Swiss Federal Railways is the national railway company of Switzerland. It is referred to by the initials of its German and Italian names, either as SBB CFF FFS, or used separately; the Romansh version of its name, Viafiers federalas svizras, is not used. The company is headquartered in Bern, it used to be a government institution, but since 1999 it has been a special stock corporation whose shares are held by the Swiss Confederation and the Swiss cantons. SBB was ranked first among national European rail systems in the 2017 European Railway Performance Index for its intensity of use, quality of service, safety rating. While European rail operators such as French SNCF and Spanish Renfe have emphasised the building of high-speed rail, SBB has invested in the reliability and quality of service of its conventional rail network. In addition to passenger rail, SBB operates cargo and freight rail service and has large real estate holdings in Switzerland. Swiss Federal Railways is divided into eight groups.
The divisions manage the relevant operational businesses. These divisions are: Passenger traffic Infrastructure Real estateThe former division Cargo became an independent group company at the start of 2019. SBB's eight groups manage the company and support the operational business of the divisions with service and support functions; these groups are: Finance HR IT Communications Corporate Development Safety & Quality Legal and Compliance Supply Chain ManagementThe corporation is led in an entrepreneurial manner. A performance agreement between Swiss Federal Railways and the Swiss Confederation defines the requirements and is updated every four years. At the same time the compensation rates per train and track-kilometre are defined. A subsidiary, SBB GmbH, is responsible for passenger traffic in Germany, it operates the Seehas services. Other subsidiaries are THURBO, RegionAlps, AlpTransit Gotthard AG, TiLo. Swiss Federal Railways hold significant shares of the Zentralbahn and Lyria SAS; the Stiftung Historisches Erbe der SBB was founded in 2002.
This foundation takes care of historic rolling stock and runs a technical library in Bern and photographic archives, the SBB poster collection. All figures from 2018: Length of railway network: 3,134 km in standard gauge and 98 km metre gauge Percentage electrified routes: 100% Employees: 32,309 Passengers carried per day: 1.25 million Passenger-kilometer per inhabitant and year: 2,215 kilometres Stations open to passengers: 795 Customer Punctuality: 90.1% of all passengers reached their destination - measured from departure station including any necessary changes - with less than 3 minutes of delay Customer-weighted connection punctuality: 96.7% Freight per year: 53.5 million tons Stations with freight traffic: 193 Railway tunnels: 321 Railway Tunnels total length: 388.5 kilometres Longest Tunnel: 57.1 kilometres world record Railway Bridges: 6,015 Railway bridges total length: 105.9 kilometres Electric multiple units: 522 Power Cars: 121 Mainline locomotives: 648 Shunting locomotives: 222 Shunting tractors: 250 Passenger coaches: 2,208 Freight wagons: 5,324 Hydroelectric plants: 7 Electricity produced and procured: 4,200 GWh Electricity used for railway operations: 2,339 GWh Proportion of traction current from renewable sources: 91.9%The Swiss Federal Railways rail network is electrified.
The metre gauge Brünigbahn was SBB's only non-standard gauge line, until it was out-sourced and merged with the Luzern-Stans-Engelberg-Bahn to form the Zentralbahn, in which SBB holds shares. In the 19th century, all Swiss railways were owned by private ventures; the economic and political interests of these companies led to lines being built in parallel and some companies went bankrupt in the resulting competition. On 20 February 1898 the Swiss people agreed in a referendum to the creation of a state-owned railway company; that year, the Federal Assembly approved the purchase of Schweizerische Centralbahn to operate trains on behalf of the federal government. The first train running on the account of the Swiss Confederation ran during the night of New Year's Eve 1900/New Year's Day 1901 from Zurich via Bern to Geneva, received a ceremonial welcome upon arriving in Bern. SBB's management board was first formed in mid-1901, added Schweizerische Nordostbahn to the system on 1 January 1902; this date is now observed as the "official" birthday of SBB.
The following railway companies were nationalised: Aargauische Südbahn Bötzbergbahn Schweizerische Nordostbahn Schweizerische Centralbahn Toggenburgerbahn Vereinigte Schweizerbahnen Tösstalbahn including the Wald-Rüti Railway Wohlen-Bremgarten Railway Jura-Simplon-Bahn including the Brünigbahn Other companies were included and the rail network was extended. It is still growing today. On 1 January 1999 the Swiss Federal Railway has been excluded from the Federal Administration and became a state-owned limited company regulated by public law. First class compartments were discontinued on 3 June 1956, second and third class accommodation was reclassified as first and second class, respectively. In 1982 SBB introduced the Taktfahrplan, with trains for cert
Hilmar High School serves students from the rural community of Hilmar and Stevinson, United States. Hilmar High School was founded in 1911, was known as Hilmar Colony Union High School. There were 26 students the first year. Classes were held on the second floor of an elementary school; the high school moved into its own brick building in 1919, to its current campus in 1957. Future Farmers of America has been active at the school since 1930, it is part of the Hilmar Unified School District, a K-12 rural school district with 2277 students. The district operates five schools: Hilmar High School and Colony High School, Hilmar Middle School, Elim Elementary School, Merquin Elementary School. Much of the community revolves around the high school's sports and agricultural programs; the school has had particular success with its FFA activities, including several national championships. Hilmar High School belongs to the Trans Valley League in the Sac-Joaquin Section of the California Interscholastic Federation.
