The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre at Sydney Harbour in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is one of the 20th century's most distinctive buildings. Designed by Danish architect Jørn Utzon, but completed by an Australian architectural team headed up by Peter Hall, the building was formally opened on 20 October 1973 after a gestation beginning with Utzon's 1957 selection as winner of an international design competition; the Government of New South Wales, led by the premier, Joseph Cahill, authorised work to begin in 1958 with Utzon directing construction. The government's decision to build Utzon's design is overshadowed by circumstances that followed, including cost and scheduling overruns as well as the architect's ultimate resignation; the building and its surrounds occupy the whole of Bennelong Point on Sydney Harbour, between Sydney Cove and Farm Cove, adjacent to the Sydney central business district and the Royal Botanic Gardens, close by the Sydney Harbour Bridge.
The building comprises multiple performance venues, which together host well over 1,500 performances annually, attended by more than 1.2 million people. Performances are presented by numerous performing artists, including three resident companies: Opera Australia, the Sydney Theatre Company and the Sydney Symphony Orchestra; as one of the most popular visitor attractions in Australia, the site is visited by more than eight million people annually, 350,000 visitors take a guided tour of the building each year. The building is managed by the Sydney Opera House Trust, an agency of the New South Wales State Government. On 28 June 2007, the Sydney Opera House became a UNESCO World Heritage Site, having been listed on the Register of the National Estate since 1980, the National Trust of Australia register since 1983, the City of Sydney Heritage Inventory since 2000, the New South Wales State Heritage Register since 2003, the Australian National Heritage List since 2005. Furthermore, the Opera House was a finalist in the New7Wonders of the World campaign list.
The facility features a modern expressionist design, with a series of large precast concrete "shells", each composed of sections of a sphere of 75.2 metres radius, forming the roofs of the structure, set on a monumental podium. The building is 183 m long and 120 m wide at its widest point, it is supported on 588 concrete piers sunk as much as 25 m below sea level. The highest roof point is 67 metres above sea-level, the same height as that of a 22-storey building; the roof is made of 2,194 pre-cast concrete sections. Although the roof structures are referred to as "shells", they are precast concrete panels supported by precast concrete ribs, not shells in a structural sense. Though the shells appear uniformly white from a distance, they feature a subtle chevron pattern composed of 1,056,006 tiles in two colours: glossy white and matte cream; the tiles were manufactured by the Swedish company Höganäs AB which produced stoneware tiles for the paper-mill industry. Apart from the tile of the shells and the glass curtain walls of the foyer spaces, the building's exterior is clad with aggregate panels composed of pink granite quarried at Tarana.
Significant interior surface treatments include off-form concrete, Australian white birch plywood supplied from Wauchope in northern New South Wales, brush box glulam. Of the two larger spaces, the Concert Hall is in the western group of shells, the Joan Sutherland Theatre in the eastern group; the scale of the shells was chosen to reflect the internal height requirements, with low entrance spaces, rising over the seating areas up to the high stage towers. The smaller venues are beneath the Concert Hall. A smaller group of shells set to the western side of the Monumental Steps houses the Bennelong Restaurant; the podium is surrounded by substantial open public spaces, the large stone-paved forecourt area with the adjacent monumental steps is used as a performance space. The Sydney Opera House includes a number of performance venues: Concert Hall: With 2,679 seats, the home of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra and used by a large number of other concert presenters, it contains the Sydney Opera House Grand Organ, the largest mechanical tracker action organ in the world, with over 10,000 pipes.
Joan Sutherland Theatre: A proscenium theatre with 1,507 seats, the Sydney home of Opera Australia and The Australian Ballet. Until 17 October 2012 it was known as the Opera Theatre. Drama Theatre: A proscenium theatre with 544 seats, used by the Sydney Theatre Company and other dance and theatrical presenters. Playhouse: A non-proscenium end-stage theatre with 398 seats. Studio: A flexible space with 280 permanent seats and a maximum capacity of 400, depending on configuration. Utzon Room: A small multi-purpose venue for parties, corporate functions and small productions. Recording Studio Outdoor Forecourt: A flexible open-air venue with a wide range of configuration options, including the possibility of utilising the Monumental Steps as audience seating, used for a range of community events and major outdoor performances. Other areas are used for performances on an occasional basis. Venues are used for conferences and social functions; the building houses a recording studio, restaurants and retail outlets.
Guided tours are available, including a frequent tour of the front-of-house spaces, a daily backstage tour that takes visitors backs
Fishbone 101: Nuttasaurusmeg Fossil Fuelin' the Fonkay is a two-CD 1996 compilation album by the alternative/funk/rock band Fishbone. The first disc contains album tracks from the Fishbone albums up to 1993; the second disc contains B-sides, alternate versions, EP tracks and other non-album items from the same time period. "The Goose" is a unreleased cover of the song by the funk band Parliament. The unreleased demo track "Alcoholic" was rerecorded for the 1996 studio album Chim Chim's Badass Revenge; the unreleased demo track "Pink Vapor Stew" was reworked as "Party at Ground Zero" on the debut Fishbone and another demo recording "Game of Destruction" was reworked as "Pressure" on their third LP The Reality of My Surroundings. Angelo Moore - saxophone, vocals Walter A. Kibby II - trumpet, vocals Kendall Jones - guitar, vocals Chris Dowd - keyboards, vocals John Bigham - keyboards, vocals John Norwood Fisher - bass, vocals Philip "Fish" Fisher - drums Liner notes to Fishbone 101: Nuttasaurusmeg Fossil Fuelin' the Fonkay, 1996
Milford Tunnel in Derbyshire is a twin track railway tunnel on the Midland Main Line which runs under a hill called the Chevin between Duffield and Belper. It was built in 1840 by the Stephensons for the North Midland Railway; when finished, it was 855 yards long. The west side of the Derwent valley has a number of gritstone outcrops, one being Burley Hill to the south of Duffield, another being Castle Hill in Duffield itself; the valley here however was too narrow, occupied by the village of Milford from which the tunnel gets its name, one of Jedediah Strutt's cotton mills. The name Chevin has Celtic origins, but the hill is called Firestone Hill, for the spot on which the beacon fires were lighted to rouse the country when peril of invasion or other dangers were imminent. For some reason the North Midland built ornate portals at the northern ends of their tunnels, in this case a Saxon-inspired arch, while the southern ends were plain; the north portal was set into a surrounding area of random stonework, which has become overgrown.
It is expected that the effect of trimming back the vegetation as part of the electrification project will have the effect of restoring it to its former appearance. Both portals are grade 2 listed. At the summit of the hill there was built a substantial tower, which still exists, the purpose of, a matter for speculation, it has been thought that it was to check the alignment of the tunnel construction, was equipped with a rotating telescope. It has been pointed out that such a facility appeared with no other tunnel of the time and there is an alternative theory that it was concerned with supervising the passage of trains through the tunnel. In effect an early experiment with a form of block working, instead of the time interval system used; when the Midland Railway upgraded the line to four tracks south of the tunnel, a signal box was installed to control the junction of the goods and passenger lines providing warning distant signals at the north entrance. Pixton, B. North Midland: Portrait of a Famous Route, Cheltenham: Runpast Publishing Naylor,P.
An Illustrated History of Belper and its Environs Belper: M. G. Morris Map sources for Milford Tunnel