Burton Stephen Lancaster was an American actor and producer. Known for playing "tough guys", he went on to achieve success with more complex and challenging roles, he was nominated four times for Academy Awards, won once for his work in Elmer Gantry in 1960. He won a Golden Globe Award for that performance and BAFTA Awards for Birdman of Alcatraz and Atlantic City. During the 1950s his production company Hecht-Hill-Lancaster was successful, making films such as Trapeze, Sweet Smell of Success, Run Silent, Run Deep, Separate Tables; the American Film Institute ranks Lancaster as #19 of the greatest male stars of classic Hollywood cinema. Burton Stephen Lancaster was born on November 2, 1913, in Manhattan, New York, at his parents' home at 209 East 106th Street, the son of Elizabeth and mailman James Henry Lancaster. Both of his parents were Protestants of working-class origin. All four of his grandparents were British immigrants to the United States, from the province of Ulster. Lancaster grew up in East Harlem and spent much of his time on the streets, where he developed a great interest and skill in gymnastics while attending DeWitt Clinton High School, where he was a basketball star.
Before he graduated from DeWitt Clinton, his mother died of a cerebral hemorrhage. Lancaster was accepted by New York University with an athletic scholarship, but subsequently dropped out. At 19, Lancaster met Nick Cravat. Together they learned to act in local theatre productions and circus arts at Union Settlement, one of the city's oldest settlement houses, they formed the acrobat duo Lang and Cravat in the 1930s, soon joined the Kay Brothers circus. However, in 1939, an injury forced Lancaster to give up the profession, with great regret, he found temporary work, first as a salesman for Marshall Fields and as a singing waiter in various restaurants. With the United States having entered World War II, Lancaster joined the United States Army in 1942 and performed with the Army's 21st Special Services Division, one of the military groups organized to follow the troops on the ground and provide USO entertainment to keep up morale, he served with General Mark Clark's Fifth Army in Italy from 1943 to 1945.
Lancaster returned to New York after his Army service. Although unenthusiastic about acting, Lancaster was encouraged to audition for a Broadway play by a producer who saw him while he was visiting his then-girlfriend at work; the audition was successful and Lancaster was cast in Harry Brown's A Sound of Hunting. The show only ran three weeks, but his performance attracted the interest of a Hollywood agent, Harold Hecht. Lancaster had other offers but Hecht promised him the opportunity to produce their own movies within five years of hitting Hollywood. Through Hecht, Lancaster was brought to the attention of producer Hal B. Wallis, who signed him to a non-exclusive eight-movie contract. Lancaster's first filmed movie was Desert Fury for Wallis, where Lancaster was billed after John Hodiak and Lizabeth Scott, it was directed by Lewis Allen. Producer Mark Hellinger approached him to star in The Killers, completed and released prior to Desert Fury. Directed by Robert Siodmak it was a great critical success, launched Lancaster and his co-star Ava Gardner to stardom.
It has since come to be regarded as a classic. Hellinger used Lancaster again on Brute Force, a prison drama written by Richard Brooks and directed by Jules Dassin, it was well received. Wallis released his films through Paramount, so Lancaster and other Wallis contractees made cameos in Variety Girl. Lancaster's next film was for Wallis, I Walk Alone, a thriller co-starring Scott and a young Kirk Douglas, under contract to Wallis, it was a minor hit. Lancaster had a change of pace with the film adaptation of Arthur Miller's All My Sons, made at Universal with Edward G. Robinson, his third film for Wallis was an adaptation of Wrong Number with Barbara Stanwyck. Hecht kept to his promise to Lancaster to turn producer; the two of them formed a company, Norma Productions, did a deal with Universal to make a thriller in England, Kiss the Blood Off My Hands with Joan Fontaine and directed by Norman Foster. It was critically acclaimed. Back in Hollywood, Lancaster did another film noir with Criss Cross.
