Silk Husbands and Calico Wives
Silk Husbands and Calico Wives is a 1920 American silent drama film directed by Alfred E. Green and starring House Peters; the film was based on an original by Monte Katterjohn. The film is preserved at the Library of Congress; as described in a film magazine, Deane Kendall, a country boy who has succeeded in being admitted to the bar, finds few clients in the small village of Harmony. When there is a sensational case involving a man being tried for the murder of his wife's lover, Edith Beecher, court stenographer and Deane's sweetheart, manages to arrange for Deane to defend the husband. Deane's masterful defense frees Deane wins a position with a city law firm. Deane marries Edith and they move to the city. Deane makes rapid progress but Edith remains a "home body." Society girl Georgia Wilson determines to break up this family. She is aided in her plans by an architect. Through a trick, Edith is lured to the architect's apartment. Edith believes. However, a madly jealous discarded sweetheart of the architect informs Deane of the whole plot.
Edith, thinking she has made her husband unhappy and fearing his wrath concerning her visit to the architect, has fled the city to return to her village home. Deane follows her and a reconciliation takes place. House Peters as Deane Kendall Mary Alden as Edith Beecher Kendall Mildred Reardon as Marcia Lawson Edward Kimball as Jerome Appleby Sam Sothern as Alec Beecher Eva Novak as Georgia Wilson Vincent Serrano as Charles Madison Rosita Marstini as Mrs. Westervelt Silk Husbands and Calico Wives on IMDb synopsis at AllMovie Lobby posters media
Musical film is a film genre in which songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative, sometimes accompanied by dancing. The songs advance the plot or develop the film's characters, but in some cases, they serve as breaks in the storyline as elaborate "production numbers." The musical film was a natural development of the stage musical after the emergence of sound film technology. The biggest difference between film and stage musicals is the use of lavish background scenery and locations that would be impractical in a theater. Musical films characteristically contain elements reminiscent of theater. In a sense, the viewer becomes the diegetic audience, as the performer looks directly into the camera and performs to it; the 1930's through the early 1950's are considered to be the golden age of the musical film, when the genre's popularity was at its highest in the Western world. Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the earliest Disney animated feature film, was a musical which won an honorary Oscar for Walt Disney at the 11th Academy Awards.
Musical short films were made by Lee de Forest in 1923–24. Beginning in 1926, thousands of Vitaphone shorts were made, many featuring bands and dancers; the earliest feature-length films with synchronized sound had only a soundtrack of music and occasional sound effects that played while the actors portrayed their characters just as they did in silent films: without audible dialogue. The Jazz Singer, released in 1927 by Warner Brothers, was the first to include an audio track including non-dietetic music and diegetic music, but it had only a short sequence of spoken dialogue; this feature-length film was a musical, featuring Al Jolson singing "Dirty Hands, Dirty Face", "Toot, Tootsie", "Blue Skies", "My Mammy". Historian Scott Eyman wrote, "As the film ended and applause grew with the houselights, Sam Goldwyn's wife Frances looked around at the celebrities in the crowd, she saw'terror in all their faces', she said, as if they knew that'the game they had been playing for years was over'." Still, only isolated sequences featured "live" sound.
In 1928, Warner Brothers followed this up with another Jolson part-talkie, The Singing Fool, a blockbuster hit. Theaters scrambled to install the new sound equipment and to hire Broadway composers to write musicals for the screen; the first all-talking feature, Lights of New York, included a musical sequence in a night club. The enthusiasm of audiences was so great that in less than a year all the major studios were making sound pictures exclusively; the Broadway Melody had a show-biz plot about two sisters competing for a charming song-and-dance man. Advertised by MGM as the first "All-Talking, All-Singing, All-Dancing" feature film, it was a hit and won the Academy Award for Best Picture for 1929. There was a rush by the studios to hire talent from the stage to star in lavishly filmed versions of Broadway hits; the Love Parade starred Maurice Chevalier and newcomer Jeanette MacDonald, written by Broadway veteran Guy Bolton. Warner Brothers produced the first screen operetta, The Desert Song in 1929.
