Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
The Plott Balsams are a mountain range in western North Carolina, in the southeastern United States. They are part of the Blue Ridge Mountain Province of the Southern Appalachian Mountains; the Plott Balsams stretch from the city of Sylva in the Tuckasegee River valley to the southwest to Maggie Valley in the northeast. The Great Smoky Mountains border the Plott Balsams to the north and the Great Balsam Mountains border the range to the south; the range comprises parts of Haywood County. Waterrock Knob, which has an elevation of 6,292 feet, is the highest summit in the Plott Balsam Range. Four other summits in the range rise above 6,000 feet, namely 6,240-foot Mount Lyn Lowry, 6,240-foot Browning Knob, 6,088-foot Plott Balsam Mountain, 6,032-foot Yellow Face. Other notable summits include the Pinnacle, which overlooks the Sylva area to the south, 5,810-foot Blackrock Mountain, 5,875-foot Campbell Lick, which overlooks Maggie Valley; the Blue Ridge Parkway traverses the slopes of the highest mountains in the Plott Balsam Range, connecting Soco Gap and Balsam Gap.
A short road connects the parkway to an overlook and a National Park Service visitor contact station and bookstore near the summit of Waterrock Knob. The Nantahala National Forest protects much of the south side of the Plott Balsam Range; the Qualla Boundary, the reservation for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, includes parts of the range's northwest section along Soco Creek. The city of Sylva maintains a municipal park along Fisher Creek in the southeast section of the range. A memorial dedicated to leukemia victim Lyn Lowry, who died in 1962, is situated atop Lowry's namesake mountain; the memorial includes a 60-foot cross, lit up at night, making it visible for miles from the surrounding towns. A stand of Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest coats the range's upper elevations; the Plott Balsams are named for the Plott family, whose ancestor, George Plott, immigrated to North Carolina in the late 18th century from Germany. The Plott Hound, a breed of hunting dog, is named for the Plotts.
Https://geonames.usgs.gov/apex/f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:1014537 Plott Balsams — Peakbagger.com South Beyond 6000 in the Plott Balsams — Carolina Mountain Club site Mount Lyn Lowry — SummitPost.org
Smoky Mountain High School
Smoky Mountain High School is a public high school located in Sylva, North Carolina. The school formed as a result of the consolidation of the former Sylva-Webster High School and Cullowhee High School in 1988, at the Sylva-Webster campus, which dates to 1960. Smoky Mountain High School is a part of the Jackson County School System, it is the only 9-12 high school in the county, the other schools with grades 9-12 are Blue Ridge School in Cashiers, North Carolina, a Kindergarten-12th grade school, Jackson County Early College, with grades 9-13 on the Southwestern Community College Campus. The buildings have different uses. A Building contains the cafeteria, lobby, front office, guidance rooms, many classrooms, as well as the former auditorium, now used as a chorus room. B Building houses the art room; the Gym/Band Building houses locker rooms as well as a gymnasium, band room, storage/mechanical areas. It housed the boiler for the school, the chimney for which still stands, although chimney swifts have taken up residence in it.
C Building has the new science wing completed in 2006, as well as many classrooms. D and E Buildings house vocational shops; the buildings have gone through many renovations since three of them opened as Sylva-Webster High School in 1960, the A Building had the lobby and front office redone in 2004, with many smaller additions dating to before that time. D Building on its own with a long covered walkway connecting it to the original A and B buildings, now sits between C Building and E Building, constructed in 2004; the Gym/Band Room Building had a new, larger band room built onto it in the 1970s and in 2004, the large, tall gym windows were replaced with brick and smaller windows. There are plans to add 1,508 seat gymnasium to the school; these plans have been the most successful attempt to add an auditorium in 40 years and to replace the aging gymnasium, which has stood since 1960. The plans include a new chorus room for the school's award-winning Show Choir. Despite opposition, the community has backed the project.
The school is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Smoky Mountain High School opened in 1988 at the old Sylva-Webster campus, consolidated the smaller Cullowhee High School with the larger Sylva-Webster High School. At first the school was overcrowded because of the number of students, but, shortly thereafter fixed by the addition of C Building, a two-story wing on the back of the high school. In 2004-2006, the high school added a new cafeteria, science building, vocational building, front office, greenhouse, which resolved the problems associated with the growth of the student body since 1960. Sylva-Webster High School was built in 1959, opened in 1960, was formed from the consolidation of two smaller high schools; the larger one, Sylva High School, opened in 1915 in a two-story frame building and moved to a larger, 8th-11th Grade Building in 1924 at the present location of Mark Watson Park, a fairground.
