National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame
The National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame was founded in 1951 in Saratoga Springs, New York, to honor the achievements of American Thoroughbred race horses and trainers. In 1955, the museum moved to its current location on Union Avenue near Saratoga race course, at which time inductions into the hall of fame began; each spring, following the tabulation of the final votes, the announcement of new inductees is made during Kentucky Derby Week in early May. The actual inductions are held in mid-August during the Saratoga race meeting; the Hall of Fame's nominating committee selects eight to ten candidates from among the four Contemporary categories to be presented to the voters. Changes in voting procedures that commenced with the 2010 candidates allow the voters to choose multiple candidates from a single Contemporary category, instead of a single candidate from each of the four Contemporary categories. For example, in 2016, two female horses were inducted at the same time; the museum houses a large collection of art and memorabilia that document the history of horse racing from the eighteenth century to the present.
The museum first opened its doors in 1951, at which time it occupied a single room in Saratoga's Canfield Casino. The establishment was supported by the city of Saratoga Springs, which donated $2,500, the Saratoga Racing Association, which donated $5,000, various patrons of the sport, who donated various pieces of art and memorabilia; the first item in the museum's collection was a horseshoe worn by the great Lexington. In 1955, the museum relocated to its current location on Union Avenue, close to the main entrance of Saratoga Race Course. Inductions into the hall of fame began at the same time. Since the museum has expanded several times to allow for the display of its extensive art collection and more multimedia displays on the history of the sport. In the early years, inductions to the hall of fame were based on the evaluation of a panel of racing historians. In 1955, a group of 9 horses from the earliest years of the American turf were inducted; the 1956 class included 11 horses that raced around the turn of the century, while the 1957 class included 10 horses that raced up to the mid-thirties.
Since the classes have been smaller as the inductions shifted to more contemporary horses. Under current rules, a horse must have been retired for a minimum of five full calendar years to be eligible for the hall of fame. Thoroughbreds remain eligible in the contemporary category between five and 25 calendar years following their final racing year. Thoroughbreds retired for more than 25 calendar years may become eligible through the Historic Review Committee. Source: National Museum of Racing and Hall Contemporary jockeys become eligible for the Hall of Fame after they have been licensed for at least 20 years, remain eligible until 25 years after retirement. In special circumstances such as fragile health, the 20 year requirement may be waived, though there is a five year waiting period after retirement in such cases. Source: National Museum of Racing and Hall of FameLegend: * Still active ** Wins in North America only Contemporary trainers become eligible for the Hall of Fame after they have been licensed for at least 25 years, remain eligible until 25 years after retirement.
In special circumstances such as fragile health, the 25 year requirement may be waived though there is a five year waiting period after retirement in such cases. Established in 2013, the Hall of Fame states that the Pillars of the Turf category honors those "who have made extraordinary contributions to Thoroughbred racing in a leadership or pioneering capacity at the highest national level." In addition to the Hall of Fame, the museum houses numerous exhibits. These include: the Link Gallery, which features a bronze statue, a rotating selection of paintings the Sculpture Gallery, which features work by June Harrah, Herbert Haseltine, Marilyn Newmark, Jim Reno, John Skeaping and Eleanor Iselin Wade, among others; the gallery looks out onto the inner courtyard, which features a life-size bronze of Secretariat the Colonial Gallery, which covers the ocean transportation of horses and the foundations of American racing the Pre-Civil War Gallery, covering the expansion of racing during the early 19th century the Post-Civil War Gallery, covering the continued expansion of racing after the Civil War until a backlash to gambling in the early 20th century led to the closure of many tracks the 20th Century Gallery, which covers more recent topics The Eclipse Gallery, featuring award-winning entries from the Eclipse Award photography competition The Racing Day Gallery, which features displays about jockeys and the Breeders' Cup The Anatomy Room, covering the breeding and biology of the Thoroughbred The Triple Crown Gallery, including information and artifacts related to Triple Crown history The Steeplechase Gallery, covering the history of steeplechase racing in America The von Stade Gallery, which displays a selection of paintings, works on paper, or photographic prints from the Museum Collection The Peter McBean Gallery, which houses temporary exhibitions, a semi-permanent Hall of Fame Heroes exhibition and seasonal exhibitions.