They photographed a large percentage of the film in Technicolor. This was followed by the first all-color, all-talking musical feature, entitled On with the Show; the most popular film of 1929 was the second all-color, all-talking feature, entitled Gold Diggers of Broadway. This film broke all box office records and remained the highest-grossing film produced until 1939; the market became flooded with musicals and operettas. The following all-color musicals were produced in 1929 and 1930 alone: The Show of Shows, The Vagabond King, Follow Thru, Bright Lights, Golden Dawn, Hold Everything, The Rogue Song, Song of the Flame, Song of the West, Sweet Kitty Bellairs, Under a Texas Moon, Bride of the Regiment, Whoopee!, King of Jazz, Viennese Nights, Kiss Me Again. In addition, there were scores of musical features released with color sequences. Hollywood released more than 100 musical films in 1930, but only 14 in 1931. By late 1930, audiences had been oversaturated with musicals and studios were forced to cut the music from films that were being released.
For example, Life of the Party was produced as an all-color, all-talking musical comedy. Before it was released, the songs were cut out; the same thing happened to Fifty Million Frenchmen and Manhattan Parade both of, filmed in Technicolor. Marlene Dietrich sang songs in her films, Rodgers and Hart wrote a few well-received films, but their popularity waned by 1932; the public had come to associate color with musicals and thus the decline in their popularity resulted in a decline in color productions. The taste in musicals revived again in 1933 when director Busby Berkeley began to enhance the traditional dance number with ideas drawn from the drill precision he had experienced as a soldier during World War I. In films such as 42nd Street and Gold Diggers of 1933, Berkeley choreographed a number of films in his unique style. Berkeley's numbers begin on a stage but transcend the limitations of theatrical space: his ingenious routines, involving human bodies forming patterns like a kaleidoscope, could never fit onto a real stage and the intended perspective is viewing from straight above.
Musical stars such as Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers were among the most popular and highly
Nitrocellulose is a flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. When used as a propellant or low-order explosive, it was known as guncotton. Nitrated cellulose has found uses as a plastic film and in inks and wood coatings. In 1862, the first man-made plastic, was created by Alexander Parkes from cellulose treated with nitric acid and a solvent. In 1868, American inventor John Wesley Hyatt developed a plastic material he named Celluloid, improving on Parkes' invention by plasticizing the nitrocellulose with camphor so it could be processed into finished form and used as a photographic film. Celluloid was used by Kodak, other suppliers, from the late 1880s as a film base in photography, X-ray films, motion-picture films, was known as nitrate film. After numerous fires caused by unstable nitrate films, "safety film" started to be used from the 1930s in the case of X-ray stock and from 1948 for motion-picture film. Henri Braconnot discovered in 1832 that nitric acid, when combined with starch or wood fibers, would produce a lightweight combustible explosive material, which he named xyloïdine.
A few years in 1838, another French chemist, Théophile-Jules Pelouze, treated paper and cardboard in the same way. Jean-Baptiste Dumas obtained a similar material; these substances were unstable and were not practical explosives. However, around 1846 Christian Friedrich Schönbein, a German-Swiss chemist, discovered a more practical solution; as he was working in the kitchen of his home in Basel, he spilled a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid on the kitchen table. He reached for the nearest cloth, a cotton apron, wiped it up, he hung the apron on the stove door to dry, as soon as it was dry, a flash occurred as the apron ignited. His preparation method was the first to be imitated—one part of fine cotton wool to be immersed in 15 parts of an equal blend of sulfuric and nitric acids. After two minutes, the cotton was removed and washed in cold water to set the esterification level and remove all acid residue, it was slowly dried at a temperature below 40 °C. Schönbein collaborated with the Frankfurt professor Rudolf Christian Böttger, who had discovered the process independently in the same year.
