In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can disconnect or connect the conducting path in an electrical circuit, interrupting the electric current or diverting it from one conductor to another. The most common type of switch is an electromechanical device consisting of one or more sets of movable electrical contacts connected to external circuits; when a pair of contacts is touching current can pass between them, while when the contacts are separated no current can flow. Switches are made in many different configurations. A switch may be operated manually, for example, a light switch or a keyboard button, or may function as a sensing element to sense the position of a machine part, liquid level, pressure, or temperature, such as a thermostat. Many specialized forms exist, such as the toggle switch, rotary switch, mercury switch, pushbutton switch, reversing switch and circuit breaker. A common use is control of lighting, where multiple switches may be wired into one circuit to allow convenient control of light fixtures.
Switches in high-powered circuits must have special construction to prevent destructive arcing when they are opened. The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one or more sets of electrical contacts, which are connected to external circuits; each set of contacts can be in one of two states: either "closed" meaning the contacts are touching and electricity can flow between them, or "open", meaning the contacts are separated and the switch is nonconducting. The mechanism actuating the transition between these two states are either an "alternate action" or "momentary" type. A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light switch. Automatically operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine tool is in a position to accept another workpiece.
Switches may be operated by process variables such as pressure, flow, current and force, acting as sensors in a process and used to automatically control a system. For example, a thermostat is a temperature-operated switch used to control a heating process. A switch, operated by another electrical circuit is called a relay. Large switches may be remotely operated by a motor drive mechanism; some switches are used to isolate electric power from a system, providing a visible point of isolation that can be padlocked if necessary to prevent accidental operation of a machine during maintenance, or to prevent electric shock. An ideal switch would have no voltage drop when closed, would have no limits on voltage or current rating, it would have zero rise time and fall time during state changes, would change state without "bouncing" between on and off positions. Practical switches fall short of this ideal; the ideal switch is used in circuit analysis as it simplifies the system of equations to be solved, but this can lead to a less accurate solution.
Theoretical treatment of the effects of non-ideal properties is required in the design of large networks of switches, as for example used in telephone exchanges. In the simplest case, a switch has two conductive pieces metal, called contacts, connected to an external circuit, that touch to complete the circuit, separate to open the circuit; the contact material is chosen for its resistance to corrosion, because most metals form insulating oxides that would prevent the switch from working. Contact materials are chosen on the basis of electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, low cost and low toxicity; the formation of oxide layers at contact surface, as well as surface roughness and contact pressure, determine the contact resistance, wetting current of a mechanical switch. Sometimes the contacts are plated with noble metals, for their excellent conductivity and resistance to corrosion, they may be designed to wipe against each other to clean off any contamination. Nonmetallic conductors, such as conductive plastic, are sometimes used.
To prevent the formation of insulating oxides, a minimum wetting current may be specified for a given switch design. In electronics, switches are classified according to the arrangement of their contacts. A pair of contacts is said to be "closed"; when the contacts are separated by an insulating air gap, they are said to be "open", no current can flow between them at normal voltages. The terms "make" for closure of contacts and "break" for opening of contacts are widely used; the terms pole and throw are used to describe switch contact variations. The number of "poles" is the number of electrically separate switches which are controlled by a single physical actuator. For example, a "2-pole" switch has two separate, parallel sets of contacts that open and close in unison via the same mechanism; the number of "throws" is the number of separate wiring path choices other than "open" that the switch can adopt for each pole. A single-throw switch has one pair of contacts that can either be open. A double-throw switch has a contact that can be connected to either of two other contacts, a triple-throw has a contact which ca
Giuseppe Maria Feroni was a Cardinal in the Roman Catholic church, camerlengo from 1760–1761. A famous bust of him by Andre-Jean Lebrun is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Feroni came from the wealthy noble family of the Marquises of Bellavista, he was the son of Costanza della Stufa. He studied at the Collegio Clementino in Rome, the Pontifical Diplomatic Academy, La Sapienza University, where in 1716 he was awarded his doctorate. On January 16, 1716, he entered the Roman prelature as a candidate for the Apostolic Protonotary, on January 23 of the same year he became a clerk at the Apostolic Signatura, he was ordained a priest on October 22, 1719. Pope Clement XI appointed him to be a canon of the Lateran Basilica, he was appointed a titular archbishop on May 10, 1728. Pope Benedict XIII appointed him a bishop on May 1728 in St. Peter's Basilica, his Co-Consecrators were Francesco Scipione Maria Borghese, Titular Archbishop of Traianopolis, Nicola Saverio Santamaria, Titular Bishop of Cyrene.
