In snooker, a century break is a score of 100 points or more within one visit at the table without missing a shot and requires potting at least 25 consecutive balls. The ability to score century breaks is regarded as a mark of the highest skill in snooker, while the first career century has been described by Ronnie O'Sullivan as the "ultimate milestone for any snooker player". Over 20,000 century breaks have been recorded by snooker players throughout professional tournaments. In 2014, Neil Robertson became the first person to have scored over 100 century frames throughout a single season, a threshold that only some 60 other players had surpassed throughout their entire careers. Ronnie O'Sullivan holds the record for the most career centuries with more than 1000 century breaks. A century break is a score of 100 points or more within one visit at the table, without missing a shot; the player does this by potting red balls and coloured balls alternately, where the coloured balls are repositioned on their starting locations.
After repositioning the coloured ball paired to the last red on the table, the six coloured balls are potted in order of their increasing value. Because a break is defined as series of consecutive pots by a player during a single frame, scoring 100 points over the course of a whole frame does not constitute a century break, as it must be done on a single turn at the table. Points for a foul shot by the opponent do not count in a player's break. Under normal circumstances, the highest possible century in snooker is 147, composed of 15 reds, 15 blacks and the six remaining colours. If for example only the least-valued colour would be used instead of the black ball, the break value would only be 72 points; this means that only a single century break is possible in a frame of snooker under a limited number of combinations, but it requires the potting of at least 25 consecutive balls. To score one, there must be at least ten reds on the table when the player comes to play since if there are only nine reds left, only 99 points may be scored.
An exception exists if the opponent fouls and leaves the incoming player snookered on all the remaining reds. In such a situation, the player can nominate one of the other colours as a red, known as a "free ball", which carries the same value as a red for just that shot, therefore, a century break is still possible with only nine reds left. Breaks above 147 are possible when an opponent fouls and leaves a free ball with all fifteen reds still remaining on the table, creating a situation identical to as if there were 16 red balls on the table; this has happened only once in professional competition, when Jamie Burnett made a 148 at the qualifying stage of the 2004 UK Championship. A "century of centuries" refers to a total of 100 breaks of at least 100 points each. Only 15 players had reached this milestone in professional snooker tournaments by December 2001. With an increase in the occurrence of centuries in the past decades, another 27 players achieved this landmark by October 2011, by the end of the 2013/2014 season the total number of players reaching this threshold had grown to 52.
Only Neil Robertson has achieved one hundred centuries in a single season, during 2013/2014. By the end of the 2018 English Open 66 players had reached 100 century breaks; the following players are reported to have passed 100 breaks and at least the given threshold above this. Joe Davis compiled the first televised century break in 1962; the record for most century breaks scored in official tournament play is held by Ronnie O'Sullivan with 1000 centuries. The record was held by Stephen Hendry who compiled 775 centuries over the course of his career; the first player to record 1,000 centuries in public performance is Horace Lindrum. The first player—and so far only—to record 1,000 centuries in professional competition is Ronnie O'Sullivan, a feat he achieved at the 2019 Players Championship on 10 March 2019. Stacey Hillyard became the first female to record a competitive century in January 1985; the quickest recorded century break in tournament play was by Tony Drago at 1996 UK Championship, taking 3 minutes 31 seconds to score a hundred points.
The youngest player to record a century break is Michael White at the age of nine in March 2001. The first player to reach 50 centuries in a season was Hendry, with 53 century breaks from the 1994/1995 season. Hendry achieved another 51 centuries during the 1995/1996 season, while O'Sullivan came close with 48 in the 2006/2007 season, but it was not until the 2010/2011 season when the record was broken by Mark Selby with 54 centuries, again by Selby with 55 century breaks in the 2011/2012 season. Judd Trump took the record with 61 centuries in the 2012/2013 season and the record was broken for the fourth successive season in 2013/2014 when Neil Robertson overtook Trump's tally; the first player to reach the'century of centuries' mark during a single season is Neil Robertson in the 2013/2014 season on 30 April 2014 during his quarter final match against Judd Trump at the 2014 World Championship. In total, Robertson compiled 103 century breaks throughout the season; the most centuries made by a player in a single match during a professional tournament is seven and the record is shared by Stephen Hendry and Ding Junhui.
