British Film Institute
The British Film Institute is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom. The BFI maintains the worlds largest film archive, the BFI National Archive, previously called National Film Library, National Film Archive and National Film, the archive contains more than 50,000 fiction films, over 100,000 non-fiction titles and around 625,000 television programmes. The majority of the collection is British material but it features internationally significant holdings from around the world, the Archive collects films which feature key British actors and the work of British directors. The BFI runs the BFI Southbank and London IMAX cinema, both located on the bank of the River Thames in London. The IMAX has the largest cinema screen in the UK, and shows popular recent releases and short films showcasing its technology, BFI Southbank shows films from all over the world particularly critically acclaimed historical & specialised films that may not otherwise get a cinema showing.
The BFI distributes archival and cultural cinema to other venues – each year to more than 800 venues all across the UK, the BFI offers a range of education initiatives, in particular to support the teaching of film and media studies in schools. In late 2012, the BFI received money from the Department For Education to create the BFI Film Academy Network, the BFI runs the annual London Film Festival along with BFI Flare, London LGBT Film Festival and the youth-orientated Future Film Festival. The BFI publishes the monthly Sight & Sound magazine as well as films on Blu-ray, DVD, SIFT has a collection of about 7 million still frames from film and television. The institute was founded in 1933, the institute was restructured following the Radcliffe Report of 1948 which recommended that it should concentrate on developing the appreciation of filmic art, rather than creating film itself. Thus control of film production passed to the National Committee for Visual Aids in Education. From 1952-2000, the BFI provided funding for new and experimental filmmakers via the BFI Production Board, the institute received a Royal Charter in 1983.
This was updated in 2000, and in the year the newly established UK Film Council took responsibility for providing the BFIs annual grant-in-aid. As an independent registered charity, the BFI is regulated by the Charity Commission, in 1988, the BFI opened the London Museum of the Moving Image on the South Bank. The Museum was temporarily closed in 1999 when the BFI stated that it would be re-sited and this did not happen, and MOMIs closure became permanent in 2002 when it was decided to redevelop the South Bank site. This redevelopment was itself further delayed, the BFI is currently managed on a day-to-day basis by its chief executive, Amanda Nevill. Supreme decision-making authority rests with a chair and a board of up to 14 governors, the current chair is Josh Berger, who took up the post in February 2016. He succeeded Greg Dyke, who took office on 1 March 2008, Dyke succeeded the late Anthony Minghella, who was chair from 2003 until 31 December 2007. The chair of the board is appointed by the BFIs own Board of Governors but requires the consent of the Secretary of State for Culture, other Governors are co-opted by existing board members when required
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962. The original line-up consisted of Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, Stewart was removed from the official line-up in 1963 but continued as a touring member until his death in 1985. Jones left the less than a month prior to his death in 1969, having already been replaced by Mick Taylor. After Taylor left the band, Ronnie Wood took his place in 1975 and has been on guitar in tandem with Richards ever since, following Wymans departure in 1993, Darryl Jones joined as their touring bassist. Other touring keyboardists for the band have been Nicky Hopkins, Billy Preston, the band was first led by Jones, but after teaming as the bands songwriters and Richards assumed leadership while Jones dealt with legal and personal troubles. The Rolling Stones were at the forefront of the British Invasion of bands that became popular in the US in 1964, and identified with the youthful and rebellious counterculture of the 1960s.
Rooted in blues and early rock and roll, the group began a period of musical experimentation in the mid-1960s that peaked with the psychedelic album Their Satanic Majesties Request. During this period, they were first introduced on stage as The Worlds Greatest Rock, the band continued to release commercially successful records in the 1970s and sold many albums, including Some Girls and Tattoo You, which were their most popular albums worldwide. From 1983 to 1987, tensions between Jagger and Richards almost caused the band to split, they managed to patch up their friendship in 1987. They separated temporarily to work on projects and experienced a comeback with Steel Wheels. Since the 1990s, new recorded material from the group has been increasingly less well-received, despite this, the Rolling Stones have continued to be a huge attraction on the live circuit, with stadium tours in the 1990s and 2000s. By 2007, the band had four of the top five highest-grossing concert tours of all time, Voodoo Lounge Tour, Bridges to Babylon Tour, Licks Tour and A Bigger Bang Tour.
The Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989, Rolling Stone magazine ranked them fourth on the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time list and their estimated album sales are above 250 million. They have released 30 studio albums,18 live albums and numerous compilations, Let It Bleed was their first of five consecutive number one studio and live albums in the UK. Sticky Fingers was the first of eight number one studio albums in the US. In 2008, the band ranked 10th on the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists chart, in 2012, the band celebrated its 50th anniversary. Keith Richards and Mick Jagger were childhood friends and classmates in Dartford, Jagger had formed a garage band with Dick Taylor, mainly playing Muddy Waters, Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Howlin Wolf and Bo Diddley material. Jagger met Richards again in 1960 on platform two of Dartford railway station, the Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters records that Jagger carried revealed a common interest that prompted their musical partnership
Dame Barbara Mary Quant, Mrs Plunket Greene, DBE, FCSD, RDI is a Welsh fashion designer and British fashion icon. She became a figure in the 1960s London-based Mod and youth fashion movements. In recent fashion there are three, Chanel and Mary Quant, Quant was born in Blackheath, London on 11 February 1934, the daughter of Welsh teachers. Her parents and Mildred Quant, were both from mining families and they had been awarded scholarships to grammar school and had both attained first-class degrees at Cardiff University before they moved to London to work as schoolteachers. She went to Blackheath High School, studied illustration at Goldsmiths College, after gaining a Diploma in Art Education from Goldsmiths, Quant began an apprenticeship at Erik, a high-end Mayfair milliner on Brook Street next door to Claridges hotel. She met her husband and business partner, Alexander Plunket Greene in 1953. They were married from 1957 until his death in 1990, and had a son, in 1957, they opened the second branch of Bazaar, which was designed by Terence Conran.
Following this, Quant decided to design and make more of the clothes she stocked, initially working solo, she was soon employing a handful of machinists, and by 1966 she was working with eighteen manufacturers concurrently. For a while in the late 1950s and very early 1960s, the other was Kiki Byrne, who opened her boutique on the Kings Road in direct competition with Quant. The miniskirt, described as one of the fashions of the 1960s, is one of the garments most widely associated with Quant. While she is cited as the inventor of the style. Others credit Courrèges with the invention of the style, skirts had been getting shorter since the 1950s—a development Quant considered practical and liberating, allowing women the ability to run for a bus. Quant said It was the girls on the Kings Road who invented the mini, I was making easy, simple clothes, in which you could move, in which you could run and jump and we would make them the length the customer wanted. I wore them short and the customers would say, shorter.
She enjoys being noticed, but wittily, in the late 1960s, Quant popularised hot pants and became a British fashion icon. Through the 1970s and 1980s she concentrated on household goods and make-up, rather than just her clothing lines, in 1988, Quant designed the interior of the Mini Designer. It featured black and white striped seats with red trimming, the seatbelts were red, and the driving and passenger seats had Quants signature on the upper left quadrant. The steering wheel had Quants signature daisy and the badge had Mary Quant written over the signature name
Kensington is an affluent district within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in West London. Its commercial heart is Kensington High Street, the affluent and densely populated area contains the major museum district of South Kensington, which has the Royal Albert Hall for music and nearby Royal College of Music. The area is home to many of Londons European embassies, the first mention of the area is in the Domesday Book of 1086, where it was written in Latin as Chenesitone, which has been interpreted to have originally been Kenesignetun in Anglo-Saxon. A variation may be Kesyngton, in 1396 and he in turn granted the tenancy of Kensington to his vassal Aubrey de Vere I, who was holding the manor in 1086, according to Domesday Book. The bishops heir, Robert de Mowbray, rebelled against William Rufus, Aubrey de Vere I had his tenure converted to a tenancy in-chief, holding Kensington after 1095 directly of the crown. He granted land and church there to Abingdon Abbey at the deathbed request of his young eldest son, Geoffrey.