The building was known as the "Old Sylva School" when it closed and became part of nearby Sylva Elementary in 1960. Sylva Elementary is one of the predecessors to Fairview School. Sylva Elementary School was demolished in 1974 and Sylva High School was demolished in 1990. All that remains is the old vocational shop building, which once served as the Jackson County Recreation Department, but is now condemned; the smaller school, Webster High School, opened in 1910 when Webster was still the county seat, in a newly built two story frame building. This building lasted until 1936, when the old Rock Webster School opened next door, it was demolished in 1937; the new school housed all of Webster's schoolchildren and the high school students from Savannah Township until 1960, after which it became an elementary school. It still stands but the original windows and doors were removed and smaller ones took their places, the old, tall ceilings are hidden under a drop in ceiling, it serves Southwestern Child Development Center, a free preschool, the Jackson County Family Resources Center.
Its gymnasium serves as a kind of community center. Cullowhee High School was the first name of Western Carolina University, in nearby Cullowhee, but the high school separated from the university when an existing public school, dating to 1923 as Cullowhee School, had high school classrooms added in 1925; the building stood where Brown Cafeteria now stands, was purchased in 1927 by the university, at which time it became Cullowhee Training School. The public school moved to the Gertrude McKee Training School in 1939 and to Cordelia Camp Laboratory School in 1964, where the high school program remained until 1988. Cordelia Camp Laboratory School closed in 1994; the building is now known as Camp Lab, or the Camp Building. By the time the high school closed, Camp Laboratory Elementary School was the only K-8 School left in the district. Cullowhee High School once had several multiple classroom elementary schools that fed into it, but the last one, which had opened in 1952, closed in 1982; the other major elementary schools were Johns Creek, East LaPorte and Cowarts Jackson County Early College https://web.archive.org/web/20110712152824/http://www
The Qualla Boundary or The Qualla is territory held as a land trust for the federally recognized Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, who reside in western North Carolina. The area is part of the Cherokees' historic territory; as a trust, the land is technically not a "reservation" per se, as the land was not "reserved" by the federal government. Individuals can buy and sell the land, provided they are enrolled members of the Tribe of the Eastern Band of the Cherokee Indians; the Qualla Boundary is located at 35°30′N 83°16′W. The main part of the Qualla Boundary lies in northern Jackson counties. A small portion of the main trust lands extends eastward into Haywood County; the trust lands include many smaller non-contiguous sections to the southwest in Marble and Hanging Dog areas of Cherokee County, North Carolina, the Snowbird community in Graham County, North Carolina. The total land area of these regions is 213.934 km², with a 2000 census resident population of 8,092 people. The Cherokee have long occupied this area, having migrated here centuries before the Europeans arrived.
During their colonial expansion west, European settlers sometimes came into conflict with the Cherokee, who had territory extending into present-day Tennessee and Alabama. The Cherokee were forcibly removed from much of this area the Black Belt in Georgia and Alabama, under authority of the 1830 Indian Removal Act, were relocated to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma; the Qualla Boundary was first surveyed in 1876 by M. S. Temple under the auspices of the United States Land Office; these pieces were embodied in a map published as the "Map of the Qualla Indian reserve". The Qualla Boundary is a land trust supervised by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs; the land is a fragment of the extensive historical homeland of the Cherokee in the region. It was considered part of the Cherokee Nation during the nineteenth century prior to certain treaties and Indian Removal in the 1830s. William Thomas, adopted as a boy by the chief Yonaguska, bought much of the land for use by those Cherokee who remained in North Carolina after removal.
Although he had assimilated as a Cherokee, he was white and able to buy land, which the Cherokee could not do. The Cherokee organized and formed a corporation in 1870 to be able to purchase and hold additional lands. A United States Department of Interior sign, entitled "Qualla Indian Reservation", reads: The Cherokee domain once extended far beyond the distant mountains, but the white man, with broken treaties and fruitless promises, brought trouble to the Indians and caused their banishment to an Oklahoma reservation. A few escaped capture and fled into the Great Smokies forming the Eastern Band that now lives on the Qualla Reservation in the valley below; the tribal community functions like most municipalities, operating schools, law enforcement, rescue services, as well as their own hospital and casino. The Tribe has operated a court system since 1987. Tribal police have exclusive police jurisdiction on Indian lands, though the FBI and other federal agencies have jurisdiction to handle major federal offenses.
NC State Troopers, motor vehicle inspectors, wildlife officers, state alcohol agents, SBI agents, other state peace officers assigned to counties that overlap with the Qualla Boundary can be called to assist tribal law enforcement officers, can be commissioned as "special officers" of the Department of Interior to assist in investigations. Non tribal members charged with a crime are referred to local county courts. In the mid-1950s, much of Disney's five-part television series, Davy Crockett, was filmed here. Cherokee Preservation Foundation Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Harrah's Cherokee Eastern Cherokee Reservation, North Carolina United States Census Bureau Indians, Eastern Band of Cherokees of North Carolina, by Thomas Donaldson, 1892, 11th Census of the United States, Robert P. Porter, Superintendent, US Printing Office, Washington, D. C. Published online at Eastern Band of Cherokees of North Carolina. Retrieved on 2009-01-08 Visit Cherokee, NC Eastern Band of Cherokee