Hendry set the record during the final of the 1994 UK Championship. During this match, Hendry compiled six cent
Michael White (snooker player)
Michael White is a Welsh professional snooker player from Neath. At the age of nine he became the youngest player to have made a century break in competitive play and he was the world amateur champion by 14. White won his first ranking event title at the 2015 Indian Open. White first showed potential by becoming the youngest player to make a century break: a 105 in March 2001, when aged nine. In 2001, he was invited to the Crucible, where John Parrott commented:'I hope I've retired before I have to play him!' He won a number of junior and amateur events, in 2006 became the youngest winner of the IBSF World Grand Prix, winning it aged 14. He won the European under-19 Championship, beating Vincent Muldoon in the final, he turned professional for the 2007/2008 season, but he was not allowed to play in the first ranking event of the season, the 2007 Shanghai Masters as it fell short of his 16th birthday which allowed his opponent Lee Walker a walkover. Shaun Murphy had been allowed to play aged 15.
In his first professional match, the Masters qualifying, he shocked Leicester player Tom Ford 4–0, however he lost to eventual champion Barry Hawkins 5–2 in the following round. His first season on the Main Tour was unsuccessful, winning only four matches in the seven ranking events. In his first ranking tournament, the Grand Prix, he finished last in his group, beating Tony Drago but losing his other 6 matches, his most successful run was beating Shailesh Jogia 10–4 in the first round of the World Championship qualifiers, but he lost 10–4 to Barry Pinches in the next. These results meant, he regained a place on the Main Tour for the 2009/2010 Season by finishing top of the Welsh rankings. In the qualifiers for the 2009 Shanghai Masters he beat former world champion John Parrott 5–0 before losing 5–3 to Mark Davis, his best run during the season was to the last 48 of the UK Championship, with victories over Daniel Wells, Jin Long and Jamie Burnett before losing 9–4 to Liang Wenbo. This meant, he started the new season by winning three qualifying matches in the 2010 Shanghai Masters, including a 5–1 win over Dominic Dale, before losing to Peter Ebdon by the same scoreline.
He won two matches, before losing in the third qualifying round on two further occasions during the season. At the minor-ranking Euro PTC Event 3 White beat the likes of Tom Ford and Marco Fu to reach the quarter-finals, where he lost 2–4 to Andrew Higginson, he went on to finish 51st on 71st in the world rankings. White narrowly missed out on a place in the 2012 Players Tour Championship Finals as he finished 25th on the Order of Merit, with only 24 players qualifying for the event, his placing was thanks to a semi-final run in Event 7, where his hopes of a first professional title were ended by Ronnie O'Sullivan, who won 4–2. Though he could not qualify for a ranking event throughout the season he ended it at a career high world ranking of 54, meaning he had risen 12 places during the year. White began the 2012/2013 season by winning three matches to qualify for the Wuxi Classic and two matches to qualify for the International Championship but lost in the wildcard once at the venues in China in both, to Zhou Yuelong 4–5 and Lü Haotian 5–6 respectively.
White beat Craig Steadman and Ken Doherty to qualify for the UK Championship, the first time he had made it into the first round of a ranking event. In his first domestic televised match in a ranking event, White played world number two Mark Selby and recovered from 0–2 down to level at 3–3 before succumbing to a 3–6 defeat, with White stating afterwards that he would be back for more, he kept true to his word by beating Zhang Anda 10–5 and Andrew Higginson 10–4 to qualify for the first round of the biggest tournament in snooker, the World Championship. He beat compatriot and two-time winner of the event Mark Williams in the opening round 10–6, with Williams admitting he had been outplayed in every department of the game, he beat fellow qualifier Dechawat Poomjaeng 13–3 in the last 16 and faced Ricky Walden in his first ranking event quarter-final, losing 6–13. White increased his ranking to world number 34, a climb of 20 spots during the season, the most of any player on tour. White had an consistent 2013/2014 season as he played in the first round of 10 of the 12 ranking events.
In the inaugural Indian Open he beat Zhang Anda and Gary Wilson to reach his second career quarter-final. He lost the last three frames against Stephen Maguire to be defeated 4–3. White reached the second round in four more ranking events during the rest of the season but was beaten on each occasion. At the World Championship, White was a qualifier and faced world number three Mark Selby in the first round. White recovered from 5–1, 8–4, 9–8 behind to take the match to a deciding 19th frame, which he lost, he finished inside the top 32 in the rankings for the first time in his career as the world number 27. In the first round of the Shanghai Masters, White came from 3–0 down against Neil Robertson to win 5–4 and went on to defeat Ryan Day 5–2 to make the quarter-finals. White made another comeback to force a deciding frame this time from 4–1 behind, but Mark Allen won it. Another quarter-final followed at the International Championship where Allen was again the victor as he won 6–3, after White had been 3–1 up.
