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Sweeney Todd

Sweeney Todd is a fictional character who first appeared as the villain of the Victorian penny dreadful serial The String of Pearls. The original tale became a staple of London urban legend. A barber from Fleet Street, Todd murders his customers and turns their bodies over to Mrs. Lovett, his partner in crime, who bakes their flesh into meat pies; the tale has been retold many times since in various media, most notably in the Tony award–winning Broadway musical by Stephen Sondheim and Hugh Wheeler. The musical deepened Todd’s character, depicting him as a falsely convicted barber who seeks revenge against the people who have wronged him. Claims that Sweeney Todd was a historical person are disputed by scholars, although possible legendary prototypes exist. In the original version of the tale, Todd is a barber who dispatches his victims by pulling a lever as they sit in his barber chair, his victims fall backward down a revolving trap door into the basement of his shop causing them to break their necks or skulls.

In case they are alive, Todd goes to the basement and "polishes them off". In some adaptations, the murdering process is reversed, with Todd slitting his customers' throats before dispatching them into the basement through the revolving trap door. After Todd has robbed his dead victims of their goods, Mrs. Lovett, his partner in crime, assists him in disposing of the bodies by baking their flesh into meat pies and selling them to the unsuspecting customers of her pie shop. Todd's barber shop is situated at 152 Fleet Street, next to St. Dunstan's church, is connected to Mrs. Lovett's pie shop in nearby Bell Yard by means of an underground passage. In most versions of the story, he and Mrs. Lovett hire an unwitting orphan boy Tobias Ragg, to serve the pies to customers. Sweeney Todd first appeared in a story titled The String of Pearls: A Romance; this penny dreadful was published in 18 weekly parts, in Edward Lloyd's The People's Periodical and Family Library, issues 7–24, 21 November 1846 to 20 March 1847.

It was written by James Malcolm Rymer, though Thomas Peckett Prest has been credited with it. Other attributions include Edward P. Hingston, George Macfarren, Albert Richard Smith. In February/March 1847, before the serial was completed, George Dibdin Pitt adapted The String of Pearls as a melodrama for the Britannia Theatre in Hoxton, east London, it was in this alternative version of the tale, rather than the original, that Todd acquired his catchphrase: "I'll polish him off". Lloyd published another, penny part serial from 1847–48, with 92 episodes, it was published in book form in 1850 as The String of Pearls, subtitled "The Barber of Fleet Street. A Domestic Romance"; this expanded version of the story was 732 pages long. A plagiarised version of this book appeared in the United States c. 1852–53 as Sweeney Todd: or the Ruffian Barber. A Tale of Terror of the Seas and the Mysteries of the City by "Captain Merry". In 1865 the French novelist Paul H. C. Féval, famous as a writer of horror and crime novels and short stories, referred to what he called "L'Affaire de la Rue des Marmousets", in the introductory chapter to his book "La Vampire".

In 1875, Frederick Hazleton's c. 1865 dramatic adaptation Sweeney Todd, the Barber of Fleet Street: or the String of Pearls was published as Vol 102 of Lacy's Acting Edition of Plays. A scholarly, annotated edition of the original 1846–47 serial was published in volume form in 2007 by the Oxford University Press under the title of Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street, edited by Robert Mack; the original story of Sweeney Todd quite stems from an older urban legend based on dubious pie-fillings. In Charles Dickens' Pickwick Papers, the servant Sam Weller says that a pieman used cats "for beefsteak and kidney,'cording to the demand", recommends that people should buy pies only "when you know the lady as made it, is quite sure it ain't kitten." Dickens developed this in Martin Chuzzlewit, published two years before the appearance of Sweeney Todd in The String of Pearls, with a character called Tom Pinch, grateful that his own "evil genius did not lead him into the dens of any of those preparers of cannibalic pastry, who are represented in many country legends as doing a lively retail business in the metropolis".

