4D film or 4-D film is a marketing term for an entertainment presentation system combining a 3D film with physical effects that occur in the theatre in synchronization with the film. Effects simulated in a 4D film may include rain, temperature changes, strobe lights, vibration. Seats in 4D venues may move a few centimeters during the presentations. Other common chair effects include air jets, water sprays, leg and back ticklers. Auditorium effects may include smoke, lightning and smell; because physical effects can be expensive to install, 4D films are most presented in custom-built theatres at special venues such as theme parks, amusement parks and zoos. However, some movie theatres have the ability to present 4D versions of wide-release 3D films; the films Journey to the Center of the Earth and Avatar are among the films that have received a 4D treatment in certain theatres. There are mobile 4D theaters, which are mounted inside vehicles such as enclosed trailers and trucks. 4D films are distinct from four-dimensional space.
Notable historical formats for providing different aspects of a "fourth dimension" to films include Sensurround, Smell-O-Vision. As of June 2015, about 530 screens worldwide have installed some 4-D technology; the precursors of the modern 4-D film presentation include Smell-O-Vision, used only once, in 1960, Sensurround, which debuted in 1974 with the film Earthquake. Only a few films were presented in Sensurround, it was supplanted by Dolby Stereo in 1977, which featured extended low frequencies, made subwoofers a common addition to cinema. Other notable efforts at pushing the boundaries of the film viewing experience include Fantasound, the first use of stereo sound and Cinerama, both widescreen formats utilizing multiple projectors; the 3-D film is always included in the 4-D experience. 3-D has been used in some form in film since 1915, but did not become seen until the 1950s. However, it was a niche format, was not successful. Beginning is the late 1980s, 3-D experienced a resurgence on the strength of IMAX presentations.
It has continued to expand, albeit slowly, to the present. The Sensorium is regarded the world's first commercial 4-D film and was first screened in a Six Flags theme park in Baltimore in 1984, it was produced in partnership with Landmark Entertainment. As of 2017, by far the most common 4-D titles are attraction films, are located in theme parks. However, there seems to be a trend toward the installation of 4-D equipment in more traditional cinemas, with developers such as 4DX, D-Box Technologies, Mediamation competing for venues; the following is a list of 4D presentation systems developed for traditional film theatres. High quality stereoscopic HFR 3D,4D,5D rides for cinema and attractions
Sea Life Sydney Aquarium
SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium contains a large variety of Australian aquatic life, displaying more than 700 species comprising more than 13,000 individual fish and other sea and water creatures from most of Australia's water habitats. Additionally, the aquarium features 14 themed zones including Jurassic Seas, Discovery Rockpool, Shark Walk, the world’s largest Great Barrier Reef display. Along the way, visitors encounter animals unique to each habitat, including one of only four dugongs on display in the world, stingrays and tropical fish, among others, it is a public aquarium located in the city of Australia. It is located on the eastern side of Darling Harbour to the north of the Pyrmont Bridge, it is a full institutional member of the Zoo and Aquarium Association and the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. The aquarium was designed by Australian architects to resemble a large wave, to complement the underwater theme of an aquarium and the maritime theme of Darling Harbour, took nearly two years to build.
The Great Barrier Reef complex which opened in October 1998 continues this same theme. The Sydney Aquarium was opened in 1988, during Australia's bicentenary celebrations, is one of the largest aquariums in the world, it is regarded as one of Sydney's premier tourist attractions with over 55% of its visitors each year coming from overseas. A crocodile exhibit was added in 2008. In December 1991, the first Seal Sanctuary was opened. Since Sydney Aquarium has upgraded the facilities and a new oceanarium to house seals opened in September 2003; the Seal Sanctuary features Australian sea lions, Australian fur seals, subantarctic fur seals, New Zealand fur seals. In this floating oceanarium, the seals can be seen below the water's surface from underwater viewing tunnels, from above on an open-air deck; the Seal Sanctuary is incorporated into the Southern Oceans exhibit, which features little penguins, the Open Ocean Oceanarium, Sydney Harbour displays. In October 1998, the Great Barrier Reef complex opened comprising a tropical touch pool, a live coral cave, coral atoll, two circular gateway displays and a massive Great Barrier Reef oceanarium.
