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Swiss mercenaries

Swiss mercenaries were notable for their service in foreign armies the armies of the Kings of France, throughout the Early Modern period of European history, from the Later Middle Ages into the Age of Enlightenment. Their service as mercenaries was at its peak during the Renaissance, when their proven battlefield capabilities made them sought-after mercenary troops. There followed a period of decline, as technological and organizational advances counteracted the Swiss' advantages. Switzerland's military isolationism put an end to organized mercenary activity. In William Shakespeare's Hamlet, Act IV, Scene 5, Swiss mercenaries are called "Switzers". During the Late Middle Ages, mercenary forces grew in importance in Europe, as veterans from the Hundred Years War and other conflicts came to see soldiering as a profession rather than a temporary activity, commanders sought long-term professionals rather than temporary feudal levies to fight their wars. Swiss mercenaries were valued throughout Late Medieval Europe for the power of their determined mass attack in deep columns with the spear, the pike and halberd.

Hiring them was made more attractive because entire ready-made Swiss mercenary contingents could be obtained by contracting with their local governments, the various Swiss cantons—the cantons had a form of militia system in which the soldiers were bound to serve and were trained and equipped to do so. Some Swiss hired themselves out individually or in small bands; the warriors of the Swiss cantons had developed a reputation throughout Europe as skilled soldiers, due to their successful defense of their liberties against their Austrian Habsburg overlords, starting as early as the late thirteenth century, including remarkable upset victories over armoured knights at Morgarten and Laupen. This was furthered by successful campaigns of regional expansion. By the fifteenth century they were valued as mercenary soldiers following their series of notable victories in the Burgundian Wars in the latter part of the century; the standing mercenary army of king Matthias Corvinus of Hungary contained Swiss pikemen units, who were held in high honour by the king.

The native term Reisläufer means "one who goes to war" and is derived from Middle High German Reise, meaning "military campaign". The Swiss, with their head-down attack in huge columns with the long pike, refusal to take prisoners, consistent record of victory, were feared and admired—for instance, Machiavelli addresses their system of combat at length in chapter 12 of The Prince; the Valois Kings of France, in fact, considered it a virtual impossibility to take the field of battle without Swiss pikemen as the infantry core of their armies. The young men who went off to fight, sometimes die, in foreign service had several incentives—limited economic options in the still rural cantons; until 1490, the Swiss had a virtual monopoly on pike-armed mercenary service. However, after that date, the Swiss mercenaries were supplanted by imitators, chiefly the Landsknechts. Landsknechts were Germans and became proficient at Swiss tactics surpassing them with their usage of the Zweihänder to crush opposing pike formations.

This produced a force. After 1515 the Swiss pledged themselves to neutrality, other than regarding Swiss soldiers serving in the ranks of the Royal French army; the Landsknecht, would continue to serve any paymaster at times, enemies of the Holy Roman Emperor. The Landsknecht assumed the multi-coloured and striped clothing of the Swiss; the Swiss were not flattered by the imitation, the two bodies of mercenaries became bitter rivals over employment and on the battlefield, where they were opposed during the major European conflict of the early sixteenth century, the Great Italian Wars. Although the Swiss had a significant edge in a simple "push of pike", the resulting combat was nonetheless quite savage, known to Italian onlookers as "bad war". Period artists such as Hans Holbein attest to the fact that two such huge pike columns crashing into each other could result in a maelstrom of battle, with many dead and wounded on both sides. Despite the competition from the Landsknechts, imitation by other armies, the Swiss fighting reputation reached its zenith between 1480 and 1525, indeed the Battle of Novara, fought by Swiss mercenaries, is seen by some as the perfect Swiss battle.

The close defeat at the terrible Battle of Marignano in 1515, the "Battle of Giants", was seen as an achievement of sorts for Swiss arms due to the ferocity of the fighting and the good order of their withdrawal. Nonetheless, the repulse at Marignano presaged the decline of the Swiss form of pike warfare—event

Isaac Musumba

Isaac Isanga Musumba is a Ugandan lawyer and politician. He served as the State Minister for Regional Foreign Affairs, from June 2006 until May 2011. In the cabinet reshuffle on 27 May 2011, he was dropped from the cabinet and was replaced by Asuman Kiyingi, he served as the elected Member of Parliament, representing "Buzaaya County", Kamuli District, from 1996 until 2011. During the 2011 national elections, he lost to Martin Kisule Mugabi Muzaale, during the National Resistance Movement primaries, he was born in Kamuli District, on 16 December 1961. Isaac Musumba attended Namasagali College, he holds the degree of Bachelor of Laws, from Makerere University. He holds the Diploma in Legal Practice, from the Law Development Center, in Kampala, Uganda's capital city, his degree of Master of Laws, specializing in tax law, was awarded by Makerere University. From 1985 until 1991, Isaac Musumba worked as a Principal Legal Officer in the Ministry of Finance, he worked as the Administrative Commissioner, at the Uganda Revenue Authority from 1991 until 1993.

In 1994, he was elected to the Constituent Assembly that drafted the 1995 Ugandan Constitution, serving in that capacity until 1995. He was elected to the Ugandan Parliament in 1996, to represent Kamuli District, he was re-elected in 2001 and in 2006. He lost the seat in 2011 to the Martin Muzaale incumbent Member of Parliament. In 2001, he was appointed State Minister for Planning, he retained his post in a Cabinet reshuffle on 14 January 2005. In June 2006, Isaac Musumba was appointed State Minister for Foreign Affairs, serving in that capacity until May 2011, when he was dropped from the cabinet in a reshuffle. Isaac Musumba is married, he is reported to have particular interest in global economics and taxation. Parliament of Uganda Cabinet of Uganda Kamuli District Website of the Parliament of Uganda Full Ministerial Cabinet List, June 2006 Full Ministerial Cabinet List, February 2009 Full Ministerial Cabinet List, May 2011

Katsuragi, Wakayama

Katsuragi is a town located in Ito District, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. As of October 1, 2016, the town has an estimated population of 16,686 and a density of 110 persons per km²; the total area is 151.73 km². On October 1, 2005 the village of Hanazono, from Ito District, was merged into Katsuragi. JR West - Wakayama Line Nakaiburi - Myōji - Ōtani - Kaseda - Nishi-Kaseda Japan National Route 24 Japan National Route 370 Japan National Route 371 Japan National Route 480 Hirofumi Hirano, politician Nenji Kobayashi, actor Media related to Katsuragi, Wakayama at Wikimedia Commons Katsuragi official website