Claims that Sweeney Todd was a real person were first made in the introduction to the 1850 edition of The String of Pearls and have persisted to the present day. In two books, Peter Haining argued that Sweeney Todd was a historical figure who committed his crimes around 1800. Other researchers who have tried to verify his citations find nothing in these sources to back Haining's claims. A late reference to the urban legend of the murderous barber can be found in the poem by the Australian bush poet Banjo Paterson—The Man from Ironbark. In his 2012 novel Dodger, Terry Pratchett portrays Sweeney Todd as a tragic figure, having lost his mind after being exposed to the horrors of the Napoleonic Wars as a barber surgeon; the String of Pearls, a melodrama by George Dibdin Pitt that opened at Hoxton's Britannia Theatre and billed as "founded on fact". It was something of a success, the story spread by word of mouth and took on the quality of an urban legend. Various versions of the tale were staples of the British theatre for the rest of the century.

The play was produced on Broadway in 1924 at the Frazee Theatre, starring Robert Vivian as Sweeney Todd and Raffaella Ottiano as Mrs. Love

Agnes Morgan

Agnes Morgan was a director, playwright and theatrical producer. She is most known for her association with the Neighborhood Playhouse where she was a director and functioned in numerous other roles. Morgan was born in Le Roy, New York to Frank H. Morgan, an editor, Sarah L. Cutler Morgan, a teacher. Attending Radcliffe College, she received her Bachelor of Arts degree in 1901 and her Master of Arts in 1903. In 1904 she attended George Pierce Baker's 47 Workshop at Harvard University, she was hired at the Neighborhood Playhouse on the recommendation of one of the Playhouse teachers Sarah Cowell Le Moyne who knew Helen Arthur. Lewisohn described Morgan as "quiet, watchful." In speaking the Lewisohn sister, founders of the Playhouse joining with Morgan and Helen Arthur, Lewisohn added "...never had five people cast in such different molds joined forces with more congeniality."In speaking of two comedies, Great Catherine: Whom Glory Still Adores by Shaw and The Queen's Enemies by Lord Dunsany, Crowley recalled that "the spirited quality in both productions was due to Agnes Morgan's skillful direction.

Great Catherine was paving the way to her gift in handling burlesque, to create an infectious vogue on Grand Street and Broadway through the." Crowley described Morgan as an essential part of the Playhouse: Agnes Morgan's apprentices were the stage crew, a neighborhood corps of assistant property boys, scene shifters, painters But her technical facility was such that she was everywhere in the theatre, combining a collection of functions the mere mention of which would drive any "self-respecting" member of the theatre union of today into a decline. Skilled as an actor, she played an occasional role; as an amateur she responded to any production need while pursuing her professional career as playwright. Grand St. Follies: Neighborhood Playhouse had an in-house burlesque. While searching for an experimental play, Lewisohn suggested that the in-house burlesque be open to the subscribers, it had been the creation of Agnes Morgan and Helen Arthur." The following season, staff were concerned as to whether they could equal the success of the first Grand Street Follies.

... it was clear. Morgan directed thirty-one out of forty-four dramas mounted at the Neighborhood Playhouse between 1915 and its closing in 1927, as well as dance and festival shows. After the Playhouse closed she formed her own company sharing the name of the annual Grand Street Follies and called Actor-Managers, Inc. which existed until 1939. She directed eight plays on Broadway between 1927 and 1935 as well as three plays for the Federal Theatre Project. In 1931 she staged it as well. In 1940 Morgan became associate director of the Paper Mill Playhouse in Millburn, New Jersey, a position she held until 1972. Agnes Morgan met her partner, the lawyer Helen Arthur, while working at the Neighborhood Playhouse. Arthur pre-deceased Morgan on December 10, 1939. Morgan died on May 1976, in San Bernardino, California. Information from the Internet Broadway Database. Information from Alice Lewisohn Crowley, Neighborhood Playhouse. Cobrin, From Winning the Vote to Directing on Broadway: The Emergence of Women on the New York Stage, 1880–1927, Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, ISBN 978-0-87413-058-4 Crowley, Alice Lewisohn, Neighborhood Playhouse: Leaves From a Theatre Scrapbook, New York: Theatre Arts Books Harbin, Billy J..