In the consistory of November 26, 1753, he was appointed cardinal priest and was installed on December 10, 1753 as Titular Archbishop of Damascus in the titular church San Pancrazio. He participated in the Conclave of 1758, which chose Pope Clement XIII. From January 28, 1760 to February 16, 1761 he was Camerlengo of the College of Cardinals. After the death of Cardinal Fortunato Tamburini on August 9, 1761, Feroni became prefect of the Congregation of the Holy Rite. On December 17, 1764 he received the titular church Santa Cecilia. In the fall of 1765 he moved to Siena. Feroni died on 15 November 1767 in Rome of a kidney disease, his final resting place with an elegant tomb is in his titular church Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. Cheney, David M. "Giuseppe Maria Cardinal Feroni". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved June 29, 2018. FIU website article. Accessed 29 June 2018
UDIK, the Association for Social Research and Communications, is a Bosnian regional non-governmental organization with offices in Sarajevo and Brčko. It was founded in 2013 by Edvin Kanka Ćudić that aimed to gather facts and data on genocide, war crimes, human rights violations in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the former Yugoslavia. UDIK was founded in 2013 by Edvin Kanka Ćudić, it aimed to gather facts and data on genocide, war crimes, human rights violations in Bosnia and Herzegovina and former Yugoslavia. UDIK works across national boundaries to assist post-conflict societies within the region reestablish the rule of law and deal with past human rights abuses. UDIK implements a victim-oriented transitional justice programme with three principal components: Documentation Justice and institutional reform Culture of remembranceUDIK was made up of independent members and professionals from different academic disciplines. Since its inception, UDIK has supported LGBT rights. Ćudić in several interviews said that the LBGT community, with the Romani people, is the most vulnerable community in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
When the Bosnia and Herzegovina’s first Pride Parade was announced in 2019, UDIK supported the parade. Since 2013, UDIK has organized a large number of commemorations to the victims of past war in the former Yugoslavia. UDIK calls; the ceremonies were organized in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. Thanks to this initiative, for the first time, many commemorations were organized; these commemorations were related to crimes against civilian victims of Bosniaks and Croats. The activities that got the most attention were the commemoration of the non-Bosniak victims of the crimes committed in Sarajevo's Kazani and commemorations of Serbian victims of the crimes in Operation Storm organized in Sarajevo and Zagreb. In May 2015, Federal Ministry of Interior of the Bosnia and Herzegovina banned the Sarajevo's commemoration of Serbian victims of the crimes committed in Operation Storm. In May 2016 the same commemoration was banned by Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Croatia, but in the end it was held in Zagreb with high police security.
The criticism falls into the category of alleged bias in response to UDIK's commemorations to the Yugoslav wars victims. Bias allegations include the organization's insistence on war crimes on Serbs or Croats, committed by the ARBiH. Bosniak right-wing media in Bosnia think that certain crimes against Serbs or Croats, committed by the ARBiH were legitimate military targets against the aggressor while UDIK believes that Bosniaks must take responsibility for the killings of civilians in those crimes. UDIK every year publishes documents about war crimes in Herzegovina. UDIK has published extensively on subjects such as war crimes and human rights violations from 1992 to 1995 in Foča, Višegrad, Sarajevo's Grbavica, Sarajevo's Kazani, Sanski Most, Sijekovac, Zaklopača etc. UDIK's publications about war crimes in Bosnia and Herzegovina are available at the Library of Congress in United States. In December 2015, UDIK team began to research and compile a register of memorials for victims of the Yugoslav wars including Albanians, Croats, Montenegrins and Others who were killed or disappeared during the armed conflicts in Yugoslavia with the aim of creating the Central register of memorials on the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that would serve to curb attempts at historical revisionism and manipulative use of the numbers of victims.
