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Sweyn Forkbeard

Sweyn Forkbeard was king of Denmark from 986 to 1014. He was King Cnut the Great and Queen Estrid Svendsdatter. In the mid-980s, Sweyn revolted against his father, Harald Bluetooth, seized the throne. Harald was driven into exile and died shortly afterwards in November 986 or 987. In 1000, with the allegiance of Trondejarl, Eric of Lade, Sweyn ruled most of Norway. In 1013, shortly before his death, he became the first Danish king of England after a long effort. Historiographical sources on Sweyn's life include the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Adam of Bremen's 12th-century Deeds of the Bishops of Hamburg, Snorri Sturluson's 13th-century Heimskringla. Conflicting accounts of Sweyn's life appear in the Encomium Emmae Reginae, an 11th-century Latin encomium in honour of his son king Cnut's queen Emma of Normandy, along with Chronicon ex chronicis by Florence of Worcester, another 11th-century author. Sweyn's father, Harald Bluetooth, was the first of the reigning Scandinavian kings to be baptised, in the early or mid-960s.

According to Adam of Bremen, Harald's son Sweyn was baptised "Otto". There are conflicting records as to the identity of his mother. Adam of Bremen identifies her as "Gunhild", but some modern day scholars give her name as Tove from Western Wendland. Sweyn married the widow of Erik, king of Sweden, named "Gunhild" in some sources, or identified as an unnamed sister of Boleslav, ruler of Poland. In the mid-980s, Sweyn seized the throne. Harald was driven into exile and died shortly afterwards in November 986 or 987. Adam of Bremen depicted Sweyn as a rebellious pagan who persecuted Christians, betrayed his father and expelled German bishops from Scania and Zealand. According to Adam, Sweyn was sent into exile by his father's German friends and deposed in favour of king Eric the Victorious of Sweden, whom Adam wrote ruled Denmark until his death in 994 or 995. Sørensen argues that Adam's depiction of Sweyn may be overly negative, as seen through an "unsympathetic and intolerant eye". Adam's account is thus not seen as reliable.

According to Adam, Sweyn was punished by God for leading the uprising which led to king Harald's death, had to spend fourteen years abroad. The historicity of this exile, or its duration, is uncertain. Adam purports that Sweyn was shunned by all those with whom he sought refuge, but was allowed to live for a while in Scotland. Adam suggests that Sweyn in his youth lived among heathens, only achieved success as a ruler after accepting Christianity. Harald Bluetooth had established a foothold in Norway, controlling Viken in c. 970. He may, have lost control over his Norwegian claims following his defeat against a German army in 974. Sweyn built an alliance with Swedish king Olof Skötkonung and Eirik Hákonarson, Jarl of Lade, against Norwegian king Olaf Tryggvason; the Kings' sagas ascribe the causes of the alliance to Olaf Tryggvason's ill-fated marriage proposal to Sigrid the Haughty and his problematic marriage to Thyri, sister of Svein Forkbeard. The allies attacked and defeated king Olaf in the western Baltic Sea when he was sailing home from an expedition, in the Battle of Svolder, fought in September of either 999 or 1000.

The victors divided Norway among them. According to the account of the Heimskringla, Sweyn re-gained direct control of Viken district. King Olaf of Sweden received four districts in Trondheim as well as Romsdal and Rånrike, he gave these to his son in Jarl Svein Hákonarson, to hold as a vassal. The rest of Norway was ruled by Eirik Hákonarson as King Svein's vassal; the Jarls Eirik and Svein proved strong, competent rulers, their reign was prosperous. Most sources say that they adopted Christianity but allowed the people religious freedom, leading to a backlash against Christianity which undid much of Olaf Tryggvason's missionary work. King Sweyn enlisted bishops from England rather than from the Archbishopric of Bremen; this may have been a reason for Adam of Bremen's apparent hostility in his accounts. Numerous converted priests of Danish origin from the Danelaw lived in England, while Sweyn had few connections to Germany or its priests. By allowing English ecclesiastical influence in his kingdom, he was spurning the Hamburg-Bremen archbishop.