Over 6,000 animals are housed in the oceanarium which contains 2.6 million litres of water pumped from Darling Harbour and heated before it flows into the Oceanarium and adjoining display tanks. The water is kept at a constant temperature of 25 °C; the Oceanarium is 33 metres long and 13 metres wide, with a total area of about 370 square metres and a water depth of 3.5 metres. The final exhibit is a reef theatre where activity in a coral canyon can be observed through a window 7 by 4 metres and 26 centimetres in thickness. In 2006, Wild Life Sydney opened next to Sydney Aquarium, owned by Merlin Entertainments. On 20 December 2007, the glass-bottomed boat, or Shark Explorer, began operating, giving guests a tour of the Great Barrier Reef tank. In 2008 the seal sanctuary was closed and the seals were sent to Sea World, Gold Coast, Australia; the seal sanctuary was renovated and reopened as Dugong Island in December 2008, with two dugongs and Pig, transferred there from the Gold Coast in 2008. Wuru died in 2018.
The remaining dugong, Pig, is the only captive dugong in Australia. Dugong Island has above-water viewing areas as well as underwater viewing tunnels. Other animals kept in the oceanarium include a shark ray, shovelnose rays, zebra sharks, eagle rays and dozens of different species of fish. In March 2012, SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium's owners, Merlin Entertainments, announced that they would be spending $10 million on the refurbishment of the facilities; as part of the process, the aquarium was rebranded as a Sea Life Centre and was relaunched on 24 September 2012. The SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium is split into the following exhibit areas and highlights: Jurassic Seas Shark Walk Shark Valley Dugong Island Dugong exhibit Southern Ocean Little penguins habitat Sydney Harbour Open Ocean Oceanarium Northern Ocean Great Barrier Reef OceanariumThe SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium has distinctly Australian themes and exhibits, which take visitors through the continent's waterways and marine ecosystems. Exhibits cover the rivers of Australia, exploring the Southern and Northern River habitats, as well as the oceans of Australia, through the Southern and Northern Ocean habitats.
The complex and fragile nature of Australia's different and unique aquatic environments is emphasised. Some of the displays are housed in the main exhibit hall and others are housed in floating oceanariums. Dugong Island and Shark Valley comprise two massive oceanariums, amongst the largest in the world, have underwater tunnels allowing visitors to examine marine life at close quarters. In the Shark Valley Oceanarium, SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium houses a large collection of sharks including Lemon Sharks and Grey Nurse Sharks; some of the sharks are over 3 metres in length. The SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium has provided facilities and/or assistance have been provided to research institutions including the University of Sydney, the University of New South Wales, the La Trobe University, Indiana University, the Australian Museum, the Queensland National Parks and Wildlife Service and the New South Wales Fisheries Research Institute. SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium and its conservation charity SEA LIFE Trust has assisted by providing holding facilities for animals used in many research projects carried out by these organisations.
In recent years, the aquarium has been involved in the tagging of sea turtles and sharks, collections for research and the holding of invertebra
Sky Tower (Auckland)
The Sky Tower is a telecommunications and observation tower in Auckland, New Zealand. Located at the corner of Victoria and Federal Streets within the city's CBD, it is 328 metres tall, as measured from ground level to the top of the mast, making it the tallest freestanding structure in the Southern Hemisphere and the 25th tallest tower in the world, it has become an iconic landmark in Auckland's skyline unique design. The tower is part of the SkyCity Auckland casino complex built in 1994–1997 for Harrah's Entertainment. Several upper levels are accessible to the public; the Sky Tower has several upper levels that are accessible to the public: Level 50: Sky Lounge Level 51: Main Observation Deck Level 52: Orbit 360° Dining Level 53: The Sugar Club restaurant, SkyWalk and SkyJump Level 60: Sky DeckThe upper portion of the tower contains two restaurants and a cafe—including New Zealand's only revolving restaurant, located 190 m from the ground, which turns 360 degrees every hour. There is a brasserie-style buffet located one floor above the main observatory level.