It was going to be produced by Hellinger and when Hellinger died another took over. Tony Curtis made an early appearance. Lancaster did a fourth for Rope of Sand. Norma Productions signed a three-picture deal with Warner Bros; the first was The Flame and the Arrow, a swasbuckler movie, in which Lancaster drew on his circus skills. Nick Cravat had a support role and the film was a huge commercial success, making of $6 million, it was Warners' most popular film of the year and established an new image for Lancaster. Lancaster was borrowed by a comedy with Edmund Gwenn. MGM put him in a popular Western, Vengeance Valley he went to Warners to pay the title role in the biopic Jim Thorpe -- All-American. Norma signed a deal with Columbia to make two films through Halburt; the first film was Ten Tall Men. Robert Aldrich worked on the movie as a production manager; the second was a comedy The First Time, a comedy, the directorial debut of Frank Tashlin. It was meant to star Lancaster but he wound up not appearing
History of the Jews in Russia
Jews in Russia have constituted a large religious diaspora. Within these territories the Ashkenazi Jewish communities of many different areas flourished and developed many of modern Judaism's most distinctive theological and cultural traditions, while facing periods of anti-Semitic discriminatory policies and persecutions; the largest group among Russian Jews are Ashkenazi Jews, but the community includes a significant proportion of other non-Ashkenazi Diasporan Jewish groups, such as Mountain Jews, Sephardic Jews, Crimean Karaites, Bukharan Jews, Georgian Jews. The presence of Jewish people in the European part of Russia can be traced to the 7th–14th centuries CE. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Jewish population in Kiev, in present-day Ukraine, was restricted to a separate quarter. Evidence of the presence of Jewish people in Muscovite Russia is first documented in the chronicles of 1471. During the reign of Catherine II in the 18th century, Jewish people were restricted to the Pale of Settlement within Russia, the territory where they could live or immigrate to.
Alexander III escalated anti-Jewish policies. Beginning in the 1880s, waves of anti-Jewish pogroms swept across different regions of the empire for several decades. More than two million Jews fled Russia between 1880 and 1920 to the United States and what is today the State of Israel; the Pale of Settlement took away many of the rights that the Jewish people of the late 17th century Russia were experiencing. At this time, the Jewish people were restricted to an area of what is current day Belarus, eastern Poland and Ukraine. Where Western Europe was experiencing emancipation at this time, the laws for the Jewish people were getting more strict; the general attitude towards Jewish people was to look down on the people. It was as a race, something that one could not escape if they tried; the Jewish people were allowed to move further east towards a less crowded population. This was a small change, did not come to all Jewish people, not a small minority of them. In this more spread out area, the Jewish people lived in communities, known as Schtetls.
These communities were similar to what would be known as ghettos in World War II, with the cramped and subpar living conditions. Before 1917 there were 300,000 Zionists in Russia, while the main Jewish socialist organization, the Bund, had 33,000 members. Only 958 Jews had joined the Bolshevik Party before 1917; the chaotic years of World War I, the February and October Revolutions, the Russian Civil War had created social disruption that led to anti-Semitism. Some 150,000 Jews were killed in the pogroms of 1918–1922, 125,000 of them in Ukraine, 25,000 in Belarus; the pogroms were perpetrated by anti-communist forces. After a short period of confusion, the Soviets started executing guilty individuals and disbanding the army units whose men had attacked Jews. Although pogroms were still perpetrated after this by Ukrainian units of the Red Army during its retreat from Poland, in general, the Jews regarded the Red Army as the only force, able and willing to defend them; the Russian Civil War pogroms shocked world Jewry and rallied many Jews to the Red Army and the Soviet regime, strengthened the desire for the creation of a homeland for the Jewish people.
In August 1919 the Soviet government arrested many rabbis, seized Jewish properties, including synagogues, dissolved many Jewish communities. The Jewish section of the Communist Party labeled the use of the Hebrew language "reactionary" and "elitist" and the teaching of Hebrew was banned. Zionists were persecuted harshly, with Jewish communists leading the attacks. Following the civil war, the new Bolshevik government's policies produced a flourishing of secular Jewish culture in Belarus and western Ukraine in the 1920s; the Soviet government outlawed all expressions of anti-Semitism, with the public use of the ethnic slur жид being punished by up to one year of imprisonment, tried to modernize the Jewish community by establishing 1,100 Yiddish-language schools, 40 Yiddish-language daily newspapers and by settling Jews on farms in Ukraine and Crimea. At the beginning of the 1930s, the Jews were 1.8 percent of the Soviet population but 12–15 percent of all university students. In 1934 the Soviet state established the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the Russian Far East, but the region never came to have a majority Jewish population.
