Guthega Power Station
Guthega Power Station is located in the Snowy Mountains region of New South Wales, Australia. The power stations purpose is for the generation of electricity, Guthega power station is located at the confluence of the Munyang River and the Snowy River, approximately 5.5 kilometres downstream of the Guthega Dam wall. It is a hydroelectric power station, situated above ground. The waters held in the reservoir behind Guthega dam pass through a concrete lined tunnel, the powerhouse is a concrete structure with a machine hall that is 51.46 metres long,17.83 metres wide, and 32.61 metres high. Approximately 6,880 cubic metres of concrete was used in its construction which commenced in November 1951 and was completed in April 1955, the power station has two Francis turbines each driving an English Electric generator. The power station includes foundations for a unit but this was never installed as there was insufficient water to make it worthwhile. The power station has a hydraulic head of 246.9 metres.
Each turbine runs at 428 rpm and water flows through it at the rate of 28.3 cubic metres per second, the total installed generating capacity is 60 megawatts of electricity yielding a net generation of 172 gigawatt-hours annually. The Guthega Power Station is the highest power station in Australia, New South Wales Snowy Mountains Scheme Snowy Hydro Limited
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Murray Hydroelectric Power Station
The Murray Region Hydroelectric Power Stations refers to two of seven hydroelectric power stations, both located near the town of Khancoban in the Snowy Mountains region of New South Wales, Australia. The two power stations are part of the Snowy Mountains Scheme, a vast hydroelectricity and irrigation complex constructed in south-east Australia between 1949 and 1974 and now run by Snowy Hydro. Although both power stations are located in New South Wales, since 1 July 2008 all power generated has been allocated to the Victorian region of the National Electricity Market. The stations are not located on the Murray River, Murray 1 Power Station is located 10 kilometres north of Khancoban along the Alpine Way. The power station was completed in 1967, and has 460.2 metres rated head, the station is capable of producing enough electricity to supply over 95,000 homes. Murray 1 will undergo a series of outages, from 2013 to 2022 inclusive, in order to complete maintenance on each turbine, a Snowy Hydro Visitor Centre is on site at Murray One.
Murray 2 Power Station is located approximately 5 kilometres southeast of Khancoban and this site was the first use of Japanese supply of large electrical and mechanical components in the Snowy Scheme. The power station was completed in 1969, and has 264.3 metres rated head, fed by the water discharged from Murray 1 Power Station into the Murray Two Pondage, Murray 2 Power Station discharges water into the Khancoban Pondage, and into the Swampy Plain River. Murray 2 will undergo a series of outages, during 2020 to 2022 inclusive, list of power stations in New South Wales
The dams purpose includes environmental flows, hydro-electric power generation and water supply. The impounded reservoir is called Lake Copeton, the dam was built by the New South Wales Water Conservation & Irrigation Commission and the Department of Water Resources to supply water for irrigation. The dam wall comprises 8,547 cubic metres of fill and is 113 metres high and is 1,484 metres long. The maximum water depth is 104 metres and at 100% capacity the dam holds back 1,364,000 megalitres of water at 572 metres AHD. The surface area of Lake Copeton is 4,620 hectares, the gate-controlled concrete chute spillway is capable of discharging 1,280,000 megalitres of water per day. Together with a series of weirs and regulatory works downstream from the dam. This amount is less than the 50,000 hectares originally planned because of higher rates of absorption and evaporation along some of the irrigation channels. Despite these overestimates irrigated agriculture in the Gwydir Valley saw the area become Australias major cotton producing region, in 2007, it was decided the dam would need an upgrade for safety reasons.
