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Sweet tea

Sweet tea is a popular style of iced tea consumed in countries such as the United States and Indonesia. Sweet tea is most made by adding sugar or simple syrup to black tea either while the tea is brewing or still hot, although artificial sweeteners are frequently used. Sweet tea is always served ice cold, it may sometimes be flavored, most with lemon but with peach, raspberry, or mint. The drink is sometimes tempered with baking soda to reduce its acidity. Sweet tea is regarded as an important regional staple item in the cuisine of the Southern United States; the availability of sweet tea in restaurants and other establishments is popularly used as an indicator to gauge whether an area can be considered part of the South. Although sweet tea may be brewed with a lower sugar and calorie content than most fruit juices and sodas, it is not unusual to find sweet tea with a sugar level as high as 22 brix -- twice that of Coca-Cola. Sweet tea began as an item of luxury due to the expensive nature of tea and sugar.

Ice was the most valued of the ingredients since it had to be shipped from afar at a time when access to cool drinking water was a relative luxury. In modern times, it can be made in large quantities and inexpensively; the oldest known recipe for sweet iced tea was published in 1879 in a community cookbook called Housekeeping in Old Virginia by Marion Cabell Tyree, born in Virginia. The recipe called for green tea, since most sweet tea consumed during this period was green tea. However, during World War II, the major sources of green tea were cut off from the United States, leaving them with tea exclusively from British India which produced black tea. Americans came out of the war drinking predominantly black tea. Sweet tea was once consumed as a punch mixed with hard liquor with flavorings of mint and cream, with mint julep being a close version of the punch drink with its similar ingredients. In 2003 as an April Fool's joke, the Georgia House introduced a bill making it a "...misdemeanor of a high and aggravated nature" to sell iced tea in a restaurant that did not offer sweet iced tea on the menu.

The bill never went to a vote. Amacha, a Japanese drink Cuisine of the Southern United States Iced tea Lipton Luzianne Red Diamond Tata Tea Tea Tortuga United States Regional Cuisine History of Iced Tea and Sweet Tea Housekeeping in Old Virginia by Marion Cabell Tyree. ISBN 1-4101-0508-3 A Slate article on sweet tea

Ernest H. Martin

Ernest Harold Martin was an American Broadway producer who wrote the book for a musical, owned a Broadway theater and produced motion pictures, including Guys and Dolls, How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying, A Chorus Line and Cabaret. Best known for such hits as Guys and Dolls, How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying, Cabaret, Martin left his mark on American and international theatre and screen. Martin, singly or with Cy Feuer, was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Musical five times with Walking Happy. Little Me and How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying garnered them nominations for the Tony Award for Best Producer of a Musical. How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying and Guys and Dolls won the Tony Award for Best Musical, while "Business" won the Best Producer Tony and the Pulitzer Prize. Feuer and Martin owned the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre from 1960 to 1965, they were so successful as producers on Broadway that they were dubbed "The Golddust Twins."

Martin managed the Los Angeles Civic Light Opera from 1976 to 1980 as well as its sister Civic Light Opera in San Francisco, bringing Broadway shows to the westcoast and creating and cultivating new shows prior to taking them to Broadway NY Times Obituary Ernest H. Martin Dies. Ernest H. Martin was a master at conceptualization and initiator of many Broadway and film classics, while his partner Cy Feuer, was a master at directing and executing on the ideas. Feuer was known to say, "Ernie was the sparkplug and I was the engineer" He graduated from UCLA, where he was elected president of the senior class, he began his career at CBS radio, where he rose to the position of head of programming. He was married three times, twice to women named Nancy, his third wife was Twyla Martin. One of his wives was the quintessentially insouciant actress Nancy Guild, to whom he was married from 1951 to 1975, with whom he had three children: Cecilia and Polly, as well as Liz; the Act Oct 29, 1977 – Jul 1, 1978.

Jan 29, 1951 – Mar 10, 1951. Oct 11, 1948 – Sep 9, 1950.

James Marshall Carter

James Marshall Carter was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of California. Born on March 11, 1904, in Santa Barbara, Carter received an Artium Baccalaureus degree from Pomona College in 1924, he attended Harvard Law School before he received a Juris Doctor from University of Southern California Law School in 1927. He was in private practice of law in Los Angeles, California from 1928 to 1940, he was a teacher at the Police School of the Los Angeles Board of Education in California from 1934 to 1935. He was Director of the State Department of Motor Vehicles in Sacramento, California from 1940 to 1942, he was in private practice of law in Los Angeles in 1943. He was Chief Assistant United States Attorney for the Southern District of California from 1943 to 1946, he was United States Attorney for the Southern District of California from 1946 to 1949.

Carter was nominated by President Harry S Truman on September 23, 1949, to the United States District Court for the Southern District of California, to a new seat created by 63 Stat. 493. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on October 15, 1949, received his commission on October 18, 1949, he served as Chief Judge from 1966 to 1967. His service was terminated on December 1967, due to elevation to the Ninth Circuit. Carter was nominated by President Lyndon B. Johnson on November 6, 1967, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit vacated by Judge Gilbert H. Jertberg, he was confirmed by the Senate on November 16, 1967, received his commission the same day. He assumed senior status on September 30, 1971, his service was terminated on November 1979, due to his death in La Jolla, California. In a March 30, 2015, the new federal courthouse in San Diego was named the James M. Carter and Judith N. Keep United States Courthouse to honor Carter and another federal judge.