Today, the JAO is Russia's only autonomous oblast and, outside of Israel, the world's only Jewish territory with an official status. The observance of the Sabbath was banned in 1929, foreshadowing the dissolution of the Communist Party's Yiddish-language Yevsektsia in 1930 and worse repression to come. Numerous Jews were victimized in Stalin's purges as "counterrevolutionaries" and "reactionary nationalists", although in the 1930s the Jews were underrepresented in the Gulag population; the share of Jews in the Soviet ruling elite declined during the 1930s, but was still more than double their proportion in the general Soviet population. According to Israeli historian Benjamin Pinkus, "We can say that the Jews in the Soviet Union took over the privileged position held by the Germans in tsarist Russia". In the 1930s, many Jews held high rank in the Red Army High Command: Generals Iona Yakir, Yan Gamarnik, Yakov Smushkevich and Grigori Shtern (Commander-in-Chief in the war against Japan
Havana is a 1990 American drama film starring Robert Redford, Lena Olin, Alan Arkin and Raúl Juliá, directed by Sydney Pollack with music by Dave Grusin. The film's plot concerns Jack Weil, an American professional gambler who decides to visit Havana, Cuba to gamble in 1958 on the eve of the Cuban Revolution; the film is set on the eve of the Cuban Revolution's victory. On Christmas Eve, 1958, aboard the boat from Miami to Havana, Roberta Duran enlists the aid of Jack Weil in smuggling U. S. Army Signal Corps radios destined for the revolutionaries in the hills. Weil agrees; when they rendezvous for the "payoff," Roberta reveals. In Havana, Weil meets up with a Cuban journalist acquaintance and during a night on the town, they run into Roberta and her husband, Dr. Arturo Duran. Duran is a Revolutionary leader; when Roberta points Weil out to him, Duran invites Weil to join them for dinner and asks Weil for further aid to the cause. Weil turns him down after Duran outlines the desperate situation confronting the Cuban majority.
The next morning, after a night of debauchery for Weil but one of police arrests for the revolutionaries, Weil reads a newspaper account of Duran's arrest and death. In shock, he continues with the planned poker game, coincidentally meeting the head of the secret police, he learns that Roberta was arrested and tortured in custody. He pressures another player in debt to him to obtain her release. Shaken by her husband's death and her own experience in jail, she agrees to let him shelter her in his apartment but disappears that afternoon. Realizing that he is in love with Roberta and encouraged by an old gambling friend, Weil drives into Cuba's interior to find her at Duran's old estate, he persuades her to leave Cuba with him. When she asks, he explains that a lump on his arm contains a diamond that he had sewn into his arm in his youth as insurance, he makes arrangements for her to leave Cuba via boat, but on his return to the apartment, he is assaulted by two Cubans, who inform him that Duran demands for him to get Roberta out of the country.
Weil has an acquaintance from Marion Chigwell, confirms that Duran is still alive. He intimidates Chigwell to work with him toward freeing Duran. Pretending to work for the CIA, Weil goes to see Duran, held by the chief of the secret police, he tells the chief that Washington, DC, has new plans for Duran and wants him released, with a payoff of $50,000. He "orders" the chief to have Duran cleaned up and dressed and taken to his house. Weil goes to a doctor and a jeweler to sell the diamond to raise the cash for Duran's release. Back at his apartment, he informs Roberta, who had decided to make a life with him, of her husband being still alive. In shock, she leaves on her own to find her husband. Meanwhile, Weil had blown the big game with high rollers, for whom he had been angling since the day he arrived in Havana; the casino's manager, Joe Volpi, forgives him. At New Year's Eve, 1959, the insurrection is won by the revolutionaries; the upper class, the government and the secret police all leave their lavish parties to make a mad dash to the ports and airport to leave the country.