The register is based on analysis of documents from municipalities, museums, tourist organizations, Islamic Community of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbian Orthodox Church, ministries of veterans including newspaper reports from the period, publications, associations of veterans and families of the dead, etc. In 2016, UDIK published the first results of the Central rеgister of memorials for Bosnia and Herzegovina, listing more than 2.100 memorials to the victims of Bosnian War. Next year, UDIK published more than 1.200 memorials built in Croatia dedicated to the victims of Homeland War. In 2018 UDIK published more than 300 memorials build in Serbia and Montenegro dedicated to the victims of Serbia and Montenegro in Yugoslav wars; the registry included memorials dedicated to the victims of NATO bombing of Serbia and Montenegro. The register includes examples of the controversial memorials that were built after 1991 in the countries of the former Yugoslavia, which glorify fascism and hatred among the people of the former Yugoslavia.
The Central register of memorials of the Yugoslav wars is still the only register of memorials to victims of the Yugoslav wars on the territory of the countries of the former Yugoslavia. Since 2013, UDIK has been a member of the Coalition for RECOM; the Coalition for RECOM is a network of civil society organizations from post-Yugoslav countries which advocate for the establishment of RECOM – the Regional Commission tasked with establishing the facts about all Victims of war Crimes and other serious human rights violations committed on the territory of the former Yugoslavia from 1 January 1991 to 31 December 2001. In 2015, UDIK co-operated with the ICMP on the occasion of marking the International Day of the Disappeared, a commemoration designed to raise public awareness about the issue of missing persons from armed conflict and human rights abu
The Dublin, Georgia riot of 1919 were a series of violent racial riots between white and black members of Dublin, Georgia. During a race riot local African-American, Rob Ashely, was accused in the murder of a white man and wounding another man on July 6, 1919. While in jail the local white community threatened to storm the jail and lynch Ashely, they were thwarted by an armed black community group, formed to protect the jail and prevent a lynching. A company of eighty home guards prevented further trouble, but for weeks the situation was tense; this uprising was one of several incidents of civil unrest that began in the so-called American Red Summer, of 1919. The Summer consisted of terrorist attacks on black communities, white oppression in over three dozen cities and counties. In most cases, white mobs attacked African American neighborhoods. In some cases, black community groups resisted the attacks in Chicago and Washington, D. C.. Most deaths occurred in rural areas during events like the Elaine Race Riot in Arkansas, where an estimated 100 to 240 black people and 5 white people were killed.
Occurring in 1919 were the Chicago Race Riot and Washington D. C. race riot which killed 38 and 39 people and with both having many more non-fatal injuries and extensive property damage reaching up into the millions of dollars. Washington race riot of 1919 Mass racial violence in the United States List of incidents of civil unrest in the United States Notes References The Greeneville Daily Sun. "Quiet Prevails at Ga.. After Night of Race Riot Suspense"; the Greeneville Daily Sun. Greeneville, Tennessee: W. R. Lyon. pp. 1–4. ISSN 2475-0174. OCLC 37307396. Retrieved July 20, 2019; the New York Times. "For Action on Race Riot Peril". The New York Times. New York, NY: Adolph Ochs. ISSN 1553-8095. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved July 5, 2019. Rucker, Walter C.. Encyclopedia of American Race Riots, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313333026. - Total pages: 930 Voogd, Jan. Race Riots and Resistance: The Red Summer of 1919. Peter Lang. ISBN 9781433100673. - Total pages: 234
Suara Merdeka is a daily newspaper in Indonesia based in Semarang, Central Java. It was established by H. Hetami and the first edition was published on 11 February 1950. Suara Merdeka was founded by H. Hetami, who became chief editor, on February 11 1950; the paper began as an evening daily newspaper published in Solo. He was assisted by three reporters: HR. Wahjoedi and Retno Koestiyah. Suara Merdeka began expanding its distribution to Kudus and Semarang to compete with other local newspapers. In the beginning, Suara Merdeka did not yet have its own printing press, so that they were based at the offices of De Locomotief, a Dutch newspaper in Semarang. After 1956, the newspaper changed its publishing time to the morning after H. Hetami got a printing machine himself; the newspaper has its own office in the former office of Het Noorden newspaper, nationalized by Indonesian government in March 1963. In December 2011, Suara Merdeka has got award of "The Most Responsive Media". Suara Merdeka Cyber News Jeferson Kameo.