It houses a collection bequeathed by John Nerud, including trophies and paintings of the Hall of Fame horses he trained, Gallant Man and Dr. FagerThe Museum Collection includes just over 300 paintings; these range from paintings of the early days of racing in England by John E. Ferneley, Sr. to more contemporary champions by Richard Stone Reeves. Featured artists include: William Smithson Broadhead, Vaughn Flannery, Sir Alfred J. Munnings
St James's Palace Stakes
The St. James's Palace Stakes is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to three-year-old colts, it is run at Ascot over a distance of 213 yards. It is scheduled each year in June; the event is named after a royal residence during the Tudor period. It was established in 1834, the inaugural race was a walkover; the present system of race grading was introduced in 1971, for a period the St. James's Palace Stakes was classed at Group 2 level, it was promoted to Group 1 status in 1988. The St. James's Palace Stakes features horses which ran in the 2,000 Guineas, the Poule d'Essai des Poulains or the Irish 2,000 Guineas, it is contested on the opening day of the Royal Ascot meeting. A The 2005 running took place at York. 1 The 1888 race has joint winners.2 The 1941 running was held at Newmarket. Horse racing in Great Britain List of British flat horse races Paris-Turf: "1979". "1981". "1982". "1983". "1984". "1985". "1986". "1987". Racing Post: 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 2018galopp-sieger.de – St. James's Palace Stakes.
Horseracingintfed.com – International Federation of Horseracing Authorities – St. James's Palace Stakes. Pedigreequery.com – St. James's Palace Stakes – Ascot. Abelson, Edward; the Breedon Book of Horse Racing Records. Breedon Books. Pp. 68–71. ISBN 1-873626-15-0. Race Recordings
A stud animal is a registered animal retained for breeding. The terms for the male of a given animal species imply that the animal is intact—that is, not castrated—and therefore capable of siring offspring. A specialized vocabulary exists for de-sexed animals and those animals used in grading up to a purebred status. Stud females are used to breed further stud animals, but stud males may be used in crossbreeding programs. Both sexes of stud animals are used in artificial breeding programs. A stud farm, in animal husbandry, is an establishment for selective breeding using stud animals; this results in artificial selection. A stud fee is a price paid by the owner of a female animal, such as a horse or a dog, to the owner of a male animal for the right to breed to it. Service fees can range from a small amount for a local male animal of unknown breeding to several hundred thousand dollars for the right to breed a champion Thoroughbred race horse such as Storm Cat, who has earned stud fees of up to US$500,000.
Many owners of high-quality stallions offer a live foal guarantee with a breeding defined as a guarantee that once the mare leaves the stud farm confirmed to be in foal by a veterinarian, she will give birth to a foal that stands and nurses, or else the stud farm will re-breed the mare for no stud fee the following season. Most stud fees do not include the costs of boarding the female animal at the location of the stud animal, or of the cost and shipping semen if artificial insemination is used in lieu of live cover. Any veterinary expenses or medications are an additional cost to the owner of the female animal. Cattle Horse breeding Sheep Stallion
A veterinary physician called a vet, shortened from veterinarian or veterinary surgeon, is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases and injuries in animals. In many countries, the local nomenclature for a veterinarian is a regulated and protected term, meaning that members of the public without the prerequisite qualifications and/or licensure are not able to use the title. In many cases, the activities that may be undertaken by a veterinarian are restricted only to those professionals who are registered as a veterinarian. For instance, in the United Kingdom, as in other jurisdictions, animal treatment may only be performed by registered veterinary physicians, it is illegal for any person, not registered to call themselves a veterinarian or prescribe any treatment. Most veterinary physicians work in clinical settings; these veterinarians may be involved in a general practice. As with other healthcare professionals, veterinarians face ethical decisions about the care of their patients.
Current debates within the profession include the ethics of certain procedures believed to be purely cosmetic or unnecessary for behavioral issues, such as declawing of cats, docking of tails, cropping of ears and debarking on dogs. The word "veterinary" comes from the Latin veterinae meaning "working animals". "Veterinarian" was first used in print by Thomas Browne in 1646. Ancient Indian sage and veterinary physician Shalihotra, the son of a Brahmin sage, Hayagosha, is considered the founder of veterinary sciences; the first veterinary college was founded in France in 1762 by Claude Bourgelat. According to Lupton, after observing the devastation being caused by cattle plague to the French herds, Bourgelat devoted his time to seeking out a remedy; this resulted in his founding a veterinary college in Lyon in 1761, from which establishment he dispatched students to combat the disease. The Odiham Agricultural Society was founded in 1783 in England to promote agriculture and industry, played an important role in the foundation of the veterinary profession in Britain.
A 1785 Society meeting resolved to "promote the study of Farriery upon rational scientific principles." The professionalization of the veterinary trade was achieved in 1790, through the campaigning of Granville Penn, who persuaded the Frenchman Benoit Vial de St. Bel to accept the professorship of the newly established Veterinary College in London; the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons was established by royal charter in 1844. Veterinary science came of age in the late 19th century, with notable contributions from Sir John McFadyean, credited by many as having been the founder of modern Veterinary research. Veterinarians treat disease, disorder or injury in animals, which includes diagnosis and aftercare; the scope of practice and experience of the individual veterinarian will dictate what interventions they perform, but most will perform surgery. Unlike in human medicine, veterinarians must rely on clinical signs, as animals are unable to vocalize symptoms as a human would. In some cases, owners may be able to provide a medical history and the veterinarian can combine this information along with observations, the results of pertinent diagnostic tests such as radiography, CT scans, MRI, blood tests and others.