The people pour into the streets, dancing. Weil and Volpi agree; the next morning, Weil is in a restaurant preparing to depart. He sees Chigwell who informs him that he is working on a new book now, "The Cuisine of Indochina." Not long after, Roberta shows up to wish him farewell. She discovers it had cost him to save her husband for her, they hug goodbye. She remains with the Revolution, he has been changed by it. Four years in 1963, Jack drives down to the Florida Keys and gazes across the sea toward Havana, hoping to see a boat that might bring Roberta on board, he knows. However, he does this every year in the hopes, he realizes that the changes in Cuba were being echoed in the changes of the 1960s happening in the United States. It is a new decade. Robert Redford as Jack Weil: A professional gambler, Jack used to be in the U. S. Navy and served in World War II's Pacific Theater, stating that he was at Pearl Harbor when it was bombed. Jack finds himself getting caught up in the Cuban Revolution. Lena Olin as Bobby Durán: Swedish by birth, Bobby moved to California to become an actress went to Mexico when her first husband got black listed.
When she came to Havana, she soon married Arturo Duran. Alan Arkin as Joe Volpi: Manager of a popular Havana casino, Joe works for infamous Jewish-American mobster Meyer Lansky. Joe is an old friend of Jack's. Raúl Juliá as Arturo Durán: A member of an old, wealthy family, Arturo is a figurehead in the Revolution but must keep his activities to a minimum in Havana. Tomás Milián as Menocal: A colonel in the secret police, Menocal answers to Batista and tries to keep Havana under control through abduction and murder. Menocal is against the Revolution because he believes no matter, in charge someone will always suffer. Daniel Davis as Marion Chigwell: A writer for Gourmet magazine, Marion is seen around Havana trying food at restaurants. Tony Plana as Julio Ramos: A friend of Jack's and a reporter, Julio is sympathetic to the Revolution. Betsy Brantley as Diane: An American tourist who meets Jack at a bar. Lise Cutter as Patty: Diane's friend. Richard Farnsworth as the Professor: An old gambler who gi
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i
Academy Award for Best Director
The Academy Award for Best Director is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of a film director who has exhibited outstanding directing while working in the film industry; the 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with the award being split into "Dramatic" and "Comedy" categories. However, these categories were merged for all subsequent ceremonies. Nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the directors branch of AMPAS. For the first eleven years of the Academy Awards, directors were allowed to be nominated for multiple films in the same year. However, after the nomination of Michael Curtiz for two films, Angels with Dirty Faces and Four Daughters, at the 11th Academy Awards, the rules were revised so that an individual could only be nominated for one film at each ceremony; that rule has since been amended, although the only director who has received multiple nominations in the same year was Steven Soderbergh for Erin Brockovich and Traffic in 2000, winning the award for the latter.
The Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture have been closely linked throughout their history. Of the 91 films that have been awarded Best Picture, 65 have been awarded Best Director. Since its inception, the award has been given to directing teams. John Ford has received the most awards in this category with four. William Wyler was nominated on twelve occasions, more than any other individual. Damien Chazelle became the youngest director in history to receive this award, at the age of 32 for his work on La La Land. Two directing teams have shared the award; the Coen brothers are the only siblings to have won the award. Kathryn Bigelow is the only woman to have won the award, for 2009's The Hurt Locker. Since the 82nd ceremony held in 2010, when the Best Picture category was no longer limited to 5 nominees, only Bennett Miller and Paweł Pawlikowski have been nominated for films not nominated for Best Picture; as of the 2019 ceremony, Alfonso Cuarón is the most recent winner in this category for his work on Roma.
