Barodontalgia known as tooth squeeze, is a pain in tooth caused by a change in ambient pressure. The pain ceases at ground level. Dental barotrauma is a condition in which such changes in barometric pressure changes cause damage to the dentition; the most common victims are underwater divers because in deep dives pressures can increase by several atmospheres, military pilots because of rapid changes. In pilots, barodontalgia may be severe enough to cause premature cessation of flights. Most of the available data regarding barodontalgia is derived from high-altitude chamber simulations rather than actual flights. Barodontalgia prevalence was between 0.7% and 2% in the 1940s, 0.3% in the 1960s. Cases of barodontalgia were reported in 0.3% of high altitude-chamber simulations in the Luftwaffe. The rate of barodontalgia was about 1 case per 100 flight-years in the Israeli Air Force. During World War II, about one-tenth of American aircrews had one or more episodes of barodontalgia. In a recent study, 8.2% of 331 Israeli Air Force aircrews, reported at least one episode of barodontalgia.
Barodontalgia is a symptom of dental disease, for example inflammatory cyst in the mandible. Indeed, most of the common oral pathologies have been reported as possible sources of barodontalgia: dental caries, defective tooth restoration, pulp necrosis, apical periodontitis, periodontal pockets, impacted teeth, mucous retention cysts. One exception is barodontalgia manifested; the latter two conditions are generated from pressure changes rather than pressure-related flare-up of pre-existing conditions. A meta-analysis of studies conducted between 2001 and 2010 revealed a rate of 5 episodes/1,000 flight-years. Maxillary and mandibular dentitions were affected in flight, but in diving, maxillary dentition was affected more than the mandibular dentition, which can indicate a greater role for maxillary sinus pathology in diving barodontalgia. Despite cabin pressurization, the current in-flight barodontalgia incidence is similar to the incidence in the first half of the 20th century. Despite the greater fluctuation in divers' pressures, the weighted incidence of barodontalgia among aircrews is similar to the weighted incidence among divers.
Furthermore, contrary to common belief, in contrast to diving conditions, the role of facial barotrauma in the cause of in-flight barodontalgia is only minor. The Fédération dentaire internationale describes 4 classes of barodontalgia; the classes are based on symptoms. They provide specific and valuable recommendations for therapeutic intervention. Sometimes, pressure changes damage teeth; when the external pressure rises or falls and the trapped air within the void cannot expand or contract to balance the external pressure, the pressure difference on the rigid structure of the tooth can induce stresses sufficient to fracture the tooth or dislodge a filling. This is seen in underwater divers or aviators who experience pressure changes in the course of their activity. Identifying the pain during a pressure change is a diagnostic indicator for the clinician. Treatment involves removing the void space by replacing the offending restoration, repeating the endodontic treatment or removing the tooth.
Barotrauma – Injury caused by pressure Dental trauma List of diving hazards and precautions – List of the hazards to which an underwater diver may be exposed, their possible consequences and the common ways to manage the associated risk Toothache
Toni Nathaniel Harp was the 50th Mayor of New Haven, Connecticut. Harp, a Democrat, was a state senator in Connecticut from 1993 to 2013. A resident of New Haven, Harp represented the western half of the city as well as part of West Haven while in the Connecticut Senate. Harp was born in San Francisco and graduated from Roosevelt University and received a Master of Environmental Design from Yale University. Prior to becoming mayor in the City of New Haven, Harp served as a State Senator and a New Haven Alderman. In 2007, Harp introduced a bill to have the state pay for free diapers for poor mothers. Following the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting in 2012, State Senator Harp introduced a controversial bill for mandatory mental health screenings of all Connecticut school children. In Spring 2013, Harp announced her intention to run for Mayor of New Haven, a position long held by John DeStefano, Jr.. Harp won the election over her opponent, Justin Elicker, by 10,602 to 8,865 votes, or 54.46 percent to 45.54 percent.
She was reelected in 2015 with 88.83 percent of the vote against three independent candidates. She was reelected to a third term in 2017 with 77.61 percent of the vote against an independent candidate and Working Families Party candidate. She is the second African American to serve as Mayor of New Haven. In April 2019, Harp announced. Justin Elicker, Harp's 2013 opponent, defeated her by 58.8% to 41.5% in the Democratic primary. She ran under the Working Families Party label in the general election, she was defeated by Justin Elicker 70% to 30% in the general election on November 5th. As mayor, Toni Harp did not participate in the city's democracy fund program to promote equitable and transparent political donations, which provoked criticism and raised questions about the ethics of her big dollar donations. Despite significant evidence, Mayor Harp denied the FBI ethics probe into her administration amidst allegations of abuse of funds, including diverting funds from the Fire Department to buy clothes for herself and staff.
Connecticut Senate Official website