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Sylt

Sylt is an island in northern Germany, part of Nordfriesland district, Schleswig-Holstein, well known for the distinctive shape of its shoreline. It is the largest island in North Frisia; the northernmost island of Germany, it is known for its tourist resorts, notably Westerland and Wenningstedt-Braderup, as well as for its 40-kilometre-long sandy beach. It is covered by the media in connection with its exposed situation in the North Sea and its ongoing loss of land during storm tides. Since 1927, Sylt has been connected to the mainland by the Hindenburgdamm causeway. In latter years, it has been a resort for the German jet set and tourists in search of occasional celebrity sightings. With 99.14 square kilometres, Sylt is the fourth-largest German island and the largest German island in the North Sea. Sylt is located from 9 to 16 kilometres off the mainland, to which it is connected by the Hindenburgdamm. Southeast of Sylt are the islands of Föhr and Amrum, to the north lies the Danish island of Rømø.

The island of Sylt extends for 38 kilometres in a north-south direction. At its northern point at Königshafen, it is only 320 metres wide, its greatest width, from the town of Westerland in the west to the eastern Nössespitze near Morsum, measures 12.6 kilometres. On the western and northwestern shore, there is a 40-kilometre-long sandy beach. To the east of Sylt, is the Wadden Sea, which belongs to the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park and falls dry during low tide; the island's shape has shifted over time, a process, still ongoing today. The northern and southern spits of Sylt are made up of infertile sand deposits, while the central part with the municipalities of Westerland, Wenningstedt-Braderup and Sylt-Ost consists of a geestland core, which becomes apparent in the form of the Red Cliff of Wenningstedt; the geestland facing the Wadden Sea turns into fertile marshland around Sylt-Ost. Sylt has only been an island since the Grote Mandrenke flood of 1362; the so-called Uwe-Düne is the island's highest elevation with 52.5 metres above sea level.

The island in its current form has only existed for about 400 years. Like the mainland geestland, it was formed of moraines from the older ice ages, thus being made up of a till core, now apparent in the island's west and centre by the cliff and beach; this sandy core began to erode as it was exposed to a strong current along the island's steep basement when the sea level rose 8000 years ago. During the process, sediments were accumulated south of the island; the west coast, situated 10 kilometres off today's shore, was thus moved eastward, while at the same time the island began to extend to the north and south. After the ice ages, marshland began to form around this geestland core. In 1141, Sylt is recorded as an island, yet before the Grote Mandrenke flood it belonged to a landscape cut by tidal creeks and, at least during low tide, it could be reached on foot, it is only since this flood that the creation of a spit from sediments began to form the current characteristic shape of Sylt. It is the northern and southern edges of Sylt which were, still are, the subject of greatest change.

For example, Listland was separated from the rest of the island in the 14th century and from the 17th century onwards the Königshafen began to silt up as the "elbow" spit began to form. In addition to the constant loss of land, the inhabitants during the Little Ice Age were constrained by sand drift. Dunes shifting to the east threatened settlements and arable land and had to be stopped by the planting of marram grass in the 18th century. Though, material breaking off the island was washed away and the island's extent continued to decrease. Records of the annual land loss exist since 1870. According to them, Sylt lost an annual 0.4 metres of land in the north and 0.7 metres in the south from 1870 to 1951. From 1951 to 1984, the rate increased to 0.9 metres and 1.4 metres while shorelines at the island's edges at Hörnum and List are more affected. Severe storm surges of the last decades have endangered Sylt to the point of breaking in two, e.g. Hörnum was temporarily cut off from the island in 1962.

Part of the island near Rantum, only 500 m wide is threatened. Measures of protection against the continuous erosion date back to the early 19th century when groynes of wooden poles were constructed; those were built at right angles into the sea from the coast line. They were replaced by metal and by armoured concrete groynes; the constructions did not have the desired effect of stopping the erosion caused by crossways currents. "Leeward erosion", i.e. erosion on the downwind side of the groynes prevented sustainable accumulation of sand. In the 1960s breaking the power of the sea was attempted by installing tetrapods along the groyne bases or by putting them into the sea like groynes; the four-armed structures, built in France and many tons in weight, were too heavy for Sylt's beaches and were unable to prevent erosion. Therefore, they were removed from the Hörnum west beach in 2005. Since the early 1970s the only effective means so far has been flushing sand onto the shore. Dredging vessels are used to pump a mixture of sand and water to a beach where it is spread by bulldozers.