In March 2015, White had a phenomenal run of form. He won his first professional title at the Shoot-Out, the tournament where each match is decided by one 10-minute fram
Marcus Campbell is a Scottish former professional snooker player. He was ranked within the world's top 64 for 15 consecutive seasons, he is most famous for whitewashing Stephen Hendry 9–0 in the 1998 Liverpool Victoria UK Championship, one of the most surprising results in snooker's history. He followed this win with a 9–6 win over Quinten Hann in the last 32, he started the 2007/2008 season by reaching the last 16 of the Grand Prix, coming through the qualifiers and beating players like Graeme Dott and Anthony Hamilton before his run ended in a 5–2 defeat to Joe Swail. He reached the last 32 of the Welsh Open where he beat Lee Spick, Ricky Walden and Gerard Greene and gave Ding Junhui a run for his money before Ding won 5–4, he qualified for the 2008 Bahrain Championship before scoring a 147 in his wildcard match against Ahmed Basheer Al-Khusaibi. He lost to eventual champion Neil Robertson in the last 32, he qualified for the 2010 World Championship, where he lost 10–5 to Mark Williams. Campbell won the first professional tournament of his career in Germany when he won Event 3 of the Euro Players Tour Championship beating Liang Wenbo 4–0 in the final.
This result along with other consistent performances were enough to see him enter the top 32 in the rankings. He qualified for the world championship for the second successive year, where he played Shaun Murphy, he subsequently lost 10–1 to Murphy. In the 2011/2012 season Campbell qualified for six of the eight ranking events, his best results of the season were last 16 exits at the Australian Goldfields Open, where he lost 1–5 to Mark Allen, at the World Open, thanks to Ali Carter withdrawing from the event, before being defeated by Graeme Dott 3–5. He played former champion Matthew Stevens in the first round of the UK Championship, despite the death of a close friend just a few hours before. Stevens won the match 6–2. Campbell played in all 12 of the PTC events, making two quarter-finals in Event 1 and Event 3, to finish 30th in the Order of Merit, just out of the top 24 who made the Finals. Campbell played Liang Wenbo in the final qualifying round for the World Championship and produced two comebacks in the match having trailed 2–8 and 5–9 to level at 9–9, before the match was delayed to let the evening session's order of play begin.
Liang had time to compose himself and won the decider to end Campbell's season, which he finished ranked world number 25. The 2012/2013 season began well for Campbell as he qualified for the Wuxi Classic, where he reached the first ranking event semi-final of his 21-year professional career, he dispatched Fergal O'Brien and Mark Williams to play Ricky Walden in the semis. He lost the match 1–6 and stated afterwards that he "didn't feel comfortable at all" and put it down to nerves. However, he felt that winning a ranking tournament was now within his reach, he qualified for four of the next seven ranking events, but lost in the first round on each occasion. He had his best run of the season since Wuxi at the China Open where he overcame Peter Ebdon 5–3 and Graeme Dott 5–4 to make the quarter-finals. There, Campbell lost 2–5 to Neil Robertson. Campbell qualified for the World Championship with a 10–4 victory against Liam Highfield and played defending champion Ronnie O'Sullivan in the first round, who had taken a year away from snooker since lifting the title 12 months previously.
Campbell missed opportunities in the first session to finish it 2–7 behind and went on to lose 4–10. Campbell was ranked world number 28 at the end of the season. Campbell lost in the first round to local favourites in the first two ranking events he qualified for in the 2013/2014 season. In the Australian Goldfields Open it was Neil Robertson who eliminated him 5–1 and at the Indian Open he lost 4–1 to Pankaj Advani. At the UK Championship Campbell saw off Lü Haotian and Michael White, but was beaten 6–2 by Ronnie O'Sullivan. Campbell could not advance beyond the first round in any of the remaining ranking events and suffered a surprise 10–4 defeat to Alex Borg in World Championship qualifying, a player who had until only won three matches all season. Campbell was thrashed 5–0 by Ricky Walden in the first round of the Australian Goldfields Open; this proved to be his only last 32 showing in any event this season and, after he failed to progress past the last 32 of either of the two Q School events, he dropped off the tour as he was the world number 68, just outside the top 64 who remain.