It has three observation decks at different heights, each providing 360-degree views of the city. The main observation level at 186 m has 38 mm thick glass sections of flooring giving a view straight to the ground; the top observation deck labeled "Skydeck" sits just below the main antenna at 220 m and gives views of up to 82 km in the distance. The tower features the "SkyJump", a 192-metre jump from the observation deck, during which a jumper can reach up to 85 km/h; the jump is guide-cable-controlled to prevent jumpers from colliding with the tower in case of wind gusts. Climbs into the antenna mast portion are possible for tour groups, as is a walk around the exterior; the tower is used for telecommunications and broadcasting with the Auckland Peering Exchange being located on Level 48. The aerial at the top of the tower hosts the largest FM combiner in the world which combines with 58 wireless microwave links located above the top restaurant to provide a number of services; these include television, wireless internet, RT, weather measurement services.
The tower is Auckland's primary FM radio transmitter, is one of four infill terrestrial television transmitters in Auckland, serving areas not covered by the main transmitter at Waiatarua in the Waitakere Ranges. A total of twenty-three FM radio stations and six digital terrestrial television multiplexes broadcast from the tower. Two VHF analogue television channels broadcasting from the tower were switched off in the early hours of Sunday 1 December 2013 as part of New Zealand's digital television transition. H = Horizontal V = Vertical The following table contains television and radio frequencies operating from the Sky Tower: Fletcher Construction was the contracted builder for the project while engineering firm Beca Group provided the design management and coordination, geotechnical, mechanical, plumbing and fire engineering services. Harrison Grierson provided surveying services, it was designed by Gordon Moller of Craig Craig Moller architects and has received a New Zealand Institute of Architects National Award as well as regional awards.
The Project Architect was Les Dykstra. Taking two years and nine months to construct, the tower was opened on 3 August 1997; the tower is constructed of high-performance reinforced concrete. Its 12-metre diameter shaft is supported on eight "legs" based on 16 foundation piles drilled over 12 m deep into the local sandstone; the main shaft was built using climbing formwork. The upper levels were constructed from composite materials, structural steel, precast concrete and reinforced concrete, the observation decks clad in aluminium with blue/green reflective glass. A structural steel framework supports the upper mast structure. During construction 15,000 cubic metres of concrete, 2,000 tonnes of reinforcing steel, 660 tonnes of structural steel were used; the mast weighs over 170 tonnes. It had to be lifted into place using a crane attached to the structure, as it would have been too heavy for a helicopter to lift. To remove the crane, another crane had to be constructed attached to the upper part of the Sky Tower structure, which dismantled the big crane, was in turn dismantled into pieces small enough to fit into the elevator.
The tower is designed to withstand wind in excess of 200 km/h and designed to sway up to 1 metre in excessively high winds. As a safety precaution the Sky Tower’s lifts have special technology installed to detect movement and will automatically slow down. If the building sway exceeds predetermined safety levels the lifts will return to the ground floor and remain there until the high winds and building sway have abated; the Sky Tower is built to withstand an 8.0 magnitude earthquake located within a 20-kilometre radius. There are three fireproof rooms on levels 44, 45, 46 to provide refuge in the event of an emergency, while the central service lift shaft and stairwells are fire-safety rated. SkyCity Auckland lights the Sky Tower to show support for a range of charities. Common lighting events include: The top half of the Sky Tower is lit by energy efficient LED lighting which replaced the original metal halide floodlights in May 2009; the LEDs can produce millions of different colour combinations controlled by a computer system.
The original lights used 66 per cent more energy than the current LED
Empire State Building
The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon and completed in 1931, the building has a roof height of 1,250 feet and stands a total of 1,454 feet tall, including its antenna, its name is derived from "Empire State", the nickname of New York, of unknown origin. As of 2019 the building is the 5th-tallest completed skyscraper in the United States and the 28th-tallest in the world, it is the 6th-tallest freestanding structure in the Americas. The Empire State Building stood as the world's tallest building for nearly 40 years until the completion of the World Trade Center's North Tower in Lower Manhattan in late 1970. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, it was again the tallest building in New York until the new One World Trade Center was completed in April 2012; the site of the Empire State Building, located in Midtown South on the west side of Fifth Avenue between West 33rd and 34th Streets, was part of an early 18th-century farm.