The school's teams, known as the Hilmar Yellowjackets, compete in: baseball, cross country, golf, softball, track, volleyball and wrestling. Nate Costa Kevin Deniz Carl Jameson Dot Jones Rudolph A. Peterson Cory Williams Hilmar High School home page Hilmar Unified School District home page Merced County Office of Education home page
Hotel is the seventh studio album by American electronica musician, singer and producer Moby. It was released on March 14, 2005 internationally by Mute Records and on March 22, 2005 in the United States by V2 Records; the album marked a stylistic shift from electronic and dance-oriented music towards alternative rock and Moby's decision not to use vocal sampling for the first time since his 1993 album Ambient. Hotel received a mixed critical reception but it was a commercial success, reaching No. 28 in the US and No. 8 in the UK. Elsewhere, it reached No. 1 in Switzerland. Initial quantities of the album included a second CD of ambient music entitled Hotel: Ambient. By 2013, the album had sold over 2 million copies worldwide. In 2014, Hotel: Ambient was released with additional tracks. After touring his previous album, 18, ended in 2003, Moby took a detour in musical styles and released Baby Monkey, the third album under his Voodoo Child pseudonym, in January 2004, it marked a return to his rave roots which brought him success in the early 1990s.
At the time of the album's release Moby revealed that he had around 250 songs of varied styles, including electronic and experimental pieces, for his next full studio album, but he was unsure as to what direction it should be. An early desire was to make dance-oriented album, he abandoned this idea for an album of ballads and wrote between 30 and 40 songs before he felt the time was not right for such a direction. Moby drew a large amount of inspiration for Hotel from his experiences in living in New York City; the music he heard DJs play in local bars and the bands he saw perform live at various gigs made him feel "like I was being given license to bask or wallow in my early influences". In a departure from his previous albums Play and 18, the album marks Moby's first since Ambient which does not include any vocal samples. Though the many songs that he had written did contain them, they did not interest him as much. Moby reasoned this down to the difficulty in learning the sampling function of the audio recording software on his computer, but nonetheless enjoyed writing the songs without relying on them.
Moby said the songs on Hotel are more direct than on his previous albums. After selecting tracks to record for the album Moby began to search for vocalists to sing on them, but he was unsuccessful in finding people with voices he liked; the candidates that showed the most potential lacked an emotional quality in their voice. In a journal entry on his website, Moby explained the title Hotel, writing that he was fascinated by the nature of hotels, where humans spend significant portions of their lives, but have all traces of their tenancy removed for the next guests. Hotel was recorded in sections in the space of a half. Moby recorded it using ProTools software. Around three-quarters of the album, including the vocals and electronic instrumentation, was recorded at his home studio on Mott Street in Manhattan, New York City; the live drums were put down at Electric Lady Studios and other tracks, including most of the guitars, were recorded at Loho Studios, both in Manhattan. Moby decided to record in outside studios due to the quality of the recording rooms and the microphones available.
The latter housed a large Neve console assembled from the parts of four to five other Neve models. Mixing was completed at Electric Lady Studios onto half-inch analogue tape using a Solid State Logic J-Series desk. Moby is responsible for playing the instruments on all the album's tracks, except for drums. Laura Dawn provides additional vocals; the guitars used on the album include an acoustic, a Carlo Robelli model that Moby estimated cost $180, a Les Paul Goldtop. Moby wrote "Lift Me Up" as a tribute to the English rock band The Sisters of Mercy, he made an attempt to have their lead vocalist Andrew Eldritch sing it but he was unsuccessful in his search to contact Eldritch. "Spiders" is an homage to David Bowie. He expanded on the song's meaning: "It's inspired by the anthropological seeds of fascism, how easy it is for intellectuals to turn off the intellect and get lost in the crowd." He clarified that its uplifting chorus is more "quizzical" in how easy it is for one to get "lost in the moment."
"Lift Me Up" and "Raining Again" contain additional background vocals by Shayna Steele. The latter is about a relationship, falling apart, while the world is crumbling around them too. "When You End" is a sad song about a relationship that ends despite still being in love with the person. "Dream About Me" is another song about being in a flawed, yet loving relationship. "Beautiful" is a love song. "Temptation" is a cover of the song by New Order. Moby declared "Slipping Away" as the most personal song. "It's not about anything in particular. It's not about a specific event... It's just like descriptive." "Very" is a song that Moby described as his homage to Giorgio Donna Summer. Hotel was released internationally on March 14, 2005; the lead single was "Lift Me Up", released on February 28, 2005. The second UK single, "Spiders", was released on May 2005 to coincide with Moby's UK tour; as with Moby's previous albums Play and 18, an accompanying DVD for Hotel was released featuring the videos for the album's singles, live footage, a sequel to Moby's home movie and tour diary series, Give an Idiot a Camcorder.
The bonus disc of Hotel titled Hotel: Ambient, which consisted of ambient music, was re-released as a separate release on December 16, 2014. The release contains remastered versions of all songs on the original, together with three extra tracks: "May 4 Two", "Spaired Long", "Live Forever". Hotel was met with mixe