Veterinarians must consider the appropriateness of euthanasia if a condition is to leave the animal in pain or with a poor quality of life, or if treatment of a condition is to cause more harm to the patient than good, or if the patient is unlikely to survive any treatment regimen. Additionally, there are scenarios where euthanasia is considered due to the constrains of the client's finances; as with human medicine, much veterinary work is concerned with prophylactic treatment, in order to prevent problems occurring in the future. Common interventions include vaccination against common animal illnesses, such as distemper or rabies, dental prophylaxis to prevent or inhibit dental disease; this may involve owner education so as to avoid future medical or behavioral issues. Additionally veterinarians have the prevention of zoonoses; the majority of veterinarians are employed in private practice treating animals. Small animal veterinarians work in veterinary clinics, veterinary hospitals, or both.
Large animal veterinarians spend more time travelling to see their patients at the primary facilities which house them, such as zoos or farms. Other employers include charities treating animals, colleges of veterinary medicine, research laboratories, animal food companies, pharmaceutical companies. In many countries, the government may be a major employer of veterinarians, such as the United States Department of Agriculture or the Animal and Plant Health Agency in the United Kingdom. State and local governments employ veterinarians. Veterinarians and their practices may be specialized in certain areas of veterinary medicine. Areas of focus include: Exotic animal veterinaria
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses that are known for their agility and spirit; the Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th- and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions imported into England in the 17th century and 18th century and to a larger number of foundation mares of English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, around 100,000 foals are registered each year worldwide. Thoroughbreds are used for racing, but are bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage and fox hunting.
They are commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Anglo-Arabian, various warmblood breeds. Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs. Other health concerns include low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof-to-body-mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, research is ongoing; the typical Thoroughbred ranges from 15.2 to 17.0 hands high. They are most bay, dark bay or brown, black, or gray. Less common colors recognized in the United States include palomino. White is rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray; the face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will not appear on the body. Coat patterns that have more than one color on the body, such as Pinto or Appaloosa, are not recognized by mainstream breed registries.
Good-quality Thoroughbreds have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, long legs. Thoroughbreds are classified among the "hot-blooded" breeds, which are animals bred for agility and speed and are considered spirited and bold. Thoroughbreds born in the Northern Hemisphere are considered a year older on the first of January each year; these artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races and other competitions for horses in certain age groups. The Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse, although people sometimes refer to a purebred horse of any breed as a thoroughbred; the term for any horse or other animal derived from a single breed line is purebred. While the term came into general use because the English Thoroughbred's General Stud Book was one of the first breed registries created, in modern usage horse breeders consider it incorrect to refer to any animal as a thoroughbred except for horses belonging to the Thoroughbred breed.
Nonetheless, breeders of other species of purebred animals may use the two terms interchangeably, though thoroughbred is less used for describing purebred animals of other species. The term is a proper noun referring to this specific breed, though not capitalized in non-specialist publications, outside the US. For example, the Australian Stud Book, The New York Times, the BBC do not capitalize the word. Flat racing existed in England by at least 1174, when four-mile races took place at Smithfield, in London. Racing continued at fairs and markets throughout the Middle Ages and into the reign of King James I of England, it was that handicapping, a system of adding weight to attempt to equalize a horse's chances of winning as well as improved training procedures, began to be used. During the reigns of Charles II, William III, George I, the foundation of the Thoroughbred was laid; the term "thro-bred" to describe horses was first used in 1713. Under Charles II, a keen racegoer and owner, Anne, royal support was given to racing and the breeding of race horses.
With royal support, horse racing became popular with the public, by 1727, a newspaper devoted to racing, the Racing Calendar, was founded. Devoted to the sport, it recorded race results and advertised upcoming meets. All modern Thoroughbreds trace back to three stallions imported into England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian. Other stallions of oriental breeding were less influential, but still made noteworthy contributions to the breed; these included the Alcock's Arabian, D'Arcy's White Turk, Leedes Arabian, Curwen's Bay Barb. Another was the Brownlow Turk, among other attributes, is thought to be responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds. In all, about 160 stallions of Oriental breeding have been traced in the historical record as contributing to the creation of the Thoroughbred; the addition of horses of Eastern bloodlines, whether Arabian, Barb, or Turk, to the native English mares led to the creation of the General Stud Book in 1791 and the practice of official registration of horses.