It was purchased by the Astor family, who built the Waldorf–Astoria Hotel on the site in the 1890s. The hotel remained in operation until the late 1920s, when it was sold to the Bethlehem Engineering Corporation to Empire State Inc. a business venture that included famous businessman and former General Motors executive, John J. Raskob, members of the du Pont family, former New York governor Al Smith; the original design of the Empire State Building was for a 50-story office building. However, after fifteen revisions, the final design was for an 86-story 1,250-foot building, with an airship mast on top; this ensured it would be the world's tallest building, beating the Chrysler Building and 40 Wall Street, two other Manhattan skyscrapers under construction at the time that were vying for that distinction. Demolition of the Waldorf–Astoria began in October 1929, the foundation of the Empire State Building was excavated before demolition was complete. Construction on the building itself started on March 17, 1930, with an average construction rate of four and a half floors per week.
A well-coordinated schedule meant that the 86 stories were topped out on September 19. Despite the publicity surrounding the building's construction, its owners failed to make a profit until the early 1950s. However, since its opening, the building's Art Deco architecture and open-air observation deck has made it a popular tourist attraction, with around 4 million visitors from around the world visiting the building's 86th and 102nd floor observatories every year. Since the mid-2010s, the Empire State Building has been undergoing improvements to improve access to its observation decks; the building stands within a mile of other major Midtown tourist attractions including Grand Central Terminal, Pennsylvania Station, Madison Square Garden and Macy's Herald Square. The Empire State Building is an American cultural icon and has been featured in more than 250 TV shows and movies since the film King Kong was released in 1933. A symbol of New York City, the tower has been named as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
The Empire State Building and its ground-floor interior have been designated as a city landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, were confirmed as such by the New York City Board of Estimate. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986, was ranked number one on the American Institute of Architects' List of America's Favorite Architecture in 2007; the Empire State Building is located on the west side of Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, between 33rd and 34th Streets. Tenants enter the building through the Art Deco lobby located at 350 Fifth Avenue. Since August 2018, visitors to the Empire State Building Observatory use an entrance at 20 West 34th Street, replacing the previous Observatory entrance inside the Fifth Avenue lobby. Although physically located in South Midtown, a mixed residential and commercial area, the building is so large that it was assigned its own ZIP Code, 10118; the areas surrounding the Empire State Building are home to other major Manhattan landmarks as well, including Macy's at Herald Square on Sixth Avenue and 34th Street, Koreatown on 32nd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues, Penn Station and Madison Square Garden on Seventh Avenue between 32nd and 34th Streets, the Flower District on 28th Street between Sixth and Seventh Avenues.
The nearest New York City Subway stations are 34th Street–Penn Station at Seventh Avenue, two blocks west. There is a PATH station at 33rd Street and Sixth Avenue. To the east of the Empire State Building is Murray Hill, a neighborhood with a mix of residential and entertainment activity. One block east of the Empire State Building, on Madison Avenue at 34th Street, is the New York Public Library's Science and Business Library, located on the same block as the City University of New York's Graduate Center. Bryant Park and the New York Public Library Main Branch are located six blocks north of the Empire State Building, on the block bounded by Fifth Avenue, Sixth Avenue, 40th Street, 42nd Street. Grand Central Terminal is located two blocks east of the library's Main Branch, at Park Avenue and 42nd Street; the tract was part of Mary and John Murray's farm on Murray Hill. The earliest recorded major action on the site was during the American Revolutionary War, when General George Washington'
A movie theater, cinema, or cinema hall known as a picture house or the pictures, is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films for entertainment. Most, but not all, theaters are commercial operations catering to the general public, who attend by purchasing a ticket; some movie theaters, are operated by non-profit organizations or societies that charge members a membership fee to view films. The film is projected with a movie projector onto a large projection screen at the front of the auditorium while the dialogue and music are played through a number of wall-mounted speakers. Since the 1970s, subwoofers have been used for low-pitched sounds. In the 2010s, most movie theaters are equipped for digital cinema projection, removing the need to create and transport a physical film print on a heavy reel. A great variety of films are shown at cinemas, ranging from animated films to blockbusters to documentaries; the smallest movie theaters have a single viewing room with a single screen.
