Annie Elizabeth Fredericka Horniman CH was an English theatre patron and manager. She established the Abbey Theatre in Dublin and founded the first regional repertory theatre company in Britain at the Gaiety Theatre in Manchester, she encouraged the work of new writers and playwrights, including W. B. Yeats, George Bernard Shaw and members of what became known as the Manchester School of dramatists. Annie Horniman was born at Surrey Mount, Forest Hill, London, in 1860, the elder child of Frederick John Horniman and his first wife Rebekah née Emslie, her father was the founder of the Horniman Museum. Annie and her younger brother Emslie were educated at their home, her father was opposed to the theatre, which he considered sinful, but their German governess took Annie and Emslie secretly to a performance of The Merchant of Venice at The Crystal Palace when Annie was aged 14. Annie's father allowed her to enter the Slade School of Fine Art in 1882. Here she discovered that her talent in art was limited but she developed other interests in the theatre and opera.
She took great pleasure in Ibsen's plays. She cycled in London and twice over the Alps, smoked in explored alternative religions; the "lonely rich girl" had become "an independent-minded woman". In 1890 she joined the occult society, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, where she remained a member until disagreements with its leaders led to her resignation in 1903. During this time she met and became a friend of W. B. Yeats, acting as his amanuensis for some years, their friendship endured: Frank O'Connor recalled that on the day Yeats heard of her death, he spent the entire evening speaking of his memories of her. Annie's first venture into the theatre was in 1894 was made possible by a legacy from her grandfather, she anonymously supported her friend Florence Farr in a season of new plays at the Avenue Theatre, London. This included a new play by Yeats, The Land of Heart's Desire, the première of George Bernard Shaw's play Arms and the Man. In 1903 Yeats persuaded her to go to Dublin to back productions by the Irish National Theatre Society.
Here she discovered her skill as a theatre administrator. She bought a property and developed it into the Abbey Theatre, which opened in December 1904. Although she moved back to live in England she continued to support the theatre financially until 1910. Meanwhile, in Manchester she had purchased and renovated the Gaiety Theatre in 1908 and developed it into the first regional repertory theatre in Britain. At the Gaiety she appointed Ben Iden Payne as the director and employed actors on 40-week contracts, alternating their work between large and small parts; the plays produced included classics such as Euripides and Shakespeare, she introduced works by contemporary playwrights such as Ibsen and Shaw. She encouraged local writers who formed what was known as the Manchester School of dramatists, the leading members of which were Harold Brighouse, Stanley Houghton and Allan Monkhouse; the Gaiety company undertook tours of America and Canada in 1912 and 1913. Annie became a well-known public figure in Manchester, lecturing on subjects which included women's suffrage and her views about the theatre.
In 1910 she was awarded the honorary degree of MA by Manchester University. During the First World War the Gaiety continued to stage plays but financial difficulties led to the disbandment of the permanent company in 1917, following which productions in the theatre were by visiting companies. In 1921 Annie sold the theatre to a cinema company; as a result of her tea connection, she was known as "Hornibags". She held court at the Midland Hotel, wearing exotic clothing and smoking cigarettes, considered scandalous at the time, she introduced Manchester to what was called at the time "the play of ideas". The theatre critic James Agate noted that Horniman's high-minded theatrical ventures had "an air of gloomy strenuousness" about them. Annie moved to London. In 1933 she was made a Companion of Honour. Horniman and Algernon Blackwood may have been the only past or present members of an occult society to receive a United Kingdom honour, she died in 1937 at her home in Surrey. Her estate amounted to a little over £50,000.
The Annie Horniman Papers are held in the John Rylands Library at the University of Manchester
Ann Casson was an English stage and film actress. She was a daughter of acting couple Sir Lewis Casson and Dame Sybil Thorndike and had three siblings: John and Mary, she had four children. Escape The Shadow Between Number Seventeen Dance Pretty Lady Bachelor's Baby The Marriage Bond George and Margaret I Bought a Vampire Motorcycle Ann Casson on IMDb
Euripides was a tragedian of classical Athens. Along with Aeschylus and Sophocles, he is one of the three ancient Greek tragedians for whom a significant number of plays have survived; some ancient scholars attributed 95 plays to him but, according to the Suda, it was 92 at most. Of these, 18 or 19 have survived more or less complete and there are fragments, some substantial, of most of the other plays. More of his plays have survived intact than those of Aeschylus and Sophocles together because his popularity grew as theirs declined—he became, in the Hellenistic Age, a cornerstone of ancient literary education, along with Homer and Menander. Euripides is identified with theatrical innovations that have profoundly influenced drama down to modern times in the representation of traditional, mythical heroes as ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances; this new approach led him to pioneer developments that writers adapted to comedy, some of which are characteristic of romance. Yet he became "the most tragic of poets", focusing on the inner lives and motives of his characters in a way unknown.
