The krona is the official currency of Sweden. Both the ISO code "SEK" and currency sign "kr" are in common use. In English, the currency is sometimes referred to as the Swedish crown, as krona means "crown" in Swedish; the Swedish krona was the ninth-most traded currency in the world by value in April 2016. One krona is subdivided into 100 öre. However, all öre coins have been discontinued as of 30 September 2010. Goods can still be priced in öre, but all sums are rounded to the nearest krona when paying with cash; the word öre is derived from the Latin word for gold. The introduction of the krona, which replaced at par the riksdaler, was a result of the Scandinavian Monetary Union, which came into effect in 1876 and lasted until the beginning of World War I; the parties to the union were the Scandinavian countries, where the name was krona in Sweden and krone in Denmark and Norway, which in English means "crown". The three currencies were on the gold standard, with the krona/krone defined as 1⁄2480 of a kilogram of pure gold.
After dissolution of the monetary union in August 1914, Sweden and Norway all decided to keep the names of their respective and now separate currencies. On 11 September 2012, the Riksbank announced a new series of coins with new sizes to replace the 1- and 5-krona coins which arrived in October 2016; the design of the coins follows the theme of singer-songwriter Ted Gärdestad's song, "Sol, vind och vatten", with the designs depicting the elements on the reverse side of the coins. This included the reintroduction of the 2-krona coin, while the current 10-krona coin remained the same; the new coins have a new portrait of the king in their design. One of the reasons for a new series of coins is to end the use of nickel, it is expected that vending machines and parking meters will to a high degree stop accepting coins and accept only bank cards or mobile phone payments. Cash is less used in Sweden, with many young people avoiding cash as much as possible. Between 1873 and 1876, coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 öre and 1, 2, 10, 20 kronor were introduced.
The 1, 2 and 5 öre were in bronze, the 10-, 25-, 50-öre and 1-krona and 2-krona were in silver, the 10- and 20-krona were in gold. Gold 5-krona coins were added in 1881. In 1873 the Scandinavian Monetary Union currency was fixed so that 2,480 kronor purchased 1 kg of gold. In 2017 the price of gold is 365,289 kronor per kg. So one öre in 1873 bought as much gold as 1.47 krona in 2017. So if it is reasonable to have the smallest denomination coin 1 krona today, in 1873 a reasonable smallest denomination coin was 1 öre. A 10 kr gold coin weighed 4.4803 grams with 900 fineness so that the fine weight was 4.03327 grams or 1/248th of a kilogram. In 1902, production of gold coins ceased, was restarted in 1920 and 1925 before ceasing entirely. Due to metal shortages during World War I, iron replaced bronze between 1917 and 1919. Nickel-bronze replaced silver in the 10, 25 and 50 öre in 1920, with silver returning in 1927. Metal shortages due to World War II again led to changes in the Swedish coinage. Between 1940 and 1947, the nickel-bronze 10, 25 and 50 öre were again issued.
In 1942, iron again replaced the silver content of the other coins was reduced. In 1962, cupronickel replaced silver in the 25-öre and 50-öre coins. In 1968, the 2 kronor switched to cupronickel and the 1-krona switched to cupronickel-clad copper. Nonetheless, all previous mintages of 1- and 2-krona coins were still legal tender until 2017, since 1875 and 1876 though 2-krona coins were rarely seen in circulation as they have not been issued since 1971; the 2-krona coins contained 40% silver until 1966, which meant they had been for several years worth much more than two kronor, so most have been bought and melted down by arbitrageurs, the rest are kept by collectors. A new design of 2-krona coins will be issued in 2016. All the old krona coins are invalid since 2017, they can not be used for payments, nor can they be exchanged for legal tender in any bank, are instead instructed to be recycled as metal. In 1954, 1955 and 1971, five-krona silver coins were produced, with designs similar to contemporary 1- and 2-krona coins.