In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, correspond to the year of film release in Los Angeles County, California. For the first five ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned twelve months from August 1 to July 31. For the 6th ceremony held in 1934, the eligibility period lasted from August 1, 1932, to December 31, 1933. Since the 7th ceremony held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31; as of the 91st Academy Awards, four Asian directors have been nominated a total of six times in this category, one has won the award two times. 1965 – Hiroshi Teshigahara for Woman in the Dunes 1985 – Akira Kurosawa for Ran 1999 – M. Night Shyamalan for The Sixth Sense † 2000 – Ang Lee for Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon † 2005 – Ang Lee for Brokeback Mountain † 2012 – Ang Lee for Life of Pi † As of the 91st Academy Awards, six black directors have been nominated a total of six times in this category, none have won the award.
1991 – John Singleton for Boyz n the Hood § 2009 – Lee Daniels for Precious † 2013 – Steve McQueen for 12 Years a Slave ‡ 2016 – Barry Jenkins for Moonlight ‡ 2017 – Jordan Peele for Get Out §† 2018 – Spike Lee for BlacKkKlansman † As of the 91st Academy Awards, five Latin American directors have been nominated a total of eight times in this category, three have won the award five times. 1985 – Héctor Babenco for Kiss of the Spider Woman † 2003 – Fernando Meirelles for City of God 2006 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for Babel † 2013 – Alfonso Cuarón for Gravity † 2014 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for Birdman ‡ 2015 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for The Revenant † 2017 – Guillermo del Toro for The Shape of Water ‡ 2018 – Alfonso Cuarón for Roma † As of the 91st Academy Awards, seven Oceanic directors have been nominated a total of eleven times in this category, one has won the award. 1942 – John Farrow for Wake Island † 1983 – Bruce Beresford for Tender Mercies † 1985 – Peter Weir for Witness † 1989 – Peter Weir for Dead Poets Society † 1993 – Jane Campion for The Piano † 1995 – Chris Noonan for Babe † 1998 – Peter Weir for The Truman Show 2001 – Peter Jackson for The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring † 2003 – Peter Jackson for The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King ‡ 2003 – Peter Weir for Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World † 2015 – George Miller for Mad Max: Fury Road † As of the 91st Academy Awards, five female directors have been nominated a total of five times in the category, one has won the award.
1976 – Lina Wertmüller for Seven Beauties 1993 – Jane Campion for The Piano † 2003 – Sofia Coppola for Lost in Translation † 2009 – Kathryn Bigelow for The Hurt Locker ‡ 2017 – Greta Gerwig for Lady Bird §† As of the 91st Academy Awards, twenty-five directors of non-English language films have been nominated a total of thirty times in this category, one has won the award. 1961 - Federico Fellini for La Dolce Vita, Italian 1962 - Pietro Germi for Divorce Italian Style, Italian 1963 - Federico Fellini for 8½, Italian 1964 - Michael Cacoyannis for Zorba the Greek, Greek 1965 -
The Slender Thread
The Slender Thread is a 1965 American drama film starring Anne Bancroft and Sidney Poitier. It was the first feature-length film directed by Academy Award-winning director and actor Sydney Pollack. Poitier portrays Alan, a college student, volunteering at Seattle's then-new Crisis Clinic, a crisis call center. Shortly after beginning his night shift, Alan receives a call from a woman named Inga who says she has just taken a lethal dose of pills and wants to talk to someone before she dies; the story line follows the efforts of Alan, a psychiatrist and a detective to locate Inga and her husband. Various flashback scenes depict the events; the film was inspired by a Life magazine article by Shana Alexander about actual events and shot on location in Seattle, Washington. The film offers an opening tracking shot of aerial Seattle circa 1965; this movie is noted for the physical tracing of the call to find Inga. Throughout the movie, the call is traced by hand through several electro-mechanical telephone central office switches which leads to the hotel where Inga was staying near the Seattle-Tacoma Airport.
