Swiss National Library

The Swiss National Library is the national library of Switzerland. Part of the Federal Office of Culture, it is charged with collecting and conserving information in all fields and media connected with Switzerland, as well as ensuring the widest possible accessibility and dissemination of such data; the Swiss National Library is intended to be open to all and, by the breadth and scope of its collection, aims to reflect the plurality and diversity of Swiss culture. It is a heritage site of national significance; the institution has been going through a period of change since 1990. This phase was given the name of RAMSES: Reorganisation for an Automated Management System and Enhanced Services; the principal objective of this project was to modernise the structure and operation of the Library and to increase services to borrowers and users with a view to transforming the Library into an information centre of national proportions. 1894 The Council of States and the National Council ratify the federal decision by which the Swiss National Library is founded, June 26 and 28.

1895 The institution starts work on May 2 in a four-roomed apartment at No 7 Christoffelgasse in Berne. The collected works are opened to the public four years in the Federal Archive Building. 1901 The Swiss national bibliography Bibliographisches Bulletin der Schweizerischen Landesbibliothek is published for the first time. 1911 The Federal law enacts the Swiss National Library. 1915 The Swiss National Library and the Swiss publishers came to an agreement: the Swiss publishers offer the Swiss National Library a copy of each one of their publications. 1928 The Swiss Union Catalogue is created. 1931 Move to the Library's present premises at No 15 Hallwylstrasse. 1989 The National Library becomes part of the Federal Office of Culture Affairs. 1991 At the instigation of Friedrich Dürrenmatt, the Swiss Literary Archives are inaugurated. 1992 The Parliament votes the new law on the Swiss National Library. 1993 VTLS library management software is introduced 1994 Access to Helveticat, the automated catalogue, goes public.

1995 Swiss ISSN Centre is opened. The same year the Swiss National Library takes part in the foundation of MEMORIAV, the association for the preservation of the audiovisual heritage of Switzerland. 1996 The Swiss Posters catalogue goes on line. 1997 Inauguration of the underground stacks east 2000 Inauguration of the Centre Dürrenmatt Neuchâtel. 2001 The Swiss National Library returns to its premises, renovated and enlarged. 2003 SwissInfoDesk, a commented list of relevant links about Swiss topics, goes online. 2005 The Swiss National Library launches the project Virtual information about Switzerland, a partnership between libraries. The participating libraries transfer the readers demands to the library, specialised in the field. 2006 The Swiss National Library is run according to the principles of New Public Management. 2009 Inauguration of the underground stacks west 2011 The Swiss Literary Archives begin collecting in a new area and acquire their first publisher's archive, that of Peter Schifferli's Arche-Verlag.

2011 The e-Helvetica electronic collections are accessible for research. 2012 Strategy 2012–2019: "The future is digital. But paper remains." Staatsarchiv Zürich Swiss Book Swiss Federal Archives Official website Swiss National Library in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland


FreakMind is a Spanish alternative metal-band started at the year 2001, in Madrid. From the first time, it was formed of Alberto, Dani and Rubén, they have published three studio albums with the label "Underground, M-20 and a demo. Their musical style mixes alternative rock and nu metal, but their music is for the most defined Alternative Metal. In December of 2001 Alberto and Dani, coming from Only For, next to other components, they begin to look for people to initiate a new musical project. Spent a time they know Javi of Holocausto. In February 2002 After to have shuffled several names to put the group, chooses the one of FreakMind like the definitive one. During the second week of December of 2002 FreakMind they record his first demo in the Cube studies of Madrid with Luis Tarraga like producer and Alberto Seara like sound engineer; the songs that are included in this demo are Liquid Sand and Madness Threads. The Demo of the formation had a good recognition between specialized means. To part of specialized means detailed numerous forums of Internet and pages specialized have made a good welcome.

In the summer of the 2004, after going and coming from some bass guitars and some reconstruction of the group, Ivan gets up the group. FreakMind bets by the studies M-20 and BigSimon like producer to record and to mix its first CD “Six Degrees of Separation” in April–May 2005. Ivan decides to leave the formation in the Summer of 2006. At the few weeks Ruben arrives at FreakMind. "Six Degrees of Separation” is published in March 2007 by Lengua Armada. Demo - 2002 Six Degrees of Separation - 2005 A través de tus ojos - 2008 42 días - 2009 Alberto - vocals Javi - guittar Rubén - bass Dani - drums - Myspace FreakMind -

William Cather Hook

William Cather Hook was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit and of the United States Circuit Courts for the Eighth Circuit and was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Kansas. Born on September 24, 1857, in Waynesburg, Hook received a Bachelor of Laws in 1878 from the Washington University School of Law, he entered private practice in Leavenworth, Kansas from 1878 to 1899. He was city attorney for Leavenworth, he was city legal adviser for Leavenworth from 1889 to 1895. Hook was nominated by President William McKinley on January 28, 1899, to a seat on the United States District Court for the District of Kansas vacated by Judge Cassius Gaius Foster. Hook's nomination was opposed by railroad companies, who were displeased that Hook had won judgments against them while in private practice, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 31, 1899, received his commission the same day. His service terminated on December 1903, due to his elevation to the Eighth Circuit.

Hook was nominated by President Theodore Roosevelt on November 10, 1903, to a joint seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit and the United States Circuit Courts for the Eighth Circuit vacated by Judge Henry Clay Caldwell. He was confirmed by the Senate on November 17, 1903, received his commission the same day. On December 31, 1911, the Circuit Courts were abolished and he thereafter served only on the Court of Appeals, his service terminated on August 1921, due to his death in Sayner, Wisconsin. On February 6, 1912, President William Howard Taft announced that he would nominate Hook to fill the vacancy on the United States Supreme Court, caused by the death of Justice John Marshall Harlan. Opposition was raised, however, by leaders of the NAACP, the Washington Bee, other African-American newspapers and organizations. Concerned parties discussed Hook's decision in upholding the constitutionality of an Oklahoma Jim Crow law discriminating against African American passengers on trains crossing the state line between Kansas and Oklahoma.

The railroad interests continued their opposition to Hook, as did large corporations displeased with his rulings in antitrust cases. A prominent critic of the nomination was Governor of Nebraska Chester Hardy Aldrich. Mahlon Pitney was selected by the President in place of Hook. William Cather Hook at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center