Pre-Christian Alpine traditions
The central and eastern Alps of Europe are rich in folklore traditions dating back to pre-Christian times, with surviving elements originating from Germanic, Gaulish and Raetian culture. Ancient customs survived in the rural parts of Austria, Bavaria, Slovenia and northern Croatia and north eastern Italy in the form of dance, processions and games; the high regional diversity results from the mutual isolation of Alpine communities. In the Alps, the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and paganism has been an ambivalent one. While some customs survived only in the remote valleys inaccessible to the church's influence, other customs were assimilated over the centuries. In light of the dwindling rural population of the Alps, many customs have evolved into more modern interpretations. Around September 8, the feast of the Nativity of Mary, it is customary to bring the cattle down from the upland pastures for the winter. In Bavaria, women weave fir wreaths decorated with paper roses and small mirrors to ward off demons during the downhill journey.
It has been suggested that this derives from end-of-summer festivals in honor of the Germanic goddess Iðunn. The word Krampus originates from the Old High German word for claw. In the Alpine regions, the Krampus is a mythical horned figure represented as accompanying Saint Nicholas. Krampus acts as an anti–Saint Nicholas, instead of giving gifts to good children, gives warnings and punishments to the bad children. Traditionally, young men dress up as the Krampus in the first two weeks of December in the evening of December 5, roam the streets frightening children and women with rusty chains and bells; this figure is believed to originate from stories of house spirits such as elves. The word Perchten referred to the female masks representing the entourage of an ancient goddess, Frau Perchta, or Pehta Baba as it is known in Slovenia; some claim a connection to the Nordic goddess Freyja. Traditionally, the masks were displayed in processions during the last week of December and first week of January, on January 6.
The costume consists of white sheep's skin. In recent times Krampus and Perchten have been displayed in a single event, leading to a loss of distinction of the two. Perchten are associated with the embodiment of fate and the souls of the dead; the name originates from the Old High German word peraht. Sometimes, der Teufel is viewed to be the most schiach Percht and Frau Perchta to be the most schön Perchtin. Chalandamarz is an ancient festival celebrated by the Romansh speaking part of the Swiss Canton Graubünden, it marks the end of winter and the arrival of spring. Its object is to scare away the evil spirits of wake up the good spirits of spring; the Badalisc is a "good" mythological animal who lives in the woods of Andrista, in Val Camonica, Italy. During an annual town festival someone dresses up as the creature and is "captured" and brought to the town; the animal is made to tell the people of the town gossip. At the end of the festival the creature is released until the next year's ceremony.
Wenn die Hexen umgehen, Claudia Lagler, 5 January 1999, Die Presse, Swiss neopagan site focussing on pre-Christian Alpine traditions Swiss legends and Austrian legends on Sagen.at
Flag of Switzerland
The flag of Switzerland displays a white cross in the centre of a square red field. The white cross is known as the Swiss cross, its arms are equilateral, their ratio of length to width is 7:6. The size of the cross in relation to the field was set in 2017 as 5:8; the white cross has been used as the field sign of the Old Swiss Confederacy since its formation in the late 13th or early 14th century. Its symbolism was described by the Swiss Federal Council in 1889 as representing "at the same the Christian cross symbol and the field sign of the Old Confederacy"; as a national ensign, it was first used in 1800 during the Hundred Days by general Niklaus Franz von Bachmann, as regimental flag of all cantonal troops from 1841. The federal coat of arms was defined in 1815 for the Restored Confederacy as the white-on-red Swiss cross in a heraldic shield; the current design was used together with a cross composed of five squares until 1889, when its dimensions were set. The civil and state ensign of Switzerland, used by Swiss ships and non-governmental bodies, is rectangular in shape and has the more common proportions of 3:2.