James Marshall Carter at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center

National Adult Reading Test

The National Adult Reading Test is a accepted and used method in clinical settings for estimating premorbid intelligence levels of English-speaking patients with dementia in neuropsychological research and practice. Such tests are called hold tests as these abilities are thought to be spared, or "held" following neurological injury or decline; the NART was developed by Hazel Nelson in the 1980s in Britain and published in 1982. The test comprises 50 written words in British English which all have irregular spellings, so as to test the participant's vocabulary rather than their ability to apply regular pronunciation rules; the manual includes equations for converting NART scores to predicted IQ scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The NART is used in research settings because a measure of premorbid intelligence is available. However, the Lothian Birth Cohort Study has such data. Researchers from this study demonstrated that the correlation between NART scores and age 11 IQ was moderately high at 0.60.

This suggests that the NART can be used as a proxy for premorbid intelligence. The British NART was re-standardized in 1991 to enable calculation of predicted IQ on the newer WAIS-R and again in 2016 to provide premorbid estimates on the most recent WAIS-IV. There are two versions of the NART devised for use in North America; the NART-R, published in 1989, was designed for use in the United States and Canada. NART-R comprises an extended list of 61 words chosen to have irregular pronunciations in North American English; the AMNART was developed independently in 1987 but unpublished until 1991 and comprises 50 words selected to be familiar to speakers of American English. There is a Swedish-language version called NART-SWE, a New Zealand version called NZART. Lezak, Muriel D.. Neuropsychological Assessment. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-539552-5. Retrieved 17 June 2014. Lay summary – Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. Strauss, Esther. A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration and Commentary.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515957-8. Retrieved 14 July 2013


Windsorton is an agricultural town situated in the Vaalharts Irrigation Scheme on the banks of the Vaal River in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. The village is located on the Vaal River, 55 km north of Kimberley, 35 km northeast of Barkly West and 40 km south-west of Warrenton, it was founded in 1869 as a diamond-diggers’ camp and was administered by a village management board. The town started as Hebron, a mission station, but when diamonds were discovered, the area was flooded with prospectors and the town became a diggers' camp; the town was renamed after P F Windsor, the original owner of the land, instrumental in its development. The Khoekhoen name is Chaib, ‘place of the kudu

Heizer, Kansas

Heizer called Heizerton, is an unincorporated community in Barton County, United States. Heizer was created in the 1880s out of the need for an additional railway stop Northwest of the city of Great Bend, Kansas; the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway was in the process of building lines heading out to the Southwest after Colonel Cyrus K. Holliday gained charter to the company in 1859 and gained land grants through Kansas and Texas; the railroad, built through Great Bend was one such line. The town was named after David N, one of the founders of Barton County and the former Mayor or Great Bend who once owned the land that Heizer was built on. For several decades the small frontier settlement boomed with the height of the railroads in Kansas. At one point the town had over 100 residents, it was at this point. However, time passed and life on the Kansas plains grew more difficult with the onset of the Great Depression in the 1930s and the Dust Bowl, which hit the area hard. People began to leave Kansas in the 20th century just as as they had come in the 19th.

Like many towns in the area, Heizer suffered a severe population decrease that continues to this day. Heizer is estimated to have 20 residents. At its peak, the town of Heizer had numerous places of business that were owned and operated in the town, they included: Train Depot, hotel, lumberyard, school, several grain elevators, general stores, hardware store, Heizer Creamery Co, bank established in 1911. Many of these businesses can be seen in the 1902 map here. None of these businesses are in operation today. Only a few of the original buildings still exist, most are condemned. In 1887, Barton County opened contract bids for four iron bridges within the county; the Walnut Creek Bridge, to be constructed 0.5 mi. North and 0.5 mi. West of Heizer, was given to C. R. Lane of Topeka, Kansas. Lane was the manager of Topeka's office of the Lane Bridge and Iron Works, a company which provided a variety of metalworking services throughout the Midwest; the company was given $3,700 for the contract, equivalent to about $92,204.69 today.

The Walnut Creek Bridge "is a pin connected Pratt through truss" which spans 115' long and 16' wide with a wood deck 21' above Walnut Creek. The bridge is unique due to the fact that it is constructed of wrought-iron, no longer used in bridge construction with steel being preferable. Additionally, of all Pratt through truss bridges, the Walnut Creek Bridge is the only one known to be constructed by P. E. Lane, who worked for the Lane Bridge and Iron Works company; the bridge was completed in 1887, meaning that horses and wagons were the first vehicles to use the bridge, although it carried cars. Although the bridge was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1990, marking it as a structure of historical importance, it was not enough to save the bridge from falling into disrepair. Today the bridge has been abandoned and its main wooden deck has been removed, as well as the structure as a whole being deemed structurally deficient and for imminent failure. Photos of the bridge when it was still in use can be seen here and the bridge can be seen from satellite here.

Jacob Halman patented a new type of plow point in 1903. Fred Garrett along with Charles Wilkins of Hutchinson, Kansas patented a new design for disk bearings for use in cultivators in 1903. Frank Trauer patented his improvements in locomotive feed-water heaters for steam boilers in 1903. Map of Heizer today Map of Heizer in 1902 1902 Map of Barton County 1902 Map of Buffalo Plat