Thus storm floods would only erase the artificial accumulation of sand, while the shoreline proper remains intact and erosion is slowed down. Thi

Bravissimo (company)

Bravissimo is a lingerie retailer that provides lingerie in D-L cup sizes and swimwear in a D-K cup range. It has 29 stores across the UK and sell via mail order and via a US website, they are based in Leamington Spa and employ over 850 people. Bravissimo sell clothing, once known as'Pepperberry', launched in March 2011; the company has now rebranded this as Bravissimo Clothing to provide continuity between products. Founder Sarah Tremellen MBE began as a freelance TV and radio researcher for the BBC before quitting eight months aged 25 to have a baby. Whilst pregnant, Tremellen found it difficult to find a good choice of bras that would fit her when she went up to a G Cup. In 1995 after giving birth and her friend Hannah Griffiths tried to do something about it, they decided to take an eight-week business course which culminated in presenting a business plan to their local bank manager. Their presentation won them a £10,000 bank loan to help them start Bravissimo. Working in Tremellen's living room of her Twickenham flat, they made a catalogue to sell by mail order with all the best bras they could find and started a mailing list of around 75 people—mostly friends and family.

Tremellen telephoned several women's magazines and newspapers, within a month got coverage in the Daily Mail bringing in 1,000 requests for a catalogue. In 1996 they were able to move out of Tremellen's Twickenham flat and 12 months Tremellen and her husband Mike bought Hannah Griffiths out of the business. In November 1999, Bravissimo opened its first shop in Ealing, one of the 21 stores nationwide they operate; the next year Mike Tremellen left his job at Tetley to become the business operations director. In 2001 Bravissimo relocated to their current headquarters in Leamington Spa. In 2017, Bravissimo began looking for its first US shop site. In the same year their sales grew by 2% to £50.2 million, but pre-tax profit decreased to £2.2 million from £3.3 million a year earlier owing to spending on new shops. Bravissimo has been in the Sunday Times "100 Best Companies to work for" list for since 2007 when they came 19th and in 2018 they were awarded 13th place; the list rates a company's performance on 8 key factors which takes into account things such as pay, social impact and personal growth.

They were awarded 99th, 26th, 24th and 8th place between 2008 - 2011. In 2011 Bravissimo was nominated for the Multiple Retailer of the Year award at the UK Lingerie AwardsSarah Tremellen was awarded an MBE in 2009 in the New Year’s Honours List for services to entrepreneurship. In 2017, Bravissimo won'best multi-product E-tailer' at the Underlines Stars Awards At the UK Lingerie Awards in 2018, Bravissimo won "Customer Service Provider of the Year", Sarah Tremellen won the UKLA Lifetime Achievement Award. Official website

Rapa Nui calendar

The Rapa Nui calendar was the indigenous lunisolar calendar of Easter Island. It is now obsolete. William J. Thomson, paymaster on the USS Mohican, spent twelve days on Easter Island from December 19 to 30, 1886. Among the data Thomson collected were the names of the nights of the lunar month and of the months of the year: The natives reckoned their time, in fact do so still by moons or months, commencing the year with August, which was, according to the traditions,the time when Hotu-Matua and his followers landed upon the island. Thomson recorded the months as follows: The month was divided in two, beginning with the new and full moon. Thomson recorded the calendar at the time of his visit to the island; the new moon occurred on November 25 and again on the night of December 24. The three sources we have correspond with each other except for two intercalary days, the night of the new moon in Englert, which seems to have been confused with one of these. Beginning with ata, the night of the new moon, they are: *New moon, full moon, first and last quarters.

The kokore are unnamed nights. The word kokore is cognate with Hawaiian ‘a‘ole "no" and Tahitianaore "there is/are not"; the calendar collected by Thomson is notable in. All other authors mention only twelve, Métraux and Barthel find fault with Thomson: Thomson translates Anakena as August and suggests that the year began at that time because Hotu-Matua landed at Anakena in that month, but my informants and Roussel give Anakena as July. We are basing the substitution on the lists by Englert, which are in agreement. Thomson's list is off by one month. However, Guy calculated the dates of the new moon for years 1885 to 1887 and showed that Thomson's list fit the phases of the moon for 1886, he concluded that the ancient Rapanui used a lunisolar calendar with kotuti its embolismic month, that Thomson chanced to land on Easter Island in a year with a leap month. The days hotu and hiro appear to be intercalary. A 28-day calendar month needs one to two intercalary days to keep in phase with the 29½-day lunar month.

One of the rongorongo tablets may describe a rule for when to add these days