By coincidence, a third chemist, the Brunswick professor F. J. Otto had produced guncotton in 1846 and was the first to publish the process, much to the disappointment of Schönbein and Böttger; the process uses nitric acid to convert cellulose into cellulose nitrate and water: 3 HNO3+ C6H10O5 H2SO4→ C6H73O5 + 3 H2OThe sulfuric acid is present as a catalyst to produce the nitronium ion, NO+2. The reaction is first order and proceeds by electrophilic substitution at the C−OH centers of the cellulose. Guncotton is made by treating cotton with concentrated sulfuric acid and 70% nitric acid cooled to 0 °C to produce cellulose trinitrate. While guncotton is dangerous to store, the hazards it presents can be reduced by storing it dampened with various liquids, such as alcohol. For this reason, accounts of guncotton usage dating from the early 20th century refer to "wet guncotton"; the power of guncotton made it suitable for blasting. As a projectile driver, it had around six times the gas generation of an equal volume of black powder and produced less smoke and less heating.
The patent rights for the manufacture of guncotton were obtained by John Hall & Son in 1846, industrial manufacture of the explosive began at a purpose-built factory at Marsh Works in Faversham, Kent, a year later. However, the manufacturing process was not properly understood and few safety measures were put in place. A serious explosion in July of that year killed two dozen workers, resulting in the immediate closure of the plant. Guncotton manufacture ceased for over 15 years. Further research indicated the importance of careful washing of the acidified cotton. Unwashed nitrocellulose may spontaneously ignite and explode at room temperature, as the evaporation of water results in the concentration of unreacted acid; the British chemist Frederick Augustus Abel developed the first safe process for guncotton manufacture, which he patented in 1865. The washing and drying times of the nitrocellulose were both extended to 48 hours and repeated eight times over; the acid mixture was changed to two parts sulfuric acid to one part nitric.
Nitration can be controlled by adjusting reaction temperature. Nitrocellulose is soluble in a mixture of alcohol and ether until nitrogen concentration exceeds 12%. Soluble nitrocellulose, or a solution thereof, is sometimes called collodion. Guncotton containing more than 13% nitrogen was prepared by prolonged exposure to hot, concentrated acids for limited use as a blasting explosive or for warheads of underwater weapons such as naval mines and torpedoes. Safe and sustained production of guncotton began at the Waltham Abbey Royal Gunpowder Mills in the 1860s, the material became the dominant explosive, becoming the standard for military warheads, although it remained too potent to be used as a propellant. More-stable and slower-burning collodion mixtures were prepared using less-concentrated acids at lower temperatures for smokeless powder in firearms; the first practical smokeless powder made from nitrocellulose, for firearms and artillery ammunition, was invented by French chemist Paul Vieille in 1884.
Sweet Kitty Bellairs (1916 film)
Sweet Kitty Bellairs is a 1916 American silent romantic comedy film based on the 1900 novel The Bath Comedy, by Agnes and Egerton Castle. The novel was first adapted for the stage in 1903 by David Belasco, a huge Broadway success for lead actress Henrietta Crosman; the film version was directed by James Young. Mae Murray - Kitty Bellairs Tom Forman - Lord Verney Belle Bennett - Lady Julia Lucille Young - Lady Barbara Flyte Joseph King - Sir Jasper James Neill - Colonel Villers Lucille Lavarney - Lady Maria Horace B. Carpenter - Captain Spicer Robert Gray - Captain O'Hara Loretta Young - uncredited Sweet Kitty Bellairs was filmed again in 1930 as a sound musical comedy filmed in Technicolor. List of lost films Sweet Kitty Bellairs on IMDb Sweet Kitty Bellairs at AllMovie Sweet Kitty Bellairs at silentera.com
Our Leading Citizen (1922 film)