In the 2010s, most movie theaters have multiple screens. The largest theater complexes, which are called multiplexes—a design developed in the US in the 1960s—have up to thirty screens; the audience members sit on padded seats, which in most theaters are set on a sloped floor, with the highest part at the rear of the theater. Movie theaters sell soft drinks and candy, some theaters sell hot fast food. In some jurisdictions, movie theaters can be licensed to sell alcoholic drinks. A movie theater may be referred to as a movie theatre, movie house, film house, film theater or picture house. In the US, theater has long been the preferred spelling, while in the UK, Australia and elsewhere it is theatre. However, some US theaters opt to use the British spelling in their own names, a practice supported by the National Association of Theatre Owners, while apart from North America most English-speaking countries use the term cinema, alternatively spelled and pronounced kinema; the latter terms, as well as their derivative adjectives "cinematic" and "kinematic" derive from Greek κινῆμα, κινήματος —"movement", "motion".
In the countries where those terms are used, the word "theatre" is reserved for live performance venues. Colloquial expressions applied to motion pictures and motion picture theaters collectively, include the silver screen and the big screen. Specific to North American term is the movies, while specific terms in the UK are the pictures, the flicks and for the facility itself the flea pit. A screening room is a small theater a private one, such as for the use of those involved in the production of motion pictures or in a large private residence; the etymology of the term "movie theater" involves the term "movie", a "shortened form of moving picture in the cinematographic sense", first used in 1896 and "theater", which originated in the "...late 14c. "open air place in ancient times for viewing spectacles and plays". The term "theater" comes from the Old French word "theatre", from the 12th century and "...directly from Latin theatrum'play-house, theater. The use of the word "theatre" to mean a "building where plays are shown" dates from the 1570s in the English language.
The earliest precursors to movies were magic lantern shows. Magic lanterns used a glass lens, a shutter and a powerful lamp to project images from glass slides onto a white wall or screen; these slides were hand-painted. The invention of the Argand lamp in the 1790s, limelight in the 1820s and the intensely bright electric arc lamp in the 1860s increased the brightness of the images; the magic lantern could project rudimentary moving images, achieved by the use of various types of mechanical slides. Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. Still photographs were used on after the widespread availability of photography technologies after the mid-19th century.
Magic lantern shows were given at fairs or as part of magic shows. A magic lantern show at the 1851 World's Fair caused a sensation among the audience; the next significant step towards movies was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828, when Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "persistence of vision". Roget showed that when a series of still images are shown in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement, an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device which spun a disk with an image on its surface at a high rate of speed. The French Lumière brothers' first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. From 1894 to the late 1920s, movie theaters showed silent films, which were films with no synchronized recorded sound or dialogue.
Finding Nemo is a 2003 American computer-animated adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. Written and directed by Andrew Stanton with co-direction by Lee Unkrich, the film stars the voices of Albert Brooks, Ellen DeGeneres, Alexander Gould, Willem Dafoe, it tells the story of the overprotective ocellaris clownfish named Marlin who, along with a regal blue tang named Dory, searches for his abducted son Nemo all the way to Sydney Harbour. Along the way, Marlin comes to terms with Nemo taking care of himself. Finding Nemo was released on May 30, 2003. Finding Nemo became the highest-grossing animated film at the time and was the second-highest-grossing film of 2003, earning a total of $871 million worldwide by the end of its initial theatrical run; the film is the best-selling DVD title of all time, with over 40 million copies sold as of 2006, was the highest-grossing G-rated film of all time before Pixar's own Toy Story 3 overtook it. The film was re-released in 3D in 2012.