As the Veres became the earls of Oxford, their estate at Kensington came to be known as Earls Court, while the Abingdon lands were called Abbots Kensington and the church St Mary Abbots. The original Kensington Barracks, built at Kensington Gate in the late 18th century, were demolished in 1858, the focus of the area is Kensington High Street, a busy commercial centre with many shops, typically upmarket. The street was declared Londons second best shopping street in February 2005 thanks to its range, since October 2008 the street has faced competition from the Westfield shopping centre in nearby White City. Kensingtons second group of buildings is at South Kensington, where several streets of small to medium-sized shops. This is the end of Exhibition Road, the thoroughfare that serves the areas museums. To the west, a border is kept along the line of the Counter Creek marked by the West London railway line, in the north east, the large Royal Park of Kensington Gardens is a green buffer. The other main area in Kensington is Holland Park, just north of Kensington High Street.
Kensington is, in general, an affluent area, a trait that it now shares with its neighbour to the south. In early 2007, houses sold in Upper Phillimore Gardens for in excess of £20 million, Kensington is very densely populated, it forms part of the most densely populated local government district in the United Kingdom. This high density is not formed from high-rise buildings, unlike northern extremities of the Borough, Kensington lacks high-rise buildings except for the Holiday Inns London Kensington Forum Hotel in Cromwell Road, which is a 27-storey building. The Olympia exhibition hall is just over the border in West Kensington. Kensington is part of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, the head office of newspaper group DMGT is located in Northcliffe House in Kensington, which is the office part of the large Barkers building
In most macroeconomic models austerity measures generally increase unemployment as government spending falls, reducing jobs in the public and/or private sector. Meanwhile, tax increases reduce household disposable income, thus reducing spending, countries which have benefited from austerity such as Ireland have in subsequent research shown to have suffered. Since government spending contributes to the Gross Domestic Product, reducing the spending may result in a higher debt-to-GDP ratio, in the case of excess capacity, the stimulus may result in an increase in employment and output. Austerity measures are typically pursued if there is a threat that a government cannot honour its debt obligations and this may occur when a government has borrowed in foreign currencies, or if it has been legally forbidden from issuing its own currency. International financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund may demand austerity measures as part of Structural Adjustment Programmes when acting as lender of last resort.
Austerity policies may appeal to the class of creditors, who prefer low inflation. More recently austerity has been pursued after governments became highly indebted by assuming private debts following banking crises, Austerity is grounded in liberal economists views that state and sovereign debt are deeply problematic. On the basis of classic liberal ideas austerity emerged as a doctrine of neoliberalism in the 20th Century, economist David M Kotz suggests that the implementation of austerity measures following the financial crisis of 2007–08 was an attempt to preserve the neoliberal capitalist model. In the 1930s during the Great Depression, anti-austerity arguments gained more prominence, john Maynard Keynes became a well known anti-austerity economist, arguing that The boom, not the slump, is the right time for austerity at the Treasury. Contemporary Keynesian and New Keynesian economists argue that budget deficits are appropriate when an economy is in recession, to reduce unemployment, according to Paul Krugman, since a government is not like a household, reductions in government spending during economic downturns worsen the crisis.
Across an economy, one persons spending is another persons income, in other words, if everyone is trying to reduce their spending, the economy can be trapped in what economists call the paradox of thrift, worsening the recession as GDP falls. An important component of economic output is business investment, but there is no reason to expect it to stabilize at full utilization of the economys resources, high business profits do not necessarily lead to increased economic growth. Economists Kenneth S. Rogoff and Carmen M and our consistent advice has been to avoid withdrawing fiscal stimulus too quickly, a position identical to that of most mainstream economists. To help improve the U. S.9 and 1.7. In other words, a 1% GDP fiscal consolidation would reduce GDP between 0. 9% and 1. 7%, in so doing inflicting far more economic damage than the 0.5 previously estimated in IMF forecasts. In many countries, little is known about the size of multipliers, for these countries, Nicoletta Batini, Luc Eyraud and Anke Weber propose a simple method — dubbed the bucket approach — to come up with reasonable multiplier estimates.