He has not played in an event since. "Official player profile of Marcus Campbell". Worldsnooker.com. World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association. "Tour Players" section. Marcus Campbell at CueTracker: Snooker Results & Statistics Database Profile on Global Snooker Profile on Yahoo! Sport Video of 147 break from 2008
Matthew Selt is an English professional snooker player from Romford and now living in Atherstone, North Warwickshire and playing out of the Atack Snooker Centre in Nuneaton. He qualified for the professional tour by finishing seventh on the Pontin's International Open Series in 2006/2007. Selt played in his first professional final in 2014 at the minor-ranking Lisbon Open, which he lost to Stephen Maguire, has reached five quarter-finals in full ranking events. Selt won his first ranking title, he made an important breakthrough at the start of the 2009/2010 season by reaching the last 32 of the Shanghai Masters by winning four qualifying matches, ending with a 5–4 victory over Steve Davis. There he faced John Higgins, losing 5–2, he impressed at the Grand Prix, by recovering from 0–4 against Jordan Brown to win 5–4 and going on to beat Jimmy White, Stuart Pettman and Fergal O'Brien to reach the final stages of a tournament for the second time in succession. There he was drawn against Stephen Hendry who beat him 5–2.
Selt began the 2011/2012 season ranked 43rd meaning he would have to win two qualifying matches to reach the ranking event main draws. He did this at the first ranking event of the season: the Australian Goldfields Open by beating Adrian Gunnell and Ricky Walden. In the last 32 he played reigning world champion John Higgins and pulled off the biggest result of his career to date by overcoming a deficit of 1–4, to triumph 5–4 and win a televised match for the first time, he beat Stephen Hendry 5–1 to earn himself his first ranking event quarter-final, where he lost 3–5 to Shaun Murphy. Selt qualified for the main draw of the UK Championship for the first time in 2011 by defeating Mark King 6–4 in the final round of qualifying, his reward was a tie against former world champion Graeme Dott, who beat him 6–1. He failed to qualify for any of the remaining ranking events and finished the season ranked world number 44. At the start of the 2012/2013 season Selt reached the quarter-finals of the Australian Goldfields Open for the second consecutive season.
He beat Thepchaiya Un-Nooh and Jamie Jones in qualifying and once in Australia he came back from 0–2 and 3–4 down to knock out the defending champion Stuart Bingham 5–4. He defeated Ryan Day 5–3, before losing to Barry Hawkins by the same scoreline in the quarters. Selt struggled after this as he couldn't qualify for eight successive ranking events and only won three matches all year in the eight minor-ranking Players Tour Championship events he entered to finish a lowly 104th on the Order of Merit, he rediscovered his form in World Championship Qualifying by seeing off Thanawat Thirapongpaiboon 10–8 to be just one match away from reaching the opening round of the tournament for the first time. Selt played 1997 champion Ken Doherty and at 9–4 ahead he looked to be heading to the Crucible with ease. However, Doherty came back to trail 7–9, when Selt lost the next frame from a position of 55–0 ahead all the momentum was with the Irishman; the match went into a deciding frame with Selt again building a 55–0 lead and this time hanging on to seal his place in the first round, where he met world number one Mark Selby, losing 4–10.
He ended the campaign where he started it, ranked world number 44. Selt failed to qualify for the opening four ranking events of the 2013/2014 season, but whitewashed Chris Norbury 6–0 to reach the first round of the International Championship, where he lost 6–3 to Martin Gould, his best result by far in the minor-ranking European Tour events came at the final tournament, the Gdynia Open as he whitewashed three opponents 4–0 and beat Judd Trump 4–1 in a televised quarter-final, before losing by the same scoreline to Shaun Murphy in the semis. After the event, Selt stated that he had been neglecting his game for the last two years by practising two or three hours and that he believed his ranking of 50 would be 20 or 30 places higher if he had played to his true ability, he finished 32nd seven places outside of qualifying for the Finals. His deepest run in a ranking event this season came after this at the China Open when he beat Ryan Day 5–2, before losing 5–2 to Ali Carter in the last 32. Selt progressed through to the semi-finals of the Haining Open.