Early one evening, psychology student Alan Newell rushes from the university to his shift as a volunteer telephone attendant at Seattle's then-new Crisis Clinic. As he drives along the highway, he doesn’t notice the car driving erratically in the opposite lane by a woman with whose path his will cross on; as Alan arrives at the clinic, Dr. Joe Coburn, on his way out, gives him his telephone number for use only in case of an emergency. Marian the secretary prepares coffee before leaving as well. Now alone, Alan is prepared for an uneventful evening as he prepares to study while manning the phones; the only call he receives is some ramblings from a drunken barber. Alan receives a call from a woman who claims she has ingested a large amount of barbiturates, intending to kill herself, wants to talk with someone before she dies. Realizing that she is serious, with the pretense of getting coffee, puts down the phone. On another line, he calls the phone company to trace the call and have the police bring Dr. Coburn back to the clinic.
Alan returns to his call with the woman. Dr. Coburn returns and the call is put on speaker. Marian returns as well to help, they are joined by a medical technician who monitors the woman’s progress as he listens in. At the same time, off-duty Detective Ridley joins the police as they search for the woman, whose name Alan learns is Inga. Through flashbacks, Inga begins to recall the events. Sometime earlier, Inga’s husband Mark, a commercial fisherman, inadvertently finds out that he is not the biological father of their twelve year old son Chris – something which Inga never had the nerve to tell Mark. Mark takes it hard. A fun night out and a suicide attempt by Inga on, does little for him to forgive her; as Alan continues to talk to Inga while being supervised by Dr. Coburn, the phone company traces the call using the technology of the day. Meanwhile, Ridley finds Inga's abandoned car; the call is traced to a hotel near the airport, where Ridley and the police search frantically for Inga. Back at the clinic and the team are relieved to hear the police entering the room and finding Inga still alive.
At that moment, away on an expedition, enters the clinic with the police. He thanks Alan for his help before being taken by the police to be with Inga at the hospital. Dr. Coburn leaves for the hospital along with the medical technician, leaving Alan and Marian at the clinic. Relieved and spent, Alan lets out a triumphant cheer before continuing with the rest of his shift. Sidney Poitier – Alan Newell Anne Bancroft – Inga Dyson Telly Savalas – Dr. Joe Coburn Steven Hill – Mark Dyson Edward Asner – Det. Judd Ridley Indus Arthur – Marian Paul Newlan – Sgt. Harry Ward Dabney Coleman – Charlie H. M. Wynant – Doctor Morris Robert F. Hoy – Patrolman Steve Peters Greg Jarvis – Christopher'Chris' Dyson Jason Wingreen – Medical technician Marjorie Nelson – Mrs. Thomas Steven Marlo – Arthur Foss The film was nominated for two Academy Awards: Best Art Direction-Set Decoration, Black-and-White Best Costume Design, Black-and White The film received indifferent reviews and did poor business at the box office upon release.
The film score was composed and conducted by Quincy Jones, the soundtrack album was released on the Mercury label in 1966. The Vinyl Factory said "at only 26 minutes this soundtrack may be short on time but not quality. All smooth jazz grooves and rollicking vibes and gorgeous orchestrations, it’s a nice summation of the talents Jones acquired as a jazz music student in Paris in the late 1950s". All compositions by Quincy Jones "Preludium" − 2:27 "Main Theme" − 2:02 "Threadbare" − 2:14 "Aftermath" − 2:43 "Fox's Sugar" − 3:27 "Funny Farm" − 1:31 "Theme for Inga" − 2:30 "Psychosis" − 3:06 "No Place to Go" − 3:08 "Big Sir" − 2:15 Unidentified orchestra arranged and conducted by Quincy Jones List of American films of 1965 The Slender Thread at The Internet Movie Database The Slender Thread at Rotten Tomatoes 1965 New York Times Review by A. H. WEILER
Paul Leonard Newman was an American actor, film director, race car driver, IndyCar owner and philanthropist. He won and was nominated for numerous awards, winning an Oscar for his performance in the 1986 film The Color of Money, a BAFTA Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, a Cannes Film Festival Award, an Emmy Award, many others. Newman's other roles include the title characters in The Hustler, Hud and Cool Hand Luke, as well as Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean, The Sting, Slap Shot, The Verdict, he voiced Doc Hudson in the first installment of Disney-Pixar's Cars as his final acting performance, with voice recordings being used in Cars 3. Newman won several national championships as a driver in Sports Car Club of America road racing, his race teams won several championships in open-wheel IndyCar racing, he was a co-founder of Newman's Own, a food company from which he donated all post-tax profits and royalties to charity. As of November 2018, these donations have totaled over US$535 million.