Different tax and spending choices of equal magnitude have different economic effects, For example, congressional Budget Office estimated that the payroll tax has a higher multiplier than does the income tax. In other words, raising the tax by $1 as part of an austerity strategy would slow the economy more than would raising the income tax by $1
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Many psychedelic groups differ in style, and the label is often used indiscriminately. Musically, the effects may be represented via novelty studio tricks, electronic or non-Western instrumentation, disjunctive song structures, some of the earlier 1960s psychedelic rock musicians were based in folk and the blues, while others showcased an explicit Indian classical influence called raga rock. In the 1960s, there existed two main variants of the genre, the whimsical British pop-psychedelia, and the harder American West Coast acid rock. While acid rock is often deployed interchangeably with the psychedelic rock, it can refer more specifically to the heavier. The genre bridged the transition from early blues- and folk-based rock to rock and hard rock. Since the late 1970s it has revived in various forms of neo-psychedelia. The term psychedelic was first coined in 1956 by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond as a descriptor for hallucinogenic drugs in the context of psychedelic psychotherapy. As the countercultural scene developed in San Francisco, the acid rock.
In the popular music of the early 1960s, it was common for producers and engineers to freely experiment with form, unnatural reverb. Some of the best known examples are Phil Spectors Wall of Sound production formula, there was no transition to be made. You go from things like Flying Purple People Eater to I Am the Walrus, music critic Richie Unterberger says that attempts to pin down the first psychedelic record are therefore nearly as elusive as trying to name the first rock & roll record. Some of the far-fetched claims include the instrumental Telstar and the Dave Clark Fives massively reverb-laden Any Way You Want It, the first mention of LSD on a rock record was the Gamblers 1960 surf instrumental LSD25. American folk singer Bob Dylan was an influence on mid 1960s rock music. He led directly to the creation of rock and the psychedelic rock musicians that followed. Molly Longman of mic. com writes that, in terms of bridging the relationship between music and hallucinogens, the Beatles and the Beach Boys were the eras most pivotal acts.
The considerable success enjoyed by these two bands allowed them the freedom to experiment with new technology over entire albums. In Unterbergers opinion, the Byrds, emerging from the Californian folk scene, with their ominous minor key melodies, hyperactive instrumental breaks, and use of Gregorian chants. In the songs lyric, the requests, Take me on a trip upon your magic swirling ship
Marie McDonald McLaughlin Lawrie was born in Lennoxtown, East Dunbartonshire, and grew up in Dennistoun, where she attended Thomson Street Primary School and Onslow Drive School. She lived in Gallowgate for a while before moving to Garfield Street, at 12 or 13, she and her manager approached a band called the Bellrocks seeking stage experience as a singer. She appeared with them every Saturday night, Alex Thomson, the bass player, has reported that even her voice was remarkable. Lulu has two brothers and a sister and her father was a heavy drinker.7. Massey guided her career for more than 25 years, for most of time they were partners in business. After the success of Shout, Lulus next three singles failed to make an impact on the charts, in 1965 she released Leave A Little Love, which returned her to the UK top ten. Her next record, Try to Understand made the top 30, in 1966, Lulu toured Poland with the Hollies, the first British female singer to appear live behind the Iron Curtain. In the same year she recorded two German-language tracks, Wenn du da bist and So fing es an, for the Decca Germany label, All her Decca recordings were made available in 2009 on a 2-CD entitled Shout.