The Gay and Lesbian Theatrical Legacy: A Biographical Dictionary of Major Figures in American Stage History in the Pre-Stonewall Era, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0-472-09858-3 Knapp, Margaret M.. American Women Stage Directors of the Twentieth Century. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Pp. 666–667. ISBN 978-0-252-03226-4. American Women Playwrights, 1900–1930. A checklist. Compiled by Frances Diodato Bzowski. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992. American Women Stage Directors of the Twentieth Century. By Anne Fliotsos and Wendy Vierow. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2008. Biography Index. A cumulative index to biographical material in books and magazines. Volume 16: September, 1988-August, 1990. New York: H. W. Wilson Co. 1990. Biography Index. A cumulative index to biographical material in books and magazines. Volume 19: September, 1993-August, 1994. New York: H. W. Wilson Co. 1994. The Gay and Lesbian Theatrical Legacy. A biographical dictionary of major figures in American stage history in the pre-Stonewall era.

Edited by Billy J. Harbin, Kim Marra, Robert A. Schanke. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2005. = Notable Women in the American Theatre. A biographical dictionary. Edited by Alice M. Robinson, Vera Mowry Roberts, Milly S. Barranger. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989. Who's Who of American Women. First edition, 1958–1959. Wilmette, IL: Marquis Who's Who, 1958. Who's Who of American Women. Second edition, 1961–1962. Wilmette, IL: Marquis Who's Who, 1961. Who's Who of American Women. Third edition, 1964–1965. Wilmette, IL: Marquis Who's Who, 1963. Who's Who of American Women. Fourth edition, 1966–1967. Wilmette, IL: Marquis Who's Who, 1965. Who's Who of American Women. Fifth edition, 1968–1969. Wilmette, IL: Marquis Who's Who, 1967. Agnes Morgan at the Internet Broadway Database

Vassili Poyarkov

Vassili Danilovich Poyarkov was the first Russian explorer of the Amur region. The Russian expansion into Siberia began with the conquest of the Khanate of Sibir in 1582. By 1639 they reached the Pacific 65 miles southeast of the mouth of the Ulya River. East of the Yenisei River there was little land fit for agriculture, except Dauria, the land between the Stanovoy Mountains and the Amur River, nominally controlled by China. Poyarkov was sent to explore this land. In 1640 he was in Yakutsk as pismenyy golova. In June 1643, Poyarkov with 133 men started out from Yakutsk, they were sent by the voevoda of Peter Golovin. Having no idea of the proper route, Poyarkov traveled up the rivers Lena, Uchur, Gonam. Delayed by 64 portages, it was early winter. Leaving 49 men to overwinter, he pushed south over the mountains in December to reach the upper Zeya River in Daur country, where he found a land of farmers with domestic animals, proper houses and Chinese trade goods who paid tribute to the Manchus who were just starting their conquest of China.

He built a winter fort near the mouth of the Umelkan river. To extract supplies from the natives, he employed excessive brutality, thereby provoking their hostility and making supplies harder to get, his men survived on a diet of pine bark, stolen food, stray forest animals and native captives whom they cannibalized. By the spring of 1644 only forty of his men were left alive. Joined now by the overwintering party, they pushed down the Zeya to the Amur, their reputation having preceded them, they had to fight their way down the Amur through numerous ambushes. By fall they reached the Gilyak country at the mouth of the Amur. With so many enemies behind him, Poyarkov thought it unwise to return by the same route; that winter they built boats and the next spring worked their way up the Sea of Okhotsk coast to the Ulia River and spent the next winter in the huts, built by Ivan Moskvitin six years earlier. The next spring, they followed Moskvitin's route along the Maya River back to Yakutsk, arriving exactly three years after they left.