Once the fuse plug is installed the dam wall will be raised, unexpected erosion of hard, unweathered granite in the unlined spillway discharge channel was caused by rock failure under high in-situ compressive stress. This type of erosion due to high in-situ stress has not been reported elsewhere in the world, remedial works involved building a training wall to separate the original single spillway into a service spillway and a secondary spillway. The smaller, more frequent flood events will be discharged through the service spillway onto more scour resistant rock which has performed satisfactorily to date, the secondary spillway will operate very infrequently and will only discharge when the capacity of the service spillway is exceeded. A hydro-electric power station generates up to 21 megawatts of electricity from the flow of the water leaving Copeton Dam with an annual output of 54.3 gigawatt-hours. The station was completed in December 1996, the facility is managed by AGL Energy. Irrigation in Australia List of dams and reservoirs in Australia Gwydir River catchment, Copeton Dam Fishing Information & Map
Patrick Darcy Pat Hills AO was a New South Wales politician. He served in high offices across the state most notably the Deputy Premier of New South Wales, Leader of the Opposition. Hills was born in the Sydney suburb of Surry Hills and he was educated at Marist Brothers High School and was apprenticed as an electrical engineer. He was an alderman on Sydney City Council from 1948 to 1956 and Lord Mayor of Sydney from 1953 to 1956, when only in his thirties. Hills was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as the member for Phillip in 1954, representing the Australian Labor Party, until 1988, he served as member for Elizabeth. He was Minister for Local Government in the cabinet of Premier Robert Heffron, in opposition he served as Deputy Leader for three years and Leader for five years. One of his achievements was the building of the Eraring. He was responsible for the Hilton Hotel, which he rubber stamped, more importantly, he has been accused of sabotaging the 1948 Cumberland County Plan for Sydney, flogging the green belt out the back door before the ink was dry.
He served as a member of the Sydney Cricket Ground and Sports Ground Trust from July 1961 to December 1989, Hills died in Sydney and was cremated with his ashes interred at Northern Suburbs Memorial Gardens. Hills was appointed as an Officer of the Order of Australia in 1988, the suburb of Hillsdale, New South Wales is named after Hills
Electric power distribution
Electric power distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electric power, it carries electricity from the transmission system to individual consumers. Distribution substations connect to the system and lower the transmission voltage to medium voltage ranging between 2 kV and 35 kV with the use of transformers. Primary distribution lines carry this medium voltage power to distribution transformers located near the customers premises, Distribution transformers again lower the voltage to the utilization voltage of household appliances and typically feed several customers through secondary distribution lines at this voltage. Commercial and residential customers are connected to the distribution lines through service drops. Customers demanding a larger amount of power may be connected directly to the primary distribution level or the subtransmission level. Electric power distribution only became necessary in the 1880s when electricity started being generated at power stations, before that electricity was usually generated where it was used.
Both were supplanting gas lighting systems, with arc lighting taking over large area/street lighting, the Edison DC system needed thick copper conductor cables, and the generating plants needed to be within about 1.5 miles of the farthest customer to avoid excessively large and expensive conductors. With much cheaper transmission costs and the economies of scale of having large generating plants supply whole cities and regions. Edisons propaganda campaign was short lived with his company switching over to AC in 1892, in the first half of the 20th century, the electric power industry was vertically integrated, meaning that one company did generation, distribution and billing. Starting in the 1970s and 1980s, nations began the process of deregulation and privatisation, the distribution system would remain regulated, but generation and sometimes transmission systems were transformed into competitive markets. Electric power begins at a station, where the potential difference can be as high as 13,800 volts.
However, High-voltage DC can be advantageous for isolating alternating-current systems or controlling the quantity of electricity transmitted, for example, Hydro-Québec has a direct-current line which goes from the James Bay region to Boston. From the generating station it goes to the generating station’s switchyard where a step-up transformer increases the voltage to a suitable for transmission. Once in the system, electricity from each generating station is combined with electricity produced elsewhere. Electricity is consumed as soon as it is produced and it is transmitted at a very high speed, close to the speed of light. Transformers step down transmission voltages, 35kV or more, down to primary distribution voltages and these are medium voltage circuits, usually 600-35,000 V. From the transformer, power goes to the busbar that can split the power off in multiple directions. The bus distributes power to distribution lines, which fan out to customers, urban distribution is mainly underground, sometimes in common utility ducts
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower generated 16. 6% of the total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013, China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants, the average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt-hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be changed up or down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks.
In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical-, by the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics. The growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well, in 1878 the worlds first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong. It was used to power an arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No.1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30,1882, in Appleton, Wisconsin, by 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone, at the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas.
Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors, by 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law. The Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land, as the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority. Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century, Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its power and plenty. Hoover Dams initial 1,345 MW power station was the worlds largest hydroelectric station in 1936
Tumut Hydroelectric Power Station
Tumut Hydroelectric Power Station /ˈtjuːmət/ is a series of three hydroelectric power stations on the Tumut River in New South Wales, that are part of the Snowy Mountains Scheme. The generating assets of the three Tumut power stations are owned by Snowy Hydro Limited, a company whose shareholders include the governments of Australia, New South Wales, the company is licensed to manage the water rights used by the power stations. Located downstream of Tumut Pond Dam and 366 metres below ground level, the conventional hydroelectric power station has four turbine generators, with a generating capacity of 330 megawatts of electricity, and a net generation of 847 gigawatt-hours per annum. The power station was completed in 1959, and has 292.6 metres rated head, the first 330 kV transmission lines were commissioned in New South Wales at the Tumut 1 Power Station during the 1950s. These cables were manufactured in England and linked to the underground transformers at Tumut 1, the lines carried power to Sydney where new sub-stations were established, to handle the upgrade from 132 kV transmission lines.
This innovative plan, which faced significant scepticism initially, was considered to be at the forefront of technology which challenged designers, extra high voltage was in its infancy in the early 1950s. The lines were subject to a 1000 kV test on the prior to them going into service. These cables and the system have been in service for over 50 years. The original transformer at Tumut 1 weighed 81.2 tonnes, upper Tumut Power Station is sometimes used as a collective term to refer to both Tumut 1 and Tumut 2 Power Stations. Tumut 2 Power Station is located near Cabramurra, some 244 metres below ground level, the conventional hydroelectric power station has four Francis turbine generators, with a combined generating capacity of 286.4 megawatts and a net generation of 787 gigawatt-hours per annum. The power station was completed in 1962, and has 262.1 metres rated head, water flows through the turbines at the rate of 118.9 cubic metres per second. The conventional gravity-fed hydroelectric power station is fed by water held in Tumut Two Pondage, the station is connected to the National Electricity Market via the Cabramurra substation.
Tumut 3 Power Station is the first pumped storage power station in Australia. Pump-storage schemes use off-peak energy to water to a reservoir on a higher level. This water passes through turbines to generate electricity when prices are higher, the sole powerhouse is located above ground, below Talbingo Dam. The power station is fitted with six Toshiba turbines, each equipped with Melco-manufactured generators, has a generating capacity of 1,800 megawatts of electricity. Three of the six units can operate as pumps, the power station was completed in 1973, upgraded in 2012 and has 150.9 metres rated head. Water is carried in six pipelines, each 488 metres long and 5.6 metres in diameter, during 2003, Snowy Hydro commissioned six 140 kilowatts micro-hydro generators on the existing cooling water systems on each of the six generating units at Tumut 3 Power Station
John Armstrong (Australian politician)
John Ignatius Armstrong AC was an Australian politician and federal minister. Armstrong was born into a large Roman Catholic family in the Sydney suburb of Ultimo to William and Ellen Armstrong and he was educated at St Bedes School, and at the Marist Brothers High School, Darlinghurst. In 1934, he was elected as an alderman of Sydney Municipal Council and he married Joan Therese Josephine Curran in October 1945. As a result, Armstrong gave a speech in the Senate on 13 June which included the first public reference to Curtins health and he was appointed Minister for Munitions in Ben Chifleys November 1946 ministry. Following Labors defeat at the 1949 election, he became deputy-leader of the Opposition in the Senate and he was relegated to an unwinnable fourth position on Labors ticket for the 1961 election and left parliament in July 1962. Armstrong was elected Lord Mayor of Sydney in 1966, but the position was abolished by the Askin government in 1967, the Whitlam government appointed him Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 1973 to 1974.