In 2008, the American Film Institute named it the 10th greatest animated film made as part of their 10 Top 10 lists. In a 2016 poll of international critics conducted by BBC, Finding Nemo was voted one of the 100 greatest motion pictures since 2000. A sequel, Finding Dory, was released on June 2016 in the United States. Nemo is a young and cheerful clownfish who lives with his father, Marlin in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia and is destined to explore life around the ocean, but Marlin appears to be too overprotective of him, due to a barracuda attack on his wife and his clutch of eggs. On the first day of school, Marlin embarrasses Nemo during a field trip; when Marlin talks to the teacher, Mr. Ray, Nemo sneaks away from the reef and is captured by a scuba diver, who puts him on a boat. Marlin meets Dory, a blue tang who suffers from short term memory loss; the pair encounter three sharks named Bruce and Chum. While at their meeting, Marlin sees the diver's mask that fell from the boat that took Nemo and sees strange writing on it.
However and Dory fight over the mask, giving Dory a nose bleed. The blood sends Bruce into a feeding frenzy, attacks Marlin and Dory, who narrowly escape. Meanwhile, Nemo is placed in an aquarium in a dentist's office, where he meets the Tank Gang, including yellow tang Bubbles, sea star Peach, cleaner shrimp Jacques, blowfish Bloat, royal gramma Gurgle, blue and white humbug Deb, led by Gill, a Moorish idol; that night, Nemo learns he is to be given to the dentist's niece, who has killed previous fish given to her, including a goldfish named Chuckles. Gill devises a plan to escape by having a random fish in the aquarium jam the aquarium's filter with a pebble so the dentist will have to put the fish into plastic bags while the tank gets cleaned roll out the window and into the harbor. Nemo volunteers to do it, Gill lets him do it. Nemo attempts to jam the filter but fails, everybody saves him; the mask falls into a trench in the deep sea, where Dory reads the address as "P. Sherman, 42 Wallaby Way, Sydney".
She remembers it despite her short term memory loss. Dory and Marlin receive directions from a school of moonfish, they are supposed to swim through a trench, but they end swimming over it, where they encounter a forest of jellyfish that stings them, but they remain okay. Marlin and Dory find themselves on the East Australian Current and have a good time with Crush, a green sea turtle, his son and all the turtles there. Marlin tells the story of his journey to the turtles. News of his quest spreads across the ocean. A pelican named Nigel flies to the dentist's office and brings news of Marlin's efforts to find Nemo, who makes another attempt to jam the filter, succeeds get the aquarium covered in green algae. Marlin and Dory are engulfed by a blue whale. Dory communicates with the whale, who carries them to Sydney Harbor and expels them through his blowhole. There, they meet Nigel the pelican, who help the pair escape from a group of seagulls and takes them to the dentist's office. Meanwhile, the dentist has installed a new high-tech filter and the Tank Gang fail to escape.
Darla arrives, the dentist hands Nemo to her. Nemo plays dead to save himself as Nigel arrives, terrifying Darla and throwing the office into chaos. After the dentist throws Nigel out, Gill helps Nemo escape into a drain. Thinking that Nemo is dead, Marlin goes home, causing her to forget. However, she meets Nemo when he has lost her memory. Dory's memory returns, she is caught in a net with a school of grouper. Nemo enters the net and orders the fish to swim down in order to break the net and they escape. After returning home to the reef and Dory watch Mr Ray take Nemo and his friends on a field trip. Meanwhile, the dentist's new filter breaks down, the Tank Gang escape unnoticed into Sydney Harbour; the inspiration for Nemo sprang from multiple experiences, going back to director Andrew Stanton's childhood, when he loved going to the dentist to see the fish tank, assuming that the fish were from the ocean and wanted to go home. In 1992, shortly after his son was born, he and his family took a trip to Six Flags Discovery Kingdom.
There, after seeing the shark tube and various exhibits, he felt that the underwater world could be done beautifully in computer animation. In 1997, he took his son for a walk in the park, but realized