The Swiss flag is one of only two square sovereign-state flags, the other being the flag of Vatican City. The emblem of the Red Cross is the Swiss flag with switched colours. According to the 2017 flag law, "The Swiss flag shows a Swiss cross on a square background". Special provisions are made for civil aircraft identification; the Swiss cross is defined as "a white, free-standing cross depicted against a red background, whose arms, which are all of equal size, are one-sixth longer than they are wide."Swiss Standard German uses Fahne rather than the term Flagge used for national flags in Germany. The name of the flag of the Swiss Confederation is Schweizerfahne. While the proportions of the cross have been fixed since 1889, the size of the cross relative to the flag had not been fixed prior to 2017; the annex to SR 232.21 provides an image specifying that the margin is to be of the same width as the cross arms, so that the total height of the cross is fixed at 20:32 = 5:8 of the height of the flag.
This ratio is given as a "vexillological recommendation" in the flag regulation used by the Swiss Armed Forces. Flags with a cross of larger relative widths than the prescribed 20:32 = 62.5% remain in wide use. For the ensign, the ratio of the size of the cross to the height is 5:8, so that the ratio of cross to flag width is 5:12; the shade of red used in the flag was not defined by law prior to 2017. The 2017 flag law specifies the colour of the flag as: CMYK 0 / 100 / 100 / 0 Pantone 485 C / 485 U RGB 255 / 0 / 0 Hexadecimal #FF0000 Scotchcal 100 -13 RAL 3020 Traffic red NCS S 1085-Y90R In 2004, the Federal Chancellery published a corporate design guide for the federal administration, in force since 1 January 2007; the colour specifications given there are compatible with those put in the annex to the flag law. The matching of heraldic tincture to modern color specifications for print or screen display is uncertain, to some extent left to the discretion of the publisher. A 2004 source specifies "Pantone Red 032 C", or RGB #F00000, for heraldic red.
Recommendations for using "web safe" colours for electronic displays have been obsoleted by technological progress. However, it has become common to specify colours for printing using the "Pantone Matching System", a proprietary colour space, Pantone LLC prevents the publication of keys to their codes under intellectual property laws; the pdf document of the official "corporate design" manual published by the Federal Chancellery appears to be representing the red in the Swiss flag as RGB #e30613. There are conflicting conventions in use among those canotons whose cantonal coats of arms have red tincture; the ultimate origin of the white cross is attributed by three competing legends: To the Theban Legion, to the Reichssturmfahne attested from the 12th century, to the Arma Christi that were venerated in the three forest cantons, which they were allowed to display on the uniformly red battle flag from 1289 by king Rudolph I of Habsburg at the occasion of a campaign to Besançon. Use of a white cross as a mark of identification of the combined troops of the Old Swiss Confederacy is first attested in the Battle of Laupen, where it was sewn on combatants' clothing as two stripes of textile, contrasting with the red St. George's cross of Habsburg Austria, with the St. Andrew's cross used by Burgundy and Maximilian I.
The first flag used as a field sign representing the confederacy rather than the individual cantons may have been used in the Battle of Arbedo in 1422. This was a triangular red flag with an elongated white cross; the white cross was thus in origin a field mark attached to combatants for ide
Muesli. This mix may be combined with one or more liquids like milk, almond milk, other plant milks, yogurt, or fruit juice and left for a time to soften the oats before being consumed; the cereal is served cold. Developed around 1900 by Swiss physician Maximilian Bircher-Benner for patients in his hospital, muesli is available ready-made in prepackaged dry form, or it can be made from scratch. In Switzerland and Germany, it is eaten as a light evening dish called Birchermüesli complet: muesli with bread and coffee with milk. Known in Swiss German as Birchermüesli or Müesli, the word is an Alemannic diminutive of Mues which means "puree" or "mash-up." Muesli was not intended as a breakfast food, but an appetizer similar to bread and butter. It was consumed as Schweizer Znacht, but not as a breakfast cereal, it was introduced around 1900 by the Swiss physician Maximilian Bircher-Benner for patients in his hospital, where a diet rich in fresh fruit and vegetables was an essential part of therapy.