His first win at the venue stage of a full ranking event this season came courtesy of a 6–0 whitewash over Hammad Miah at the UK Championship. Selt knocked out Xiao Guodong and Rory McLeod both 6–4 to face Ronnie O'Sullivan in the fourth round. O'Sullivan made a 147 in the final frame as he won 6–0, with Selt saying afterwards that despite having numerous chances throughout the match he never settled. Selt responded in his next event by winning four matches to reach the quarter-finals of the Lisbon Open and defeated Judd Trump 4–1 and Barry Hawkins 4–2 to play in his first final in a minor-ranking event, he took the opening frame against Stephen Maguire, but went on to lose 4–2. His first quarter-final in a ranking event this season came at the PTC Grand Final after he eliminated Oliver Lines 4–1 and Chris Wakelin 4–2 and he led Mark Williams 3–1, but could not reach the first semi-final of his career as Williams would knock him out in a final frame decider. Selt's season looked to be ending in disappointment as he trailed Jimmy White 7–2 in the second round of World Championship qualifying.
However, he took eight of the nine frames upon the resumption of play and won in the final round 10–8 against Tom Ford. In the first round Selt lost another opening session 7–2 this time against Barry Hawkins, he went on to be 9–4 behind but won five frames in a row which included back-to-back centuries and a 94 break. He couldn't win his first match at the Crucibl
Allister Carter is an English professional snooker player. He has twice been the World Championship runner-up, losing both times to Ronnie O'Sullivan, in 2008 and 2012, he has won four ranking titles and been as high as second in the world rankings. His nickname, "The Captain", comes from piloting aeroplanes, he lives in Chelmsford. Carter turned professional in 1996, he first emerged in 1999, winning the WPBSA Association Young Player of the Year award after winning the Benson and Hedges Championship in 1999 – this earned him a wild card place in the Masters. He reached the semi-finals of the 1999 Grand Prix, it was eight years before he reached the 2007 Malta Cup. He was close to the elite top 16 for three successive seasons ranking as 17, 19, 19 through 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 before reaching it in the 2006/07 season and remaining there in 2008, he reached the last 16 of the World Championship in 2005, after scoring the first 10–0 victory in the event since 1993 against 1993 semi-finalist James Wattana in qualifying.
At the 2007 World Championship he beat Andy Hicks in the first round, 10–4, before beating World No. 1 and seven-time champion Stephen Hendry 13–6 to reach his first World Championship quarter-final and guarantee a place in the Top-16. Carter now has a 5–4 record against Hendry. Carter has at times missed out on opportunities from winning positions, an extreme example being in the first round of the 2007 UK Championship, when Carter led Barry Hawkins 8–3 before Hawkins won the next six frames to win 9–8. However, Carter got his own back on Hawkins during the 2008 World Championship by beating him 10–9 in a'controversial' finale. Hawkins had levelled the match to 9–9, when the players were pulled out of the arena to allow the evening matches to begin, they returned after one of the evening's two matches had been completed – on a table they had not played on. Hawkins felt this break interrupted his momentum, he followed this by defeating two former champions in succession. In the semi-final on 4 May 2008 he beat Joe Perry 17–15 to book a place against Ronnie O'Sullivan in the final.
Carter lost the final 18–8. Carter scored his first 147 break on 29 April at the 2008 World Championship, one day after Ronnie O'Sullivan had made one in the same tournament; this made Carter the sixth man to achieve this feat at the Crucible, the first to have done so without winning a tournament. It is the first time. Carter soon showed signs of carrying this form forward in subsequent events, he won his second non-ranking tournament, the Huangshan Cup in China, with a 5–3 win over the reigning Grand Prix champion Marco Fu. In the 2008/09 season Carter reached the semi-final stage on three separate occasions, he progressed to the semi-finals of the 2008/09 season's first ranking event, the 2008 Northern Ireland Trophy before losing 5–6 to O'Sullivan having led 5–4. He reached the same stage of the Grand Prix, defeating veterans Steve Davis and John Parrott before losing to Ryan Day, again 5–6 The third occasion was the UK Championship where wins over Peter Ebdon and Mark Williams were followed by a close 9–7 defeat to the man he was victorious against in the Huangshan Cup final in China, Marco Fu.
After thirteen years as a professional, Carter defeated the likes of Jimmy White, Graeme Dott, Shaun Murphy, Anthony Hamilton, Joe Swail to win his first ranking tournament – the 2009 Welsh Open. Carter made a slow start to the 2009/2010 season, losing 0–5 to Liang Wenbo in the last 16 of the Shanghai Masters and losing in the first round at the Grand Prix, before reaching the quarter-finals of the UK Championship; as the defending champion at the Welsh Open he progressed to the final but was beaten by John Higgins, the reigning world champion at the time. He finished the season by reaching the semi-finals at the China Open and the World Championship, losing in the latter to eventual champion, Neil Robertson, by 12–17. Of the six ranking tournaments that were staged during the 2009/2010 season, Carter's campaigns were ended by the eventual champion on four occasions, on another by the runner-up. Carter finished the season by moving up to a career high position of 4th in the world rankings. Carter won the 2010 Shanghai Masters.