He was "the creator of...that cage, the theatre of Shakespeare's Othello, Racine's Phèdre, of Ibsen and Strindberg," in which "...imprisoned men and women destroy each other by the intensity of their loves and hates", yet he was the literary ancestor of comic dramatists as diverse as Menander and George Bernard Shaw. Unique among writers of Ancient Athens, Euripides demonstrated sympathy towards the underrepresented members of society, his male contemporaries were shocked by the'heresies' he put into the mouths of characters, such as these words of his heroine Medea: His contemporaries associated him with Socrates as a leader of a decadent intellectualism, both of them being lampooned by comic poets such as Aristophanes. Whereas Socrates was put on trial and executed as a corrupting influence, Euripides chose a voluntary exile in old age, dying in Macedonia. Recent scholarship casts doubt on ancient biographies of Euripides. For example, it is possible that he never visited Macedonia at all, or, if he did, he might have been drawn there by King Archelaus with incentives that were offered to other artists.
Traditional accounts of the author's life are found in many commentaries and include details such as these: He was born on Salamis Island around 480 BC, with parents Cleito and Mnesarchus, a retailer who lived in a village near Athens. Upon the receipt of an oracle saying that his son was fated to win "crowns of victory", Mnesarchus insisted that the boy should train for a career in athletics. In fact the boy was destined for a career on the stage, where however he was to win only five victories, one of, after his death, he served for a short time as both torch-bearer at the rites of Apollo Zosterius. His education was not confined to athletics: he studied painting and philosophy under the masters Prodicus and Anaxagoras, he had two disastrous marriages and both his wives—Melite and Choerine —were unfaithful. He became a recluse. "There he built an impressive library and pursued daily communion with the sea and sky". He retired to the "rustic court" of King Archelaus in Macedonia, where he died in 406 BC.
However, as mentioned in the introduction, biographical details such as these should be regarded with scepticism. They are derived entirely from three unreliable sources: folklore, employed by the ancients to lend colour to the lives of celebrated authors; this biography is divided into three sections corresponding to the three kinds of sources. Euripides was the youngest in a set of three great tragedians who were contemporaries: his first play was staged thirteen years after Sophocles' debut and only three years after Aeschylus's masterpiece, the Oresteia; the identity of the threesome is neatly underscored by a patriotic account of their roles during Greece's great victory over Persia at the Battle of Salamis—Aeschylus fought there, Sophocles was just old enough to celebrate the victory in a boys' chorus and Euripides was born on the day of the battle. The apocryphal account that he composed his works in a cave on Salamis island was a late tradition and it symbolizes the isolation of an intellectual, rather ahead of his time.
Much of his life and his whole career coincided with the struggle between Athens and Sparta for hegemony in Greece but he didn't live to see the final defeat of his city. It is said that he died in Macedonia after being attacked by the Molossian hounds of King Archelaus and that his cenotaph near Piraeus was struck by lightning—signs of his unique powers, whether for good or ill. In an account by Plutarch, the catastrophic failure of the Sicilian expedition led Athenians to trade renditions of Euripides' lyrics to their enemies in return for food and drink. Plutarch is the source for the story that the victorious Spartan generals, having planned the demolition of Athens and the enslavement of its people, grew merciful after being entertained at a banquet by lyrics from Euripides' play Electra: "they felt that it would be a barbarous act to annihilate a ci
Rochester is a town and was a historic city in the unitary authority of Medway in Kent, England. It is at the lowest bridging point of the River Medway about 30 miles from London. Rochester was for many years a favourite of Charles Dickens, who owned nearby Gads Hill Place, basing many of his novels on the area; the Diocese of Rochester, the second oldest in England, is centred on Rochester Cathedral and was responsible for the founding of a school, now The King's School in 604 AD, recognised as being the second oldest continuously running school in the world. Rochester Castle, built by Bishop Gundulf of Rochester, has one of the best preserved keeps in either England or France, during the First Barons' War in King John's reign, baronial forces captured the castle from Archbishop Stephen Langton and held it against the king, who besieged it. Rochester and its neighbours and Gillingham, Strood and a number of outlying villages form a single large urban area known as the Medway Towns with a population of about 250,000.