It was inspired by a similar "strange dish" that he and his wife had been served on a hike in the Swiss Alps. Bircher-Benner himself referred to the dish as "d'Spys". Bircher opened; these facilities had risen in popularity during the era of lebensreform which valued trends of freedom, hippy ideals and vegetarianism. The original Bircher-Benner recipe consists of the following ingredients: Apples, "two or three small apples or one large one." The whole apple was to be used, including skin and pits. Nuts, either walnuts, almonds, or hazelnuts, one tablespoon. Rolled oats, one tablespoon, "previously soaked in 3 tablespoons water for 12 hours." Lemon juice from half a lemon. Either cream and honey or sweetened condensed milk, 1 tablespoon; the dish was prepared by mixing the cream and honey or condensed milk with the soaked oats and lemon juice and, while stirring, grating the whole apple into the mixture. This method prevented the apple pulp from browning; the intent was to serve the dish fresh before any other dishes in the meal.
Muesli and traditionally is freshly prepared using either dry rolled oats or whole grain oats that have been soaked in water or fruit juice. Other common ingredients are additional grated or chopped fresh fruit, dried fruit, milk products, lemon juice, ground nuts, spices and muesli mix; the preparation of homemade muesli varies according to the tastes and preferences of the cook, but the basic proportions are around 80% grain, 10% nuts and seeds and 10% dried fruits. Packaged muesli is a loose mixture of rolled oats or cornflakes together with various dried fruit pieces and seeds – the main ingredients of any muesli, it contains other rolled cereal grains such as wheat or rye flakes. There are many varieties, which may contain honey, spices, or chocolate; this dry packaged muesli can be stored for many months and served after mixing with milk, filmjölk, coffee, hot chocolate, fruit juice, or water. If desired, pieces of fresh fruit may be added. Alternatively, the mix may be soaked overnight in milk and served with fresh fruit or compote to taste.
Granola, a breakfast and snack food similar to muesli Muesli belt malnutrition Media related to Muesli at Wikimedia Commons
Rösti or rööschti is a Swiss dish consisting of potatoes, in the style of a fritter. It was a breakfast dish eaten by farmers in the canton of Bern, but is now eaten all over Switzerland and around the world; the French name röstis. Many Swiss people consider rösti to be a national dish. Rather than considering it a complete breakfast, it is more served to accompany other dishes such as Spinat und Spiegelei, cervelas or Fleischkäse, it is available in Swiss restaurants as a replacement for the standard side dish of a given meal. Rösti dishes are cooked or raw; the potatoes grated raw. Depending on the frying technique, butter or another fat may be added, it is common to fry the grated potato without additional fats. The grated potatoes are shaped into rounds or patties measuring between 3–12 cm in diameter and 1–2 cm thick. Rösti are most pan-fried and shaped in the frying pan during cooking, but they can be baked in the oven. Although basic rösti consists of nothing but potato, a number of additional ingredients are sometimes added, such as bacon, cheese, apple or fresh herbs.
This is considered to be a regional touch. In Swiss popular cultural ethos, rösti are predominantly eaten in German-speaking regions, although they can be found elsewhere in the country. Rösti dishes are portrayed as a stereotypical part of the Swiss-Germanic culture, as opposed to Latin culture; the geographic border separating the French- and German-speaking parts of the country is therefore referred to as the Röstigraben: the "rösti ditch". Hash browns Latke, a Central/Eastern European & Jewish grated potato and egg pancake Liechtensteiner cuisine Patatnik, Bulgarian potato dish from the Rhodope Mountains Tortilla de patatas, the Spanish potato omelette Wikibooks / Cookbook recipe Beet Rösti from the New York Times website
French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France. In the 14th century Guillaume Tirel, a court chef known as "Taillevent", wrote Le Viandier, one of the earliest recipe collections of medieval France. During that time, French cuisine was influenced by Italian cuisine. In the 17th century, chefs François Pierre La Varenne and Marie-Antoine Carême spearheaded movements that shifted French cooking away from its foreign influences and developed France's own indigenous style. Cheese and wine are a major part of the cuisine, they play different roles regionally and nationally, with many variations and appellation d'origine contrôlée laws. French cuisine was made important in the 20th century by Auguste Escoffier to become the modern haute cuisine. Gastro-tourism and the Guide Michelin helped to acquaint people with the rich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of the French countryside starting in the 20th century. Gascon cuisine has had great influence over the cuisine in the southwest of France.