In 1977, he was made a Companion of the Order of Australia and he died of a myocardial infarction in Batemans Bay, aged 68, survived by his wife, a son and four daughters. The Manner of Their Going, Australian Scholarly Publishing, Kew
Cogeneration or combined heat and power is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Trigeneration or combined cooling and power refers to the generation of electricity. Cogeneration is a more efficient use of fuel. All thermal power plants emit heat during electricity generation, which is discarded as waste heat into the environment through cooling towers, flue gas. This is called combined heat and power district heating, small CHP plants are an example of decentralized energy. By-product heat at moderate temperatures can be used in absorption refrigerators for cooling, at smaller scales a gas engine or diesel engine may be used. Trigeneration differs from cogeneration in that the heat is used for both heating and cooling, typically in an absorption refrigerator. CCHP systems can attain higher overall efficiencies than cogeneration or traditional power plants, in the United States, the application of trigeneration in buildings is called building cooling and power.
Heating and cooling output may operate concurrently or alternately depending on need, Cogeneration was practiced in some of the earliest installations of electrical generation. Before central stations distributed power, industries generating their own power used exhaust steam for process heating, large office and apartment buildings and stores commonly generated their own power and used waste steam for building heat. Due to the high cost of early purchased power, these CHP operations continued for years after utility electricity became available. Thermal power plants, and heat engines in general, do not convert all of their energy into electricity. In most heat engines, more than half is lost as excess heat, by capturing the excess heat, CHP uses heat that would be wasted in a conventional power plant, potentially reaching an efficiency of up to 80%. This means that less fuel needs to be consumed to produce the amount of useful energy. A typical power generation turbine in a mill may have extraction pressures of 160 psig and 60 psig. A typical back pressure may be 60 psig, in practice these pressures are custom designed for each facility.
The extracted or exhaust steam is used for heating, such as drying paper, evaporation. Steam at ordinary process heating conditions still has an amount of enthalpy that could be used for power generation
City of Sydney
The City of Sydney is the local government area covering the Sydney central business district and surrounding inner city suburbs of the greater metropolitan area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. On 6 February 2004, the local government area of the City of South Sydney was formally merged into the City of Sydney. The leader of the City of Sydney holds the title of the Lord Mayor of Sydney, the current Lord Mayor is Councillor Clover Moore who has been in office since 27 March 2004. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 1. 3% of the population, the median age of people in the City of Sydney was 32 years. Children aged 0 –14 years made up 7. 1% of the population and people aged 65 years, of people in the area aged 15 years and over,25. 5% were married and 10. 1% were either divorced or separated. Population growth in the City of Sydney between the 2001 Census and the 2006 Census was 3. 31%, and in the subsequent five years to the 2011 Census, population growth was 4. 57%. The median weekly income for residents within the City of Sydney was more than 1.5 times the national average.
The proportion of dwellings in the City of Sydney that are apartments or units is 73. 6%, the proportion of residents in the Sydney local government area that claimed Australian ancestry was approximately half the national average. ^a 1996 Census figures refer to the City of Sydney prior to its merger with the City of South Sydney, in 1972 the Council had prepared the City of Sydney Strategic Plan, only the second city to prepare a comprehensive assessment and plan of major issues for the future. With triennial reviews, this development of the City for twenty years. A1987 Liberal re-organisation saw Sydney Council split, with southern suburbs forming a new South Sydney Council and this was thought to advantage the Liberal government of the day, as the southern suburbs had traditionally voted Labor. In 2004, the Labor State Government undid this change, again merging the councils of the City of Sydney, critics claimed that this was performed with the intention of creating a super-council which would be under the control of Labor, which controlled the State Government.
Critics of the claimed that this was a result of a voter backlash against the party for attempting to create the super-council. The daily administration of the City of Sydney is performed by its General Manager, currently Monica Barone, Sydney City Council is composed of ten Councillors, including the Lord Mayor, for a fixed four-year term of office. The Lord Mayor is directly elected while the nine other Councillors are elected proportionally. On 26 January 1788, he named it after Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney, who was the secretary at the time. The City of Sydney was established on 20 July 1842 by the Corporation Act which encompasses present-day Woolloomooloo, Surry Hills and Pyrmont, there were six wards established by boundary posts. A boundary post still exists in front of Sydney Square, the boundaries of the City of Sydney have changed fairly regularly since 1900