In 1972, a new, smaller 5-krona coin was struck in cupronickel-clad nickel. The current design has been produced since 1976. Five-krona coins minted since 1954 are legal tender but tend to be kept by collectors for their silver content. In 1971, the 1- and 2-öre, as well as the 2-krona coins ceased production; the size of the 5-öre coin was reduced in 1972. In 1984, production of the five- and 25-öre coins came to an end, followed by that of the 10-öre in 1991. In 1991, aluminium-brass 10-krona coins were introduced. Previous 10-krona coins are not legal tender. In 1991, bronze-coloured 50-öre coins were introduced. Jubilee and commemorative coins have been minted and those since 1897 or are legal tender; the royal motto of the monarch is inscribed on many of the coins. The 5-krona coin was designed in 1974, at a time when there were political efforts to abandon the monarchy, when there was a new young inexperienced king; the monarchy remained. Coins minted before 1974 have the same size, bu
Chanae is a district in the southern part of Narathiwat province, southern Thailand. Tambons Dusong Yo and Chanae were separated from Ra-ngae District to create Chanae minor district on 15 July 1983, it was upgraded to a full district on 1 January 1988. Chanae is the Malay name of a native Colocasia species. Neighboring districts are: Betong, Than To of Yala province. In 1963, the Thai government launched the Nikhom Sang Ton Eng Pak Tai program to move families from Thailand's northeastern and central provinces to the Chanae and Sukhirin Districts of Narathiwat. A total of 5,633 families were relocated to Narathiwat, where each family was rewarded with 18 rai of land. Chanae is divided into four sub-districts, which are further subdivided into 31 administrative villages. There are four sub-district administrative organizations in the district: Chanae consisting of sub-district Chanae. Dusongyo consisting of sub-district Dusongyo. Phadung Mat consisting of sub-district Phadung Mat. Chang Phueak consisting of sub-district Chang Phueak.
Murder on the Blackboard is a 1934 American pre-Code mystery/comedy film starring Edna May Oliver as schoolteacher Hildegarde Withers and James Gleason as Police Inspector Oscar Piper. Together, they investigate a murder at Withers' school, it was based on the novel of the same name by Stuart Palmer. It features popular actor Bruce Cabot in one of his first post-King Kong roles, as well as Gertrude Michael, Regis Toomey and Edgar Kennedy. Murder on the Blackboard was the second of three films teaming Oliver and Gleason as Withers and Piper, following The Penguin Pool Murder and preceding Murder on a Honeymoon. Director George Archainbaud directed the first film in the series. Miss Withers discovers the dead body of her colleague, music teacher Louise Halloran, in a schoolroom, she summons her old friend, Inspector Oscar Piper, but by the time he arrives, the corpse has disappeared. Having watched the only entrance, Miss Withers knows; when the police search the building, Detective Donahue is knocked out in the basement.
Meanwhile, Miss Withers notices various clues, including a tune on the blackboard in Halloran's classroom. The body is found being burned in the basement furnace; the fire alarm goes off. Oscar Schweitzer, the school's drunkard janitor, had some financial quarrel with Halloran. Piper arrests him, she goes to the dead woman's apartment, which she had shared with her friend and school secretary, Jane Davis. There she discovers. A newspaper account reports it is for the favorite in the race and is worth $50,000. If the horse were to win, the amount would be $300,000. Davis claims. Fellow teacher Addison Stevens admits. MacFarland, the womanizing head of the school, asks Withers to investigate the crime, but suspiciously suggests she leave town to check out Halloran's relatives. Snooping around, she finds a fragment of a burnt love letter from him to Halloran. During another search of the basement, the light is turned off and someone throws a hatchet at Miss Wither's head. After getting over her fright, she triumphantly points out to Piper that Schweitzer could not be the killer, as he is still in jail.
They see a newspaper report that he has escaped. It is discovered that the victim was dying of "pernicious anemia of the bones"; when Donahue comes to in the hospital, he cannot remember what happened, but Miss Withers has Piper tell the newspapers that Donahue knows the killer's identity. When the murderer sneaks in to Donahue's hospital room to poison his medicine, the trap is sprung; the criminal turns out to be Addison Stevens. Seeing no escape, Stevens reveals his motive before dying, he and Halloran were secretly married last summer. However, when his feelings changed, she would not give him up, he tried poisoning her but she became suspicious, forcing him to act more decisively. When Miss Withers calls to console Davis, she is disillusioned when Detective "Smiley" North answers the telephone and reveals he is having breakfast with the pretty woman. Cast notes: Oliver had played Hildegarde Withers in a previous film, The Penguin Pool Murder, would play the part again in another sequel Murder on a Honeymoon.
For the next sequel, Murder on a Bridle Path, the character was played by Helen Broderick, in the final two films, The Plot Thickens and Forty Naughty Girls, Withers was played by ZaSu Pitts. In 1950, MGM adapted the novel Once Upon a Train into the film Mrs. O'Malley and Mr. Malone, changing the name of the character to "Harriet'Hattie' O'Malley", a Montana housewife, played by Marjorie Main. "Hildegarde Wither" appeared in a 1972 pilot for a TV series, A Very Missing Person. Gleason played the part of Inspector Piper in all six films. Murder on the Blackboard at the American Film Institute Catalog Murder on the Blackboard at AllMovie Murder on the Blackboard on IMDb Murder on the Blackboard at the TCM Movie Database