These places nowadays make up the Medway Unitary Authority area. It was, until 1998, under the control of Kent County Council and is still part of the ceremonial county of Kent, under the latest Lieutenancies Act; the Romano-British name for Rochester was Durobrivae Durobrivis c. 730 and Dorobrevis in 844. The two cited origins of this name are that it either came from "stronghold by the bridge" or is the latinisation of the British word Dourbruf meaning "swiftstream". Durobrivis was pronounced'Robrivis. In times, the word cæster was added to the name and the city was called Robrivis Cæster. Bede mentions the city in ca. 730 and calls it Hrofes cæster, mistaking its meaning as Hrofi's fortified camp. From this we get 811 Hrofescester, 1086 Rovescester, 1610 Rochester; the Latinised adjective'Roffensis' refers to Rochester. Neolithic remains have been found in the vicinity of Rochester. During the Celtic period it was one of the two administrative centres of the Cantiaci tribe. During the Roman conquest of Britain a decisive battle was fought at the Medway somewhere near Rochester.
The first bridge was subsequently constructed early in the Roman period. During the Roman period the settlement was walled in stone. King Ethelbert of Kent established a legal system, preserved in the 12th century Textus Roffensis. In AD 604 the bishopric and cathedral were founded. During this period, from the recall of the legions until the Norman conquest, Rochester was sacked at least twice and besieged on another occasion; the medieval period saw the building of the current cathedral, the building of two castles and the establishment of a significant town. Rochester Castle saw action in the sieges of 1215 and 1264, its basic street plan was set out, constrained by the river, Watling Street, Rochester Priory and the castle. Rochester has produced two martyrs: St John Fisher, executed by Henry VIII for refusing to sanction the divorce of Catherine of Aragon; the city was raided by the Dutch as part of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. The Dutch, commanded by Admiral de Ruijter, broke through the chain at Upnor and sailed to Rochester Bridge capturing part of the English fleet and burning it.
Rochester has for centuries been of great strategic importance through its position near the confluence of the Thames and the Medway. Rochester Castle was built to guard the river crossing, the Royal Dockyard's establishment at Chatham witnessed the beginning of the Royal Navy's long period of supremacy; the town, as part of Medway, is surrounded by two circles of fortresses. The outer line of Palmerston Forts was built during the 1860s in light of the report by the Royal Commission on the Defence of the United Kingdom and consists of Fort Borstal, Fort Bridgewood, Fort Luton, the Twydall Redoubts, with two additional forts on islands in the Medway, namely Fort Hoo and Fort Darnet. During the First World War the Short Brothers' aircraft manufacturing company developed the first plane to launch a torpedo, the Short Admiralty Type 184, at its seaplane factory on the River Medway not far from Rochester Castle. In the intervening period between the 20th century World Wars the company established a world-wide reputation as a constructor of flying boats with aircraft such as the Singapore, Empire'C'-Class and Sunderland.
During the Second World War, Shorts designed and manufactured the first four-engined bomber, the Stirling. The UK's decline in naval power and shipbuilding competitiveness led to the government decommissioning the RN Shipyard at Chatham in 1984, which led to the subsequent demise of much local maritime industry. Rochester and its neighbouring communities were hit hard by this and have experienced a painful adjustment to a post-industrial economy, with much social deprivation and unemployment resulting. On the closure of Chatham Dockyard the area experienced an unprecedented surge in unemployment to 24%. Rochester was recognised as a City from 1211 to 1998; the City of Rochester's ancient status was unique, as it had no formal council or Charter Trustees nor a Mayor, instead having the office of Admiral of the River Medway, whose incumbent acted as de facto civic leader. Since Norman times Rochester had always governed land on the other side of the Medway in Strood, known as Strood Intra.