Like so many Russian explorers and colonists in Siberia, Poyarkov received no reward. His brutal treatment of Siberian natives had made enemies among his own men; the voevoda of Yakutsk sent him to Moscow for an unknown fate. Whatever the authorities thought of Poyarkov himself, they were happy with the information he supplied; the next Russian expedition to the Amur was led by Yerofei Khabarov in 1650. See Russian-Manchu border conflicts. W. Bruce Lincoln,'The Conquest of a Continent', 1994

Kiss Flights

Kiss Flights was a charter, seat only tour operator which ceased trading on 17 August 2010. Kiss Flights was a trading name for Flight Options Ltd, based in London; the company sold flights to Spain, Egypt, Greece and Turkey. Trading under the name of, it was sold to Flight Options Ltd in January 2009 following the collapse of XL Leisure Group, it was founded by Michael Smith and Paul Moss, who had worked at failed tour operator XL Airways which went into administration in September 2008. Some of their flights were operated by the Swedish airline Viking Airlines; the company was registered with ATOL through Flight Options Ltd.. The parent company has bought a number of other companies; the website was only for travel agents, although it became possible for the general public to directly book online. The company was licensed to sell 168,700 seats until March 2011 using ATOL protection. On 17 August 2010 Flight Options Ltd announced that it would cease trading at 17:00 BST; this led to initial uncertainty with 13,000 of those abroad.

It is the third British travel company to fold during the summer of 2010. Firstly Goldtrail collapsed on 17 July 2010 Sun4U on 13 August 2010. Due to the timing at the height of the summer season the CAA guaranteed outbound flights for the first 24 hours after the collapse. Kiss Flights Website

Chilton County, Alabama

Chilton County is a county located in the central portion of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,643; the county seat is Clanton. Its name is in honor of William Parish Chilton, Sr. a lawyer who became Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court and represented Montgomery County in the Congress of the Confederate States of America. Chilton County is included in AL Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2010, the center of population of Alabama was located in Chilton County, near the city of Jemison, an area known as Jemison Division; the county is known for its unique landscape. It is home to swamps and mountains due to the foothills of the Appalachians which end in the county, the Coosa River basin, its proximity to the Black Belt Prairie, long a center of cotton production. Baker County was established on December 30, 1868, named for Alfred Baker, with its county seat at Grantville. Residents of the county petitioned the Alabama legislature for the renaming of their county.

On December 17, 1874, the petitioners accepted the suggestion of Chilton County though the Chief Justice had not lived within its boundaries. In 1870 the county seat was moved after the court house burned, to. In 1942, the U. S. Navy commissioned the USS Chilton, in honor of Chilton County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 701 square miles, of which 693 square miles is land and 7.9 square miles is water. Interstate 65 U. S. Highway 31 U. S. Highway 82 State Route 22 State Route 139 State Route 145 State Route 155 State Route 191 Shelby County Coosa County Elmore County Autauga County Perry County Dallas County Bibb County Talladega National Forest According to the 2010 United States Census, the population identifies by the following ethnicities: 84.1% White 9.7% Black 0.4% Native American 0.3% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.2% Two or more races 7.8% Hispanic or Latino Chilton County is the 23rd-richest county per capita income in Alabama. At the 2000 census, there were 39,593 people, 15,287 households and 11,342 families residing in the county.