Many dishes that were once regional have proliferated in variations across the country. Knowledge of French cooking has contributed to Western cuisines, its criteria are used in Western cookery school boards and culinary education. In November 2010, French gastronomy was added by the UNESCO to its lists of the world's "intangible cultural heritage". In French medieval cuisine, banquets were common among the aristocracy. Multiple courses would be prepared, but served in a style called service en confusion, or all at once. Food was eaten by hand, meats being sliced off in large pieces held between the thumb and two fingers; the sauces were seasoned and thick, flavored mustards were used. Pies were a common banquet item, with the crust serving as a container, rather than as food itself, it was not until the end of the Late Middle Ages that the shortcrust pie was developed. Meals ended with an issue de table, which changed into the modern dessert, consisted of dragées, aged cheese and spiced wine, such as hypocras.
The ingredients of the time varied according to the seasons and the church calendar, many items were preserved with salt, spices and other preservatives. Late spring and autumn afforded abundance, while winter meals were more sparse. Livestock were slaughtered at the beginning of winter. Beef was salted, while pork was salted and smoked. Bacon and sausages dried. Cucumbers were brined as well. Fruits and root vegetables would be boiled in honey for preservation. Whale and porpoise were considered fish, so during Lent, the salted meats of these sea mammals were eaten. Artificial freshwater ponds held carp, tench, bream and other fish. Poultry was kept with pigeon and squab being reserved for the elite. Game was prized, but rare, included venison, wild boar, hare and birds. Kitchen gardens provided herbs, including some, such as tansy, rue and hyssop, which are used today. Spices were treasured and expensive at that time – they included pepper, cloves and mace; some spices used but no longer today in French cuisine are cubebs, long pepper, grains of paradise, galengale.
Sweet-sour flavors were added to dishes with vinegars and verjus combined with sugar or honey. A common form of food preparation was to finely cook and strain mixtures into fine pastes and mushes, something believed to be beneficial to make use of nutrients. Visual display was prized. Brilliant colors were obtained by the addition of, for example, juices from spinach and the green part of leeks. Yellow came from saffron or egg yolk, while red came from sunflower, purple came from Crozophora tinctoria or Heliotropium europaeum. Gold and silver leaf were brushed with egg whites. Elaborate and showy dishes were the result, such as tourte parmerienne, a pastry dish made to look like a castle with chicken-drumstick turrets coated with gold leaf. One of the grandest showpieces of the time was roast swan or peacock sewn back into its skin with feathers intact, the feet and beak being gilded. Since both birds are stringy, taste unpleasant, the skin and feathers could be kept and filled with the cooked and seasoned flesh of tastier birds, like goose or chicken.
The most well known French chef of the Middle Ages was Guillaume Tirel known as Taillevent. Taillevent worked in numerous royal kitchens during the 14th century, his first position was as a kitchen boy in 1326. He was chef to Philip VI the Dauphin, son of John II; the Dauphin became King Charles V of France with Taillevent as his chief cook. His career spanned sixty-six years, upon his death he was buried in grand style between his two wives, his tombstone represents him in armor, holding a shield with marmites, on it. Paris was the central hub of culture and economic activity, as such, the most skilled culinary craftsmen were to be found there. Markets in Paris such as Les Halles, la Mégisserie, those found along Rue Mouffetard, similar smaller versions in other cities were important to the distribution of food; those that gave French produce its characteristic identity were regulated by the guild system, which
Pizza is a savory dish of Italian origin, consisting of a round, flattened base of leavened wheat-based dough topped with tomatoes and various other ingredients baked at a high temperature, traditionally in a wood-fired oven. In formal settings, like a restaurant, pizza is eaten with knife and fork, but in casual settings it is cut into wedges to be eaten while held in the hand. Small pizzas are sometimes called pizzettas; the term pizza was first recorded in the 10th century in a Latin manuscript from the Southern Italian town of Gaeta in Lazio, on the border with Campania. Modern pizza was invented in Naples, the dish and its variants have since become popular in many countries, it has become one of the most popular foods in the world and a common fast food item in Europe and North America, available at pizzerias, restaurants offering Mediterranean cuisine, via pizza delivery. Many companies sell ready-baked frozen pizzas to be reheated in an ordinary home oven; the Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana is a non-profit organization founded in 1984 with headquarters in Naples that aims to promote traditional Neapolitan pizza.