Rochester Grammar School
Rochester Grammar School abbreviated to RGS is a grammar school for the education of girls between the ages of 11 and 18. It has academy status. Pupils are expected to perform throughout the school, it is now known as just "Rochester Grammar School" following the introduction of boys into the sixth form. Rochester Grammar School is located on Rochester Maidstone Road, opposite the Sir Joseph Williamson's Mathematical School, their sixth form is mixed but the rest of the school is single-sex. The school does sometimes take children; the school teaches a wide variety of subjects including Art, Science, Geography, History, IT, RS, PE, Classical Civilisation, French, Psychology, Product Design, Music and Exel. At the beginning of Year 9 students start to study for their GCSEs. All pupils are expected to aim to achieve grades of a high standard in every subject, the school is well known for its high GCSE and A level results; the Rochester Grammar School for Girls was established in 1888 under the powers of the Endowed School’s Act of 1869, which allowed the charitable trustees of the Bridge Wardens to donate the necessary funds for a girls’ grammar school.
This was seen as progressive. Each year the school celebrates its founding with a special service at Rochester Cathedral; the school building, near the centre of Rochester, was opened in January 1889 by the Countess of Darnley. The school included a morning Kindergarten. In 1939, after the outbreak of the Second World War, the school building was taken over by the Civil Defence and the pupils were evacuated to Canterbury, moving in 1940 to Pontypridd Porthcawl in South Wales. Several bombs fell on the school site during an incendiary raid in 1941, the main school building suffering slight damage. From 1941 an increasing number of pupils began to return to live in Rochester, in 1942 the school was reopened, although parts of the building remained occupied by the Civil Defence until the summer of 1944; the first male teachers were appointed in the 1960's. In 1969 additional school buildings were opened 1.3km south of the existing school on the outskirts of Rochester. The need for staff and pupils to commute between the two sites and the dilapidation of the old building led to the decision to consolidate the school at one location, in April 1989 work began on additional buildings on the newer southern site.
The original school building was closed in 1990, with the site sold for housing and a health centre. The move to the new site allowed an expansion in the school, it has grown in size to over 1,100 students, with nearly 300 in the sixth form. Since 2004 male students have been admitted to the sixth form, resulting in a change in the school's title in 2006 to "Rochester Grammar School" – removing the words "for Girls"; the school became grant-maintained with funding directly from central government. In November 2010 the RGS became an “Academy of Excellence” under the Government’s academy programme for outstanding schools, is a combined Mathematics/ICT and Music specialist school, the first nationally. Facilities now include a sixth form centre, a newly built and hi-tech teaching and training suite named after one of the school’s famous ex-students – Evelyn Dunbar. Dunbar was the only woman commissioned as a war artist, her pictures illustrating the home front during World War II decorate the suite.
GCSEs & A-Levels A 2010 BBC report ranked the school as having the best GCSE and second best A/AS-Level results in the south east. In 2012 99% of students studying GCSEs attained 5 A*-C grades, including maths and English, 99% of those studying A-levels received at least three. International Baccalaureate In 2011, The Rochester Grammar School was the top performing state school for IB nationally. Forty one of their students completed the IB diploma and a third achieved a score of 40 or more, equivalent to 4 A* grades at A Level. One student achieved the maximum possible score of 45 in their International Baccalaureate examinations, achieved by less than 1% of students globally. There are six school houses and colours associated with each – Byron, Fitzgerald, Hildegard and Tomlinson, they are named after prominent women in the fields of music, mathematics and literature. Each pupil wears a house flash with the colours of their house above the school badge on their blazer, showing which house they belong to.
Sixth formers have pin badges with their house colours. Each form consists of a wide variety of different year 7-11 pupils who belong to the same house, known as vertical tutor groups; this plan was put in place in September 2007, overhauled in September 2010, with vertical tutor groups including all year groups. These groups were changed again in 2013 to include only years 7-12 with separate forms for all students in Year 13; the houses compete against each other in events throughout the year, including inter-house year tournaments such as netball, speed-stacking, benchball and football. For harvest festival, each house has a specific theme allocated and each form creates a box that incorporates this theme. At the end of the year the houses compete in sports day and house arts day. There were only four houses, named after the patron saints of the four countries of the British Isles: Andrew, David
Candida, a comedy by playwright George Bernard Shaw, was written in 1894 and first published in 1898, as part of his Plays Pleasant. The central characters are clergyman James Morell, his wife Candida and a youthful poet, Eugene Marchbanks, who tries to win Candida's affections; the play questions Victorian notions of love and marriage, asking what a woman desires from her husband. The cleric is a Christian Socialist, allowing Shaw—himself a Fabian Socialist—to weave political issues, current at the time, into the story. Shaw attempted but failed to have a London production of the play put on in the 1890s, but there were two small provincial productions. However, in late 1903 actor Arnold Daly had such a great success with the play that Shaw would write by 1904 that New York was seeing "an outbreak of Candidamania"; the Royal Court Theatre in London performed the play in six matinees in 1904. The same theatre staged several other of Shaw's plays from 1904 to 1907, including further revivals of Candida.