issued on RPM Records. After two hit singles with the Luvvers, Lulu launched her solo career and she left Decca after failing to chart in 1966 and signed with Columbia to be produced by Mickie Most. In April 1967, she returned to the UK singles chart, reaching number 6 with The Boat That I Row, All seven singles she cut with Most made the UK Singles Chart. Nonetheless, when Mickie Most died in 2003, Lulu was full of praise for him, in 1967, she made her film debut in To Sir, with Love, a British vehicle for Sidney Poitier. Lulu both acted in the film and provided the song, with which she had a major hit in the United States. To Sir With Love became the best selling single of 1967 in the US, selling well in excess of a million copies, in the UK, To Sir With Love was released on the B-side of Lets Pretend, a No.11 hit. In the late-1960s Lulus pop career in the UK thrived and she had several series of her own. Her first BBC series aired in 1965 on BBC2, where she co-hosted Gadzooks and its The In-Crowd, with Alan David, completing the run as solo host under the rebranded Gadzooks.
In 1966, she made appearances on BBC1s Stramash. The series often featured resident guests, including Adrienne Posta, Roger Kitter, Paul Greenwood and Pans People along with dance troupes choreographed by Nigel Lythgoe, the 1972 series was billed as Its Lulu. Not to mention Dudley Moore with Dudley Moore and his appearing in each of the 13 shows
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts. In economics, consumerism may refer to policies which emphasise consumption. In this sense, consumerism expresses the idea not of one man, one voice, but of one dollar, one voice, the term consumerism has several definitions. These definitions may not be related to other and confusingly. One sense of the term relates to efforts to support consumers interests, by the early 1970s it had become the accepted term for the field and began to be used in these ways, Consumerism is the concept that consumers should be informed decision makers in the marketplace. Practices such as product testing make consumers informed, Consumerism is the concept that the marketplace itself is responsible for ensuring social justice through fair economic practices. Consumer protection policies and laws compel manufacturers to make products safe, Consumerism refers to the field of studying, regulating, or interacting with the marketplace.
The consumer movement is the movement which refers to all actions. While the above definitions were becoming established, other people using the term consumerism to mean high levels of consumption. This definition has gained popularity since the 1970s and began to be used in ways, Consumerism is the selfish and frivolous collecting of products. In protest against this, some people promote anti-consumerism and advocate simple living, Consumerism is a force from the marketplace which destroys individuality and harms society. It is related to globalization and in protest against this some people promote the anti-globalization movement, vance Packard worked to change the meaning of the term consumerism from a positive word about consumer practices to a negative word meaning excessive materialism and waste. The ads for his 1960 book The Waste Makers prominently featured the word consumerism in a negative way, the consumer society emerged in the late seventeenth century and intensified throughout the eighteenth century.
This included sugar, tobacco and coffee, these were grown on vast plantations in the Caribbean as demand steadily rose. In particular, sugar consumption in Britain during the course of the 18th century increased by a factor of 20, critics argue that colonialism was indeed a driver of consumerism, but they would place the emphasis on the supply rather than the demand as the motivating factor. An increasing mass of exotic imports as well as domestic manufactures had to be consumed by the number of people who had been consuming far less than was becoming necessary. That idea was produced later, more or less strategically in order to intensify consumption domestically, marketplaces expanded as shopping centres, such as the New Exchange, opened in 1609 by Robert Cecil in the Strand. Shops started to become important as places for Londoners to meet and socialise, restoration London saw the growth of luxury buildings as advertisements for social position with speculative architects like Nicholas Barbon and Lionel Cranfield
Youth culture is the way adolescents live, and the norms and practices they share. Culture is the shared symbolic systems, and processes of maintaining and transforming those systems, youth culture differs from the culture of older generations. Elements of youth culture include beliefs, styles, an emphasis on clothes, popular music, sports and dating set adolescents apart from other age groups, giving them what many believe is a distinct culture of their own. Within youth culture, there are distinct and constantly changing youth subcultures. These subcultures norms, values and styles vary widely, understanding what adolescents think and do is fundamental to understanding the relationship between structure and agency, social patterns and individual action. There is a debate whether or not youth culture exists. Some researchers argue that youths values and morals are not distinct from those of their parents, just because people see the presence of what seems to be a youth culture today does not mean that this phenomenon extends to all generations of young people.