In 2009, upon Italy's request, Neapolitan pizza was registered with the European Union as a Traditional Speciality Guaranteed dish, in 2017 the art of its making was included on UNESCO's list of intangible cultural heritage. The word "pizza" first appeared in a Latin text from the central Italian town of Gaeta still part of the Byzantine Empire, in 997 AD. Suggested etymologies include: Byzantine Greek and Late Latin pitta > pizza, cf. Modern Greek pitta bread and the Apulia and Calabrian pitta, a round flat bread baked in the oven at high temperature sometimes with toppings; the word pitta can in turn be traced to either Ancient Greek πικτή, "fermented pastry", which in Latin became "picta", or Ancient Greek πίσσα, "pitch", or pḗtea, "bran". The Etymological Dictionary of the Italian Language explains it as coming from dialectal pinza "clamp", as in modern Italian pinze "pliers, tongs, forceps", their origin is from Latin pinsere "to pound, stamp". The Lombardic word bizzo or pizzo meaning "mouthful", brought to Italy in the middle of the 6th century AD by the invading Lombards.
Foods similar to pizza have been made since the Neolithic Age. Records of people adding other ingredients to bread to make it more flavorful can be found throughout ancient history. In the 6th century BC, the Persian soldiers of Achaemenid Empire during the rule King Darius I baked flatbreads with cheese and dates on top of their battle shields and the ancient Greeks supplemented their bread with oils and cheese. An early reference to a pizza-like food occurs in the Aeneid, when Celaeno, queen of the Harpies, foretells that the Trojans would not find peace until they are forced by hunger to eat their tables. In Book VII, Aeneas and his men are served a meal that includes round cakes topped with cooked vegetables; when they eat the bread, they realize. Modern pizza evolved from similar flatbread dishes in Naples, Italy, in the 18th or early 19th century. Prior to that time, flatbread was topped with ingredients such as garlic, lard and basil, it is uncertain when tomatoes were first added and there are many conflicting claims.
Until about 1830, pizza was sold from open-air stands and out of pizza bakeries, antecedents to modern pizzerias. A popular contemporary legend holds that the archetypal pizza, pizza Margherita, was invented in 1889, when the Royal Palace of Capodimonte commissioned the Neapolitan pizzaiolo Raffaele Esposito to create a pizza in honor of the visiting Queen Margherita. Of the three different pizzas he created, the Queen preferred a pizza swathed in the colors of the Italian flag — red and white; this kind of pizza was named after the Queen, although research cast doubt on this legend. An official letter of recognition from the Queen's "head of service" remains on display in Esposito's shop, now called the Pizzeria Brandi. Pizza was brought to the United States with Italian immigrants in the late nineteenth century and first appeared in areas where Italian immigrants concentrated; the country's first pizzeria, Lombardi's, opened in 1905. Following World War II, veterans returning from the Italian Campaign, who were introduced to Italy's native cuisine proved a ready market for pizza in particular.
Pizza is prepared fresh, as portion-size slices or pieces. Methods have been developed to overcome challenges such as preventing the sauce from combining with the dough and producing a crust that can be frozen and reheated without becoming rigid. There are frozen pizzas with self-rising crusts. Another form of uncooked pizza is available from bake pizzerias; this pizza is assembled in the store sold to customers to bake in their own ovens. Some grocery stores sell fresh dough along with sauce and basic ingredients, to complete at home before baking in an oven. Pizza preparation In restaurants, pizza can be baked in an oven with stone bricks above the heat source, an electric deck oven, a conveyor belt oven or, in the case of more expensive restaurants, a wood or coal-fired brick oven. On deck ovens, pizza can be slid into the oven on a lo
Coat of arms of Switzerland
The coat of arms of the Swiss Confederation shows the same white-on-red cross as the flag of Switzerland, but on a heraldic shield instead of the square field. The federal coat of arms was defined by the Swiss Diet in 1815 for the Restored Confederacy. A more elaborate federal seal was defined, as the federal coat of arms surrounded by the twenty-two cantonal coats of arms. Similar heraldic arrangements representing the Thirteen Cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy are on record from the mid-16th century; the 1815 legislation remained in force in the federal state established in 1848, as was explicitly recognized by the Federal Council in 1889. While the simple coat of arms was in wide use on coins, from the early 20th century on car number plates and passports, the full seal did not see official use beyond its representation in stained glass in the Federal Palace of Switzerland; the 19th-century definition of the federal seal and coat of arms was replaced only in 2017, with the adoption of a new law which defined the Swiss coat of arms as "a Swiss cross in a triangular shield" with fixed proportions, but which no longer recognizes a federal seal.
