the demise of commercial steam operations on mainline railways worldwide, there has been little funding for further development of steam locomotive technology, despite advances in materials technology and computer modelling techniques which might have enabled further improvements to efficiency.

Semmens, P. W. B.. J.. How Steam Locomotives Really Work. OUP. ISBN 0-19-860782-2. Rolt, L. T. C.. George and Robert Stephenson: The Railway Revolution. Pelican. ISBN 0-14-022063-1. Ahrons, E. L.. The British Steam Railway Locomotive 1825-1925