"Model Pertanggungjawaban Pers". Retrieved 2007-10-18
The first USS Trumbull was a row galley built in 1776 at Skenesboro, New York, for service in General Benedict Arnold's fleet on Lake Champlain. She was launched on 10 September 1776 and began active service soon thereafter, Capt. Seth Warner in command. Trumbull was 72 ft 4 in long, 19 ft 7 in wide with a draft of 6 ft 2 in and a displacement of 123 long tons, she was armed with one 18-pounder long gun, one 12-pounder long gun, two 9-pounder guns and six 6-pounder guns. Trumbull had a crew of 80 men. Trumbull transported a draft of reinforcements to Crown Point, New York, as General Arnold's forces sought to hurry to completion a squadron of small vessels galleys and cannon-carrying gondolas, or "gun-dalows," to oppose the expected British push down the lake toward Fort Ticonderoga; the Americans sought to retain possession of the lake, which they had controlled since early in the war, thus engaged in a shipbuilding race with the British, who were constructing a fleet of specially designed lake craft.
Since there were no roads parallel to the lake, the British were forced to launch their invasion southward by water instead of by land. Control of Lake Champlain was thus vital to the success of British plans. Trumbull was among Arnold's vessels that anchored in the lee of Valcour Island, south of Plattsburgh, New York, by early October, to await the British onslaught. With 25 ships, the British outnumbered the Americans by 10. Despite his squadron's inferiority, Arnold bravely stood and fought; the Americans' position favored them, as on the morning of 11 October 1776, Capt. Thomas Pringle's 25-vessel "fleet" sailed past Valcour Island and failed to discover Arnold's ships until he was south of them. Forced to attack from the leeward, Pringle's ships sailed up to meet Arnold's which were deployed in a crescent-shaped formation, anchored across Valcour Bay. In the resultant action, the Americans suffered heavy damage to Washington and New York; the action ended at nightfall when the British withdrew and anchored, thinking that the Americans could not escape.
Under cover of darkness and fog, the surviving ships in Arnold's squadron muffled their oars to slip past the unsuspecting British. However, before they could reach safety, a contrary wind sprang up and slowed their progress southward; the British weighed anchor, gave chase, soon overhauled the Americans. In the ensuing battle, Arnold lost his own flagship, the galley Congress, five other ships. Trumbull escaped the holocaust, only to be captured by the British the following year, 1777, was destroyed. Thus, the Battle of Valcour Island ended in a crushing tactical defeat for the Americans since it all but annihilated Arnold's flotilla and left the British in full control of Lake Champlain. However, the dominance of Arnold's little warships on the lake during the first year and one-half of the Revolutionary War had prevented British troops from invading the newly independent colonies from Canada through the Lake Champlain, Lake George, Hudson River corridor; when the Royal Navy did manage to best Arnold's flotilla at Valcour Island in the autumn of 1776, winter was too close to permit English land forces to take advantage of British victory by a thrust down the corridor to attack Washington's army from the rear.
This gave the colonies additional time to recruit and arm the forces which the following year stopped a British invasion in a decisive victory at Saratoga, New York, called the turning point of the American Revolution. Thus, while losing on a tactical level at Valcour, the Americans won a strategic victory which enabled them to achieve independence. Citations