He was a co-founder of Safe Water Network, a nonprofit that develops sustainable drinking water solutions for those in need. In 1988, Newman founded the SeriousFun Children's Network, a global family of summer camps and programs for children with serious illness which has served 290,076 children since its inception. Newman was born in Shaker Heights, the second son of Theresa Garth and Arthur Sigmund Newman, Sr. who ran a sporting goods store. Paul's father was Jewish, the son of Simon Newman and Hannah Cohn, Hungarian-Jewish and Polish Jewish emigrants from Hungary and Vistula Land. Paul's mother was a practitioner of Christian Science, she was born to a Slovak Roman Catholic family in Peticse in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Newman had no religion as an adult, but described himself as a Jew, saying "it's more of a challenge". Newman's mother worked in his father's store, while raising Paul and his elder brother, who became a producer and production manager. Newman showed an early interest in the theater.
At age 10, Newman performed at the Cleveland Play House in a production of Saint George and the Dragon, was a notable actor and alumnus of their Curtain Pullers children's theatre program. Graduating from Shaker Heights High School in 1943, he attended Ohio University in Athens, where he was initiated into the Phi Kappa Tau fraternity. Newman served in the United States Navy in World War II in the Pacific theater, he enrolled in the Navy V-12 pilot training program at Yale University, but was dropped when his colorblindness was discovered. Boot camp followed, with training as rear gunner. Qualifying in torpedo bombers in 1944, Aviation Radioman Third Class Newman was sent to Barbers Point, Hawaii, he was subsequently assigned to Pacific-based replacement torpedo squadrons VT-98, VT-99, VT-100, responsible for training replacement combat pilots and air crewmen, with special emphasis on carrier landings. He flew as a turret gunner in an Avenger torpedo bomber; as a radioman-gunner, his unit was assigned to the aircraft carrier Bunker Hill along with other replacements shortly before the Battle of Okinawa in the spring of 1945.
The pilot of his aircraft had an ear infection. The rest of their squadron flew to Bunker Hill. Days a kamikaze attack on the vessel killed a number of service members, including the other members of his unit. After the war, Newman completed his Bachelor of Arts in drama and economics at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio in 1949. Shortly after earning his degree, he joined several summer stock companies, most notably the Belfry Players in Wisconsin and the Woodstock Players in Illinois, he developed his talents as a part of Woodstock Players. He attended the Yale School of Drama for one year, before moving to New York City to study under Lee Strasberg at the Actors Studio. Oscar Levant wrote that Newman was hesitant to leave New York for Hollywood, that Newman had said, "Too close to the cake. No place to study." Newman arrived in New York City in 1951 with his first wife, Jackie Witte, taking up residence in the St. George section of Staten Island, he made his Broadway theatre debut in the original production of William Inge's Picnic with Kim Stanley in 1953 and appeared in the original Broadway production of The Desperate Hours in 1955.
In 1959, he was in the original Broadway production of Sweet Bird of Youth with Geraldine Page and three years starred with Page in the film version. During this time Newman started acting in television, his first credited role was in a 1952 episode of Tales of Tomorrow entitled "Ice from Space". In the mid-1950s, he appeared twice on CBS's Appointment with Adventure anthology series. In February 1954, Newman appeared in a screen test with James Dean, directed by Gjon Mili, for East of Eden. Newman was tested for the role of Aron Trask, Dean for the role of Aron's fraternal twin brother Cal. Dean won his part; that same year, he co-starred with Eva Marie Saint and Frank Sinatra in a live—and color—television broadcast of Our Town, a musical adaptation of Thornton Wilder's stage play. Newman was a last-minute replacement for James Dean; the Dean connection had resonance two other times, as Newman was cast in two leading roles earmarked for Dean, as Billy the Kid in The Left Hand