The 2017 law defines the "Swiss coat of arms" formally the "Coat of Arms of the Swiss Confederation" as "a Swiss cross in a triangular shield". The Swiss cross is defined as "a white, free-standing cross depicted against a red background, whose arms, which are all of equal size, are one-sixth longer than they are wide."The shape of the "triangular shield" is defined by means of an image given in an annex to article 2. The color red to be used is specified in the same annex as: CMYK 0 / 100 / 100 / 0 Pantone 485 C / 485 U RGB 255 / 0 / 0 Hexadecimal #FF0000 Scotchcal 100 -13 RAL 3020 Traffic red NCS S 1085-Y90RThe triangular shield has been in use by the federal administration since the first half of the 20th century, it is an unusual shape, based on the triangular or "heater" shaped shield of classical heraldry, but with a curved top. Alternative shapes of the heraldic shield were in frequent use, still remain in use in spite of the 2017 legislation. A seen shield shape is the "Iberian" or "curved" type used to mark Swiss embassies and border crossings, used on the five franks coin.
Another seen variant is a Renaissance-style articulated shield, shown as being held by the national personification Helvetia on the ½, 1 and 2 franks coins. The Swiss cross originates as a field sign worn by the troops of the Old Swiss Confederacy. Use of the emblem is attested with certainty in the context of the Old Zürich War, for the year 1444, when the Tagsatzung defended itself against allegations that the troops of the Confederacy had deceptively used two different field signs. Aegidius Tschudi cites a song containing this allegation, specifying that the Swiss were bearing "two kinds of crosses, white at the back and red in front" to deceive the Zürich side. Heraldic representation of the Confederacy was by representations of the cantonal coats of arms. Petermann Etterlin on the title page of his Kronika of 1507 shows the coats of arms of the Thirteen Cantons surrounding the imperial coat of arms, reflecting the claim of the cantons of the Confederacy to imperial immediacy within the Holy Roman Empire.
The first known example where the cantonal coats of arms are shown as surrounding a Swiss cross representing the Confederacy is a medal commissioned by the Tagsatzung from Zürich goldsmith Hans Stampfer in 1547 as a gift for the French princess Claude. The obverse side of this medal shows the coats of arms of the Thirteen Cantons in their order of precedence, the reverse shows the coats of arms of the Associates, both groups surrounding a central cross with ornamental foliage. Similar representations are found throughout the early modern period, on commemorative medals and on regimental seals used by Swiss Guards in French service; the first mention of the Confederate Cross shown in a shield dates to 1533. The Napoleonic Helvetic Republic adopted an official seal on 12 May 1798, showing William Tell and his son, holding the apple pierced by the crossbow bolt; this seal disappeared with the dissolution of the Helvetic Republic five years later. The Swiss Confederation established by Napoleon in 1803 adopted the seal, described as: "an armed Old Swiss, on whose shield shall be inscribed'XIX.
Kantone', surrounded by the inscription'Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft. 1803.'". The Tagsatzung re-introduced the white cross in the red field for the seal of the Confederacy in 1814; the commission for drafting a federal constitution on 16 May 1814 recommended the adoption of a seal of the Confederacy based on the "field sign of the old Swiss". On 4 July 1815, the Diet accepted the design of the commission, adopting it as the provisional seal and describing it as "in the center, the federal red shield with the white cross as common federal heraldic emblem, surrounded by a simple circular Gothic ornament, on the outside of which the inscription'Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft' with the year number MDCCCXV, in an outer circle all XXII cantonal coat of arms in circular fields, according to their federal order of precedence. In November 1889, the Federal Council published a "communication regarding the federal coat of arms", detailing the history of the us