Our Leading Citizen is a 1922 American silent comedy film directed by Alfred E. Green and written by George Ade and Waldemar Young; the film stars Thomas Meighan, Lois Wilson, William P. Carleton, Theodore Roberts, Guy Oliver, Larry Wheat, James Neill; the film was released on June 1922, by Paramount Pictures. The film is now lost. Thomas Meighan as Daniel Bentley Lois Wilson as Katherine Fendle William P. Carleton as Oglesby Fendle Theodore Roberts as Colonel Sam De Mott Guy Oliver as Cale Higginson Larry Wheat as J. Sylvester Dubley James Neill as Honorable Cyrus Blagdon Lucien Littlefield as The Editor Charles Stanton Ogle as The Judge Tom Kennedy as Boots Sylvia Ashton as Mrs. Brazey Ethel Wales as Eudora Mawdle Our Leading Citizen on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie
June Collyer was an American film actress of the 1920s and 1930s. Born in New York City, Collyer chose to use her mother's maiden name when she decided to pursue acting, her father was an attorney in New York. A debutante chosen by Allan Dwan, Collyer had her first starring role in 1927 when she starred in East Side, West Side, she did a total of eleven films during the silent film era, unlike many of that period she made a successful transition to sound movies. In 1928 she was one of thirteen girls selected as "WAMPAS Baby Stars", an honor her future sister-in-law Marian Shockley would receive on in 1932. In 1930 Collyer starred opposite Louise Dresser and Joyce Compton in The Three Sisters, that same year she starred with Claudia Dell in Sweet Kitty Bellairs, she starred in nineteen films from 1930 to 1936. She took a break by choice or due to her not receiving starring roles. During the 1950s she returned to acting, having a regular role on the television series The Stu Erwin Show from 1950 through 1955, starring with her husband, Stu Erwin.
She played in one episode of the 1958 series Playhouse 90 retired. Collyer was the sister of Bud Collyer, her sister-in-law was actress Marian Shockley. On July 22, 1931, in Yuma, she married actor Stu Erwin, she remained in Los Angeles. Collyer died at the age of 61 on March 1968, of bronchial pneumonia, she was interred at Chapel of the Pines Crematory. Her brother Bud survived her at the time of her death, but died the following year at the age of 61. East Side, West Side Woman Wise Hangman's House Me, Gangster The Love Doctor Not Quite Decent River of Romance The Three Sisters A Man from Wyoming Extravagance Charley's Aunt Kiss Me Again The Brat Alexander Hamilton Lost in the Stratosphere The Ghost Walks Murder by Television A Face in the Fog Sunday Night at the Trocadero June Collyer on IMDb June Collyer at Silent Ladies & Gents June Collyer at Find a Grave Photographs and literature
The negligee or négligée meaning "neglected", known in French as déshabillé, is a form of see-through clothing for women consisting of a sheer long dressing gown. It is a form of nightgown intended for wear in the bedroom, it was introduced in France in the 18th century, where it mimicked the heavy head-to-toe style of women's day dresses of the time. By the 1920s, the negligee began to mimic women's satin single-layer evening dress of the period; the term "negligee" was used on a Royal Doulton run of ceramic figurines in 1927, showing women wearing what appears to be a one-piece knee-length silk or rayon slip, trimmed with lace. Although the evening-dresses style of nightwear made moves towards the modern negligee style—translucent bodices, lace trimming, exemplified in 1941 by a photo of Rita Hayworth in Life—it was only after World War II that nightwear changed from being utilitarian to being sensual or erotic. Modern negligees are much looser and made of sheer and diaphanous fabrics and trimmed with lace or other fine material, bows.
Multiple layers of fabric are used. The modern negligee thus owes more to women's fine bedjackets or bed-capes, up-market slips than to the nightgown, it spread to a mass market, benefitting from the introduction of cheap synthetic fabrics such as nylon and its finer successors. From the 1940s to the 1970s, the trend was for negligees to become shorter in length. Negligees made from the 1940s to the 1970s are now collectible vintage items. In the UK in 2004, negligees accounted for only four percent of women's nightwear sales, women's pyjamas having dominated since the mid-1980s. However, UK negligee sales are said to have been the fastest increasing sector of the market since 1998