According to Peter Willett, about 50% of the foundation stallions appear to have been of Arabian bloodlines, wit
Woodbine Racetrack is a casino and horse racing track in Toronto, Canada. It is the only horse racing track in North America which stages, or is capable of staging and standardbred horse racing programs on the same day, it is owned by Woodbine Entertainment Group. The track was opened in 1956, it has been extensively remodelled since 1993, since 1994 has three racecourses. The current Woodbine carries the name used by a racetrack which operated in east Toronto, at Queen Street East and Kingston Road, from 1874 through 1993. On June 12, 1956 the name was transferred to the new racetrack which would be known as New Woodbine Racetrack until 1963 when the "New" was dropped from the name; the old track was converted to a combined thoroughbred and standardbred track known thereafter as Old Woodbine or, for most of the rest of its history, as Greenwood Raceway and Greenwood Race Track. The two thoroughbred and two standardbred meets conducted at Greenwood were transferred to the new Woodbine in 1994, until exclusively devoted to thoroughbred racing.
On July 4, 2010 Queen Elizabeth II visited the Racetrack as part of her state visit to Canada, viewing the 151st running of The Queen's Plate Stakes, as well as taking part in the presentation of trophies. The track was the opening venue for the 1976 Summer Paralympics; the Breeders' Cup was held at Woodbine in 1996. The Arlington Million was held at Woodbine in 1988; the Woodbine facility is home to the Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame. In 2018, the track began using a GPS-based timing system; the outermost E. P. Taylor turf course for thoroughbreds, completed in 1994, is 1.5 miles long with a chute allowing races of 1.125 miles to be run around one turn. It is irregularly shaped, the clubhouse turn departing from the traditional North American oval, the backstretch is from 2.5 feet to 3 feet higher than the homestretch. The Taylor turf course and the main dirt course at Belmont Park on New York's Long Island are the only mile-and-a-half layouts in North American thoroughbred racing. In 2016, Woodbine will contest up to 40 turf races running clockwise in what are being billed as "EuroTurf" races.
Inside the Taylor course is the 1 mile synthetic course for Thoroughbreds. As of 2016, the surface is Tapeta. Two chutes facilitate races at 1.25 miles. The innermost oval was a 7/8-mile grass oval until the E. P. Taylor turf course opened in 1994, it was converted to a crushed limestone dirt course and was used for harness racing until April 2018. The oval is being converted back to a second turf course for the 2019 thoroughbred racing season. Portions of the current E. P. Taylor turf course formed part of a long turf chute that crossed over the dirt course to the inner turf oval at the top of the stretch; this was used for several major races, including Secretariat's final race in the 1973 Canadian International, until the entire E. P. Taylor course was completed in 1994. Casino Woodbine contains over 200 electronic gambling tables, over 3,500 slot machines. Table games include poker, blackjack and baccarat. Woodbine has been a regular host for the Breeders Crown. Since the event changed to a one-night format in 2010, the facility has hosted three times—2011, 2012, 2015.
Woodbine was the host of the C$1,500,000 North America Cup for three-year old pacing colts and geldings from 1994–2006. That race along with the Elegant Image Stakes for three-year old filly trotters and the Good Times Stakes for three-year old colt and gelding trotters, have been moved to Woodbine's sister track, Woodbine Mohawk Park. Starting in 2018, all standardbred racing has been moved to Woodbine Mohawk, as the 7/8 standardbred track is being converted into a 2nd turf course; the record for most wins by a jockey on a single raceday at Woodbine is seven, set by Richard Grubb on May 16, 1967, twice equaled by the legendary Canadian jockey Sandy Hawley, first on May 22, 1972 and again on October 10, 1974. Major Stakes races for Thoroughbreds run annually at Woodbine include the: Queen's Plate, a stakes for three-year-old Canadian-bred thoroughbreds, first leg of the Canadian Triple Crown; because the race is restricted to Canadian-bred horses, it is not eligible for grading, despite being one of Canada's most prestigious races Northern Dancer Turf Stakes, a turf mile-and-one-half Grade 1 stakes run in early fall as the final prep for the Canadian International or Breeders' Cup Turf Breeders' Stakes, a stakes for three-year-old Canadian-bred thoroughbreds, third leg of the Canadian Triple Crown Woodbine Mile, a grade I thoroughbred turf stakes Canadian International, a grade 1 thoroughbred turf stakes E. P. Taylor Stakes, a grade 1 Thoroughbred turf race for fillies and mares Official website Casino Woodbine Woodbine Racetrack at the NTRA Clara Thomas Archives and Special Collections, York University – Archival photographs of Woodbine Racetrack from the Toronto Telegram fonds