In order of appearance Miss Proserpine Garnett—Morell's secretary The Reverend James Mavor Morell—a clergyman and Candida's husband The Reverend Alexander Mill Mr Burgess Candida Eugene Marchbanks The play is set in the northeast suburbs of London in the month of October. It tells the story of the wife of a famous clergyman, the Reverend James Mavor Morell. Morell is a Christian Socialist, popular in the Church of England, but Candida is responsible for much of his success. Candida returns home from a trip to London with Eugene Marchbanks, a young poet who wants to rescue her from what he presumes to be her dull family life. Marchbanks is in love with Candida and believes she deserves something more than just complacency from her husband, he considers her divine, his love eternal. In his view, it is quite improper and humiliating for Candida to have to attend to petty household chores. Morell believes Candida needs his care and protection. Candida must choose between the two gentlemen, she reasserts her preference for the "weaker of the two" who, after a momentary uncertainty, turns out to be her husband Morell.
The play was first performed at the Theatre Royal, South Shields on 30 March 1895. It was revived by the Independent Theatre Company, at Her Majesty's, Aberdeen on 30 July 1897, it was first performed in London at the Stage Society, The Strand, on 1 July 1900. However, it was not until late 1903, when Arnold Daly mounted a production in New York that the play became a success. Daly's production was followed by one in London; the first public performance in London was at the Royal Court. The play was so popular in 1904 that the phenomenon was referred to as "Candidamania". In the words of The New York Sun, A new complaint has become widespread, it may be described as'Candidamania.' It is a contagious disease caught in street cars, elevated trains, department stores and other places where people talk about what they did the night before.'Have you seen Candida?' is the question of the hour. Thousands are dragging their friends to see Mr. Shaw's play." Shaw himself adopted the term, as have writers. Shaw felt.
He wrote his short 1904 comedy How He Lied in part as a kind of reply to Candida. The play depicts a farcical version of the same situation. Shaw's friend Archibald Henderson described it as "the reductio ad absurdum of the Candidamaniacs". In Bernard Shaw and the Aesthetes, Elsie Bonita Adams has given this assessment of Marchbanks, comparing him to two real-life artists: Though Marchbanks has many of the external characteristics and some of the attitudes of the aesthete-artist such as Sholto Douglas or Adrian Herbert, he does not pay mere lip-service to art, his sensitivity is no pose, he tries to rid himself of illusions. Shaw himself describes Eugene's story-arc as a realization that Candida is not at all what he wants from life, that the kind of domestic love she could provide "is the creature of limitations which are far transcended in his own nature"; when Eugene departs into the night, it is not "the night of despair and darkness but the free air and holy starlight, so much more natural an atmosphere to him than this stuffy fireside warmth of mothers and sisters and wives and so on".
Eugene, according to Shaw, "is a god going back to his heaven, unspeakably contemptuous of the'happiness' he envied in the days of his blindness seeing that he has higher business on hand than Candida". For her part, Candida is "very immoral" and misreads Eugene's transformation over the course of the play. Katharine Cornell played the lead role on Broadway in five different productions, the last four of which were for her own production company, she was the actress most associated with this role, Shaw stated that because of her success, she had created "an ideal British Candida in my imagination" as she re-envisioned the role of Candida, making her the central character in the play. Candida herself was not conceived by directors or actresses as important as the issues and themes that Shaw was trying to convey; the first time she played the role in 1924, she was so acclaimed that The Actors' Guild, which controlled the production rights to the play in the United States, forbade any other actress from playing the role while Cornell was still alive.