Carter had to recover from 1–4 down in the quarter-final to defeat Matthew Stevens 5–4, Stevens missing the final black off its spot in the deciding frame. He won six frames in a row from 0–2 down to beat Mark Selby 6–2, edged past qualifier Jamie Burnett 10–7 in the final; the following events were not successful for Ali Carter, as he was eliminated in the last 32 of the World Open by Mark Williams 1–3, he suffered an early exit against the young talent Mark Joyce in the first round of the UK Championship by 6–9 and lost his first round match of the 2011 Masters against Peter Ebdon by 5–6. Carter's 2011/2012 season got off to a poor start as he exited the first two ranking events of the year, the Australian Goldfields Open and the Shanghai Masters, in the first round. At the UK Championships he defeated Robert Milkins, but lost 6–2 to Mark Allen in the last 16. After the match Carter stated on Twitter: "I'm going to retire at the end of the season! And I can't wait!" and that he was "dead serious" about the threat.
On he admitted the comments were made "in the heat of the m
2015 German Masters
The 2015 Kreativ Dental German Masters professional ranking snooker tournament took place between 4–8 February 2015 at the Tempodrom in Berlin, Germany. It was the sixth ranking event of the 2014/2015 season. Judd Trump made the 113th official maximum break during his quarter-final match against Mark Selby. Ding Junhui was the defending champion, but he lost 4–5 against Ryan Day in the last 32. Selby won his fifth ranking title by defeating Shaun Murphy 9–7 in the final; the breakdown of prize money for this year is shown below: These matches were held between 17 and 19 December 2014 at the Robin Park Arena and Tennis Centre in Wigan, England. All matches. 147, 104, 102 Judd Trump 145, 141, 130, 118 Shaun Murphy 134, 134, 117 Ronnie O'Sullivan 133 Peter Ebdon 132 Ryan Day 126 Mark Selby 119, 107 Stephen Maguire 112 Alfie Burden 111 Neil Robertson 110 Mark Davis 106, 103 Liang Wenbo 106 Mark King 103 Matthew Selt 100 Mark Allen Media related to German Masters 2015 at Wikimedia Commons
The pound sterling known as the pound and less referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have currencies called the pound. Sterling is the third most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those two currencies and the Chinese yuan, it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights. Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves; the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man produce their own local issues of sterling which are considered equivalent to UK sterling in their respective regions. The pound sterling is used in Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England. The full official name pound sterling, is used in formal contexts and when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is used; the currency name is sometimes abbreviated to just sterling in the wholesale financial markets, but not when referring to specific amounts. The abbreviations "ster." and "stg." are sometimes used. The term "British pound" is sometimes incorrectly used in less formal contexts, it is not an official name of the currency; the exchange rate of the pound sterling against the US dollar is referred to as "cable" in the wholesale foreign exchange markets. The origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the GBP/USD exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex traders of GBP/USD are sometimes referred to as "cable dealers". GBP/USD is now the only currency pair with its own name in the foreign exchange markets, after IEP/USD, known as "wire" in the forward FX markets, no longer exists after the Irish Pound was replaced by the euro in 1999.
There is apparent convergence of opinion regarding the origin of the term "pound sterling", toward its derivation from the name of a small Norman silver coin, away from its association with Easterlings or other etymologies. Hence, the Oxford English Dictionary state that the "most plausible" etymology is derivation from the Old English steorra for "star" with the added diminutive suffix "-ling", to mean "little star" and to refer to a silver penny of the English Normans; as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived: However, the perceived narrow window of the issuance of this coin, the fact that coin designs changed in the period in question, led Philip Grierson to reject this in favour of a more complex theory. Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings".
In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle. Because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the "Easterlings", contracted to "'sterling". For further discussion of the etymology of "sterling", see sterling silver; the currency sign for the pound is £, written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. This symbol derives from medieval Latin documents; the ISO 4217 currency code is GBP, formed from "GB", the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the United Kingdom, the first letter of "pound". It does not stand for "Great Britain Pound" or "Great British Pound"; the abbreviation "UKP" is used but this is non-standard because the ISO 3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes: GGP, JEP and IMP. Stocks are traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices.
A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, singular and plural, except in the common phrase "quids in!". The term may have come via Italian immigrants from "scudo", the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.