The population density was 57 per square mile. There were 17,651 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.71% White, 10.61% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.51% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. Nearly 2.91 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 15,287 households of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.10% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.80% were non-families. Nearly 22.90% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57, the average family size was 3.00. 25.70% of the population were under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.80 males.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.90 males. The median household income was $32,588 and the median family income was $39,505. Males had a median income of $31,006 versus $21,275 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,303. About 12.60% of families and 15.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.40% of those under age 18 and 18.20% of those age 65 or over. The County Commission is made up of seven members elected by cumulative vote. "Chilton County adopted cumulative voting in 1988 as part of the settlement of a vote dilution lawsuit brought against its previous election system. According to the 1990 Census, African Americans constituted 9.9% of the county's voting age population." Although passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 enabled African Americans to register and vote, in Chilton County no African American was elected to the County Commission until the first cumulative voting election, held in 1988. African Americans in Alabama had been disenfranchised by the 1901 state constitution, which required payment of a poll tax and qualification by a literacy test in order to register to vote.

Discriminatory in practice as administered by white officials, this system excluded most blacks from the state's political system for decades in the 20th century before Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Since African Americans were able to register and vote in the county and state for the first time since the late 19th century. In counties in which there is a minority population and members are elected at-large or by single-member districts, minorities may be unable to elect representatives in a system dominated by the majority; the adoption of cumulative voting in Chilton County has enabled the minority to elect candidates of their choice by pooling their votes. Bobby Agee was elected as a Chilton County Commissioner in 1988 and again in the second cumulative voting election in 1992. Cumulative voting depends by district. "The cumulative options provide a minority of voters an opportunity to concentrate their support for a candidate or candidates more than they can under the more traditional voting rules used in this country."

In 2014, the county commission had an African-American commissioner among its seven members. However, in 2018, the county commissioners were all white males; the commission


RhoC is a small signaling G protein, is a member of the Rac subfamily of the family Rho family of GTPases. It is encoded by the gene RHOC, it is prenylated at its C-terminus, localizes to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. It is thought to be important in cell locomotion, it cycles between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states and function as molecular switches in signal transduction cascades. Rho proteins regulate cell shape and motility. RhoC can activate formins such as FMNL2 to remodel the cytoskeleton. Overexpression of RhoC is causing tumors to become malignant, it causes degradation and reconstruction of the Extracellular Matrix which helps cells escape the tissue they are in. It enhances cell motility giving it the ability to become invasive, it has been found to have a direct relationship to advanced tumor stage and metastasis, with increases in stage being related to increases in RhoC expression. RhoC-deficient mice can still develop tumors but these fail to metastasize, arguing that RhoC is essential for metastasis.

It has been found to enhance the creation of angiogenic factors such as VEGF, necessary for a tumor to become malignant. In a study by Vega, RhoC was knocked out which resulted in cells spreading out wide in all directions; when RhoC was disabled, the cell's abilities to move in a specific direction and migrate was impaired. It reduced the cell's speed of movement, because it was difficult, sometimes impossible, to polarize the cell. RhoC expression has been associated with effectors. Here is a list of the ones found so far: IQGAP1: an effector of RhoC to enhance expression of cyclin E and cyclin D1; this resulted in cells being promoted to enter S phase more ROCK-1 MMP9: necessary for ECM regulation FMNL3: a Formin downstream target, used to regulate where Rac1 is active MAPK pathway: upregulating VEGF, Basic fibroblastic growth factors, interleukins 6 and 8 expression Notch1 PI3K/AKt pathway: Proliferation and invasiveness Pyk2: metastasis RhoC has been found to be overexpressed in: Lung Cancer Gastric Cancer Ovarian cancer Breast Cancer Hepatocellular Cancer Pancreatic Cancer Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the Urogenital System Melanoma Prostate Cancer Cervical Carcinoma RhoC small interfering RNA have been used in studies to inhibit proliferation of some invasive cancers RhoC can be used as a biomarker for judging the metastatic potential of tumors One study used "recombinant adenovirus mediated RhoC shRNA in tandem linked expression" to inhibit RhoC It has been found that RhoC expression is not important for embryogenesis but it is only important for metastasis, which would make it a good target for treatments.

UCSD-Nature Molecule Pages Published online: 16 Sep 2008 | doi:10.1038/mp.a002065.01 "RhoC: Abstract: UCSD-Nature Molecule Pages"