Since German bishops were an integral part of the secular state, Sweyn's preference for the English church may have been a political move. He sought to pre-empt any threat against his independence posed by the German kings; the "Chronicle of John of Wallingford" records Sweyn's involvement in raids against England during 1002–1005, 1006–1007, 1009–1012 to avenge the St. Brice's Day massacre of England's Danish inhabitants in November 1002. According to Ashley, Sweyn's invasion was motivated by the massacre of Danes in England ordered by Æthelred the Unready in 1002, in which his sister and brother-in-law are said to have been killed, but Lund argues that the main motivation for the raids was more the prospect of revenue. Sweyn campaigned in Wessex and East Anglia in 1003–1004, but a famine forced him to return to Denmark in 1005. Further raids took place in 1006–1007, in 1009–1012 Thorkell the Tall led a Viking invasion into England. Simon Keynes regards it as uncertain whether Sweyn supported these invasion

Maryland Route 390

Maryland Route 390 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Maryland. The highway runs 1.09 miles from 16th Street at the District of Columbia boundary north to MD 97 within Silver Spring. MD 390 is a six-lane divided highway continuation of 16th Street into Maryland and serves as a western bypass of downtown Silver Spring; the portion of the highway south of MD 410 was constructed around 1930. MD 390 was extended north to MD 97 as a divided highway in the late 1950s. MD 390 begins at Blair Portal traffic circle at the boundary between the District of Columbia and Maryland. 16th Street Northwest heads south from the circle toward the White House. The circle includes junctions with Eastern Avenue, North Portal Drive, MD 384, which leads to U. S. Route 29 in downtown Silver Spring. There is no direct access from southbound MD 390 to MD 384. MD 390 heads north from Blair Portal as a six-lane divided highway. North of its intersections with MD 410 and Spring Street, the route passes through an S-curve after which the highway crosses over CSX's Metropolitan Subdivision, which carries MARC's Brunswick Line.

North of the railroad tracks, Washington Metro's Red Line begins to run below the route and the state highway passes through an oblique intersection with Second Street. The two carriageways of MD 390 split to terminate at separate intersections with MD 97 in the Montgomery Hills neighborhood of Silver Spring. There is no direct access from northbound MD 97 to MD 390. MD 390 is a part of the National Highway System as a principal arterial for its entire length. 16th Street was extended as a concrete road north from Blair Portal to East–West Highway in 1930. Traffic on the new East–West Highway built around the same time, used 16th Street and the extended Colesville Road to access Georgia Avenue because the Bethesda–Silver Spring highway was not yet built east of 16th Street; the portion of East–West Highway from 16th Street to Georgia Avenue was completed in 1935. 16th Street from Blair Portal to MD 410 was numbered MD 653 by the time the highway was widened and resurfaced in 1949. Construction on the divided highway extension of 16th Street from MD 410 to MD 97 and expansion of MD 653 to a divided highway began in 1958.

When the highway was completed in 1960, the entire length of 16th Street in Maryland was designated MD 390. The entire route is in Montgomery County. Maryland Roads portal MDRoads: MD 390

Phyllodactylus reissii

Phyllodactylus reissii known as Peters' leaf-toed gecko or the coastal leaf-toed gecko, is a species of lizard in the family Phyllodactylidae. The species is endemic to northwestern South America; the specific name, reissii, is in honor of Carl Reiss who collected the holotype, while he was the Prussian consul in Guayaquil, Ecuador. P. reissii is native to Peru. There is an introduced population in the Galapagos; the natural habitats of P. reissii are forest and desert, at altitudes of 0–2,000 m. P. reissii is large for its genus. Adults may attain a snout-to-vent length of 7.5 cm. P. reissii is oviparous. The adult female lays a clutch of two eggs. Hatchlings have a snout-to-vent length of 28–34 mm. Boulenger GA. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum. Second Edition. Volume I. Geckonidæ, Eublepharidæ, Uroplatidæ, Pygopodidæ, Agamidæ. London: Trustees of the British Museum.. Xii + 436 pp. + Plates I-XXXII.. Goldberg SR. "Notes on reproduction of Peters' Leaf-toed Gecko, Phyllodactylus reissii, from Peru".

Phyllomedusa 6: 147–150. Koch C, Flecks M, Venegas PJ, Bialke P, Valverde S, Rödder D. "Applying n-dimensional hypervolumes for species delimitation: unexpected molecular and ecological diversity in the Leaf-Toed Gecko Phyllodactylus reissii Peters, 1862 from northern Peru". Zootaxa 4161: 041–080. Peters W. "Über einen neuen Phyllodactylus aus Guayaquil ". Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1862: 626–627... Rösler H. "Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa". Gekkota 2: 28-153