Additionally, peer influence varies greatly between contexts and by sex and social status, making a single youth culture difficult, if not impossible, to define. Others argue that there are elements of youth society that constitute culture. Janssen et al. have used the terror management theory to argue for the existence of youth culture, TMT is a psychological concept that hypothesizes that culture originates from an attempt to cope with the knowledge of mortality. Society does this by adopting a worldview and developing self-esteem, researchers test TMT by exposing people to reminders of their mortality. TMT is supported if being reminded of death causes people to cling more strongly to their worldview and their results supported their hypothesis and the results of previous studies, suggesting that youth culture is, in fact, a culture. Schwartz and Merten used the language of adolescents to argue for the presence of youth culture as distinct from the rest of society, Schwartz argued that high school students used their vocabulary to create meanings that are distinct to adolescents.
Specifically, the adolescent status terminology contains qualities and attributes that are not present in adult status judgments, according to Schwartz, this reflects a difference in social structures and the way that adults and teens experience social reality. This difference indicates cultural differences between adolescents and adults, which supports the presence of a youth culture. Throughout the 20th century, youths had a influence on both lifestyle and culture. The flappers and the Mods are two examples of the impact of youth culture on society. The flappers were young women, confident about a future after World War I
The Who are an English rock band that formed in 1964. Their classic line-up consisted of lead singer Roger Daltrey and singer Pete Townshend, bass guitarist John Entwistle, and drummer Keith Moon. They are considered one of the most influential bands of the 20th century, selling over 100 million records worldwide and holding a reputation for their live shows. The Who developed from a group, the Detours, and established themselves as part of the pop art and mod movements, featuring auto-destructive art by destroying guitars. Their first single as the Who, I Cant Explain, reached the UK top ten, followed by a string of singles including My Generation and Happy Jack. In 1967, they performed at the Monterey Pop Festival and released the US top ten single I Can See for Miles, the groups fourth album, 1969s rock opera Tommy, included the single Pinball Wizard and was a critical and commercial success. Live appearances at Woodstock and the Isle of Wight Festival, along with the live album Live at Leeds, with their success came increased pressure on lead songwriter and visionary Townshend, and the follow-up to Tommy, was abandoned.
Songs from the project made up 1971s Whos Next, which included the hit Wont Get Fooled Again, the group released the album Quadrophenia in 1973 as a celebration of their mod roots, and oversaw the film adaptation of Tommy in 1975. They continued to tour to large audiences before semi-retiring from live performances at the end of 1976, the release of Who Are You in 1978 was overshadowed by the death of Moon shortly after. Kenney Jones replaced Moon and the group resumed activity, releasing a film adaptation of Quadrophenia, after Townshend became weary of touring, the group split in 1982. The Who occasionally re-formed for live appearances such as Live Aid in 1985, a 25th anniversary tour in 1989 and they resumed regular touring in 1999, with drummer Zak Starkey. After Entwistles death in 2002, plans for a new album were delayed and Daltrey continued as the Who, releasing Endless Wire in 2006, and continued to play live regularly. They are cited as an influence by rock, punk rock and mod bands.
The founding members of the Who, Roger Daltrey, Pete Townshend and John Entwistle, grew up in Acton and went to Acton County Grammar School. Townshend and Entwistle became friends in their year of Acton County. Both were interested in rock, and Townshend particularly admired Cliff Richards début single, Entwistle moved to guitar, but struggled with it due to his large fingers, and moved to bass on hearing the guitar work of Duane Eddy. He was unable to afford a bass and built one at home, after Acton County, Townshend attended Ealing Art College, a move he described as profoundly influential on the course of the Who. Daltrey, who was in the year above, had moved to Acton from Shepherds Bush and he had trouble fitting in at the school, and discovered gangs and rock and roll