United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Montgomery is a city in Hamilton County, United States, settled in 1796. The town was a coach stop on the Cincinnati-Zanesville Road known as the Montgomery Pike, with an inn, two taverns, a grist mill and a carding mill to process its agricultural products, it would remain a rather sleepy hamlet until the 1960s when it became an affluent bedroom community for people working in Cincinnati. It retains its historic downtown with many other 19th-century houses scattered throughout the community, it is accessed from exit 15 off Interstate 71 and exit 50 off Interstate 275, it is the eastern terminus of the Ronald Reagan Cross County Highway about five miles northeast of the Cincinnati city line. The population was 10,251 at the 2010 census. Montgomery is located at 39°14′50″N 84°20′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.30 square miles, of which 5.29 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Montgomery is one of the oldest settlements in Hamilton County as old as Columbia-Tusculum.
A log cabin was the first tavern of the community. In 1806-7 a number of people from Montgomery, New York settled around this point for trade and farming, named the village for their former home; the city is home to the Montgomery Inn restaurant. As of the census of 2010, there were 10,251 people, 3,849 households, 2,940 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,937.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,055 housing units at an average density of 766.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.9% White, 2.7% African American, 0.1% Native American, 5.6% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 3,849 households of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.5% were married couples living together, 5.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 1.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 23.6% were non-families. 21.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the city was 46.9 years. 25.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.1% male and 51.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,163 people, 3,616 households, 2,943 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,908.7 people per square mile. There were 3,716 housing units at an average density of 697.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.00% White, 1.57% African American, 0.05% Native American, 3.26% Asian, 0.10% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.77% of the population. There were 3,616 households out of which 39.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.8% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.6% were non-families. 16.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.11. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.1% under the age of 18, 4.1% from 18 to 24, 22.1% from 25 to 44, 30.1% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $89,224, the median income for a family was $100,158. Males had a median income of $78,881 versus $45,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $45,460. About 2.0% of families and 2.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.2% of those under age 18 and 1.2% of those age 65 or over. Montgomery is served by the Sycamore Community School District which has received the highest rating from the state of Ohio ten consecutive years. Sycamore Community School District serves Blue Ash and Symmes Township, Hamilton County, Ohio; the city is served by the private schools of Moeller High School for boys and Ursuline Academy for girls.
Montgomery lies within the Great Oaks joint vocational school district. Jane French and songwriter Paul O'Neill, Major League Baseball player Connie Pillich, Ohio state representative Daniel von Bargen, best known for his roles in Seinfeld, Malcolm in the Middle, numerous films John B. Weller, governor of California Montgomery has one sister city, as designated by the Sister Cities International: City of Montgomery official website Montgomery Photographs
Indian Hill, Ohio
The Village of Indian Hill is a city in Hamilton County, United States, an affluent suburb of the Greater Cincinnati area. The population was 5,785 at the 2010 census. Prior to 1970, Indian Hill was incorporated as a village, but under Ohio law became designated as a city once its population was verified as exceeding 5,000; the municipality changed its name to add "Village" into the official name. The Village of Indian Hill is served by the Indian Hill Exempted Village School District, it has been named the "Best Place to Raise a Family" by the magazine Robb Report. The Village of Indian Hill is located at 39°11′57″N 84°20′23″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.65 square miles, of which 18.55 square miles is land and 0.10 square miles is water. The Village of Indian Hill began as a farming community, which from about 1904 began to attract Cincinnatians, who bought up its farmhouses as rural weekend destinations, they reached Indian Hill on the Swing Line, a train running between downtown Cincinnati and Ramona Station.
The rolling country appealed to a group of four Cincinnati businessmen who had built homes there in the early 1920s and envisioned a more ambitious rural settlement, persuading friends to join them in 1924 in forming the Camargo Realty Co. Camargo assembled 12,000 acres of farmland and divided some into 25-acre plots, sold for $75 to $150 per acre, a district of grand mansions with stables and outbuildings grew up, with kennels that housed the Camargo Hunt; some were authentic estates, such as the 1,200-acre "Peterloon" of John J. Emery, which has since been subdivided into lots as small as 1 acre. One hundred percent of Indian Hill is zoned as single-family residential or agricultural; as of the census of 2010, there were 5,785 people, 2,061 households, 1,768 families residing in the city. The population density was 311.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,236 housing units at an average density of 120.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.2% White, 0.7% African American, 0.1% Native American, 5.7% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population. There were 2,061 households of which 37.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 80.2% were married couples living together, 4.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 1.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 14.2% were non-families. 12.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.06. The median age in the city was 48.4 years. 27% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,907 people, 2,066 households, 1,751 families residing in the city; the population density was 318.7 people per square mile. There were 2,155 housing units at an average density of 116.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.41% White, 0.54% African American, 0.08% Native American, 3.88% Asian, 0.15% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.59% of the population. There were 2,066 households out of which 40.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 80.3% were married couples living together, 2.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.2% were non-families. 14.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.16. In the city the population was spread out with 30.3% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 16.1% from 25 to 44, 34.6% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $158,742, the median income for a family was $179,356. Males had a median income of $100,000 versus $66,875 for females; the per capita income for the city was $96,872. About 1.6% of families and 2.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.5% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.
The educational needs of this community are served by the Indian Hill Exempted Village School District and Cincinnati Country Day School. The Indian Hill Exempted Village School District comprises Indian Hill Primary, Indian Hill Elementary, Indian Hill Middle, Indian Hill High. Indian Hill High School is known nationally for excellence in education and has been ranked 48th in the nation in U. S. News and World Report and has been named a 2007 No Child Left Behind Blue Ribbon School; the Indian Hill Exempted Village School District serves residents residing in parts of Symmes Township and Sycamore Township. Cincinnati Country Day School is a nationally distinguished K-12 school and has been the filming location of many motion pictures, it serves residents across the Greater Cincinnati area, as well as Indian Hill residents. Paul Allen, British business executive Neil Armstrong, American astronaut and first
Deerfield Township, Warren County, Ohio
Deerfield Township, one of the eleven townships of Warren County, United States, is located in the southwest corner of the county