In her final production of 1946, a young Marlon Brando played the role of Marchbanks. A version for Australian television aired in 1962. Reviewing the adaptation, Sydney Morning Herald was critical of the production style but praised the cast. A Court Theatre Company production starring JoBeth Williams and Tom Amandes was recorded by the L. A. Th
Chelsea is an affluent area of West London, bounded to the south by the River Thames. Its frontage runs from Chelsea Bridge along the Chelsea Embankment, Cheyne Walk, Lots Road and Chelsea Harbour, its eastern boundary was once defined by the River Westbourne, now in a pipe above Sloane Square Underground station. The modern eastern boundary is Chelsea Bridge Road and the lower half of Sloane Street, including Sloane Square. To the north and northwest, the area fades into Knightsbridge and Brompton, but it is considered that the area north of King's Road as far northwest as Fulham Road is part of Chelsea; the district is within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, although Chelsea gives its name to nearby locations, such as Chelsea Harbour in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, Chelsea Barracks in the City of Westminster. From 1900, until the creation of Greater London in 1965, it formed the Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea in the County of London; the exclusivity of Chelsea as a result of its high property prices has resulted in the term Sloane Ranger being used to describe its residents.
Since 2011, Channel 4 has broadcast a reality television show called Made in Chelsea, documenting the lives of affluent young people living there. Moreover, Chelsea is home to one of the largest communities of Americans living outside the United States, with 6.53% of Chelsea residents being born in the U. S; the word Chelsea originates from the Old English term for "landing place for chalk or limestone". Chelsea hosted the Synod of Chelsea in 787 AD; the first record of the Manor of Chelsea precedes the Domesday Book and records the fact that Thurstan, governor of the King's Palace during the reign of Edward the Confessor, gave the land to the Abbot and Convent of Westminster. Abbot Gervace subsequently assigned the manor to his mother, it passed into private ownership. By 1086 the Domesday Book records that Chelsea was in the hundred of Ossulstone in Middlesex, with Edward of Salisbury as tenant-in-chief. King Henry VIII acquired the manor of Chelsea from Lord Sandys in 1536. Two of King Henry's wives, Catherine Parr and Anne of Cleves, lived in the Manor House.
In 1609 James I established a theological college, "King James's College at Chelsey" on the site of the future Chelsea Royal Hospital, which Charles II founded in 1682. By 1694, Chelsea – always a popular location for the wealthy, once described as "a village of palaces" – had a population of 3,000. So, Chelsea remained rural and served London to the east as a market garden, a trade that continued until the 19th-century development boom which caused the final absorption of the district into the metropolis; the street crossing, known as Little Chelsea, Park Walk, linked Fulham Road to King's Road and continued to the Thames and local ferry down Lover's Lane, renamed "Milmans Street" in the 18th century. King's Road, named for Charles II, recalls the King's private road from St James's Palace to Fulham, maintained until the reign of George IV. One of the more important buildings in King's Road, the former Chelsea Town Hall, popularly known as "Chelsea Old Town hall" – a fine neo-classical building – contains important frescoes.
Part of the building contains the Chelsea Public Library. Opposite stands the former Odeon Cinema, now Habitat, with its iconic façade which carries high upon it a large sculptured medallion of the now almost-forgotten William Friese-Greene, who claimed to have invented celluloid film and cameras in the 1880s before any subsequent patents. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, "the better residential portion of Chelsea is the eastern, near Sloane Street and along the river; this is no longer the case, although Council property do remain. The areas to the west attract high prices; this former fashionable village was absorbed into London during the eighteenth century. Many notable people of 18th century London, such as the bookseller Andrew Millar, were both married and buried in the district; the memorials in the churchyard of Chelsea Old Church, near the river, illustrate much of the history of Chelsea. These include Lady Dacre; the intended tomb Sir Thomas More erected for himself and his wives can be found there, though More is not in fact buried here.
In 1718, the Raw Silk Company was established in Chelsea Park, with mulberry trees and a hothouse for raising silkworms. At its height in 1723, it supplied silk to Caroline of Ansbach Princess of Wales. Chelsea once had a reputation for the manufacture of Chelsea buns, made from a long strip of sweet dough coiled, with currants trapped between the layers, topped with sugar; the Chelsea Bun House was patronised by the Georgian royalty. At Easter, great crowds would assemble on the open spaces of the Five Fields – subsequently developed as Belgravia; the Bun House would do a great trade in hot cross buns and sold about quarter of a million on its final Good Friday in 1839. The area was famous for its "Chelsea China" ware, though the works, the Chelsea porcelain factory – thought to be the first workshop to make porcelain in England – were sold in 1769, moved to Derby. Examples of the original Chelsea ware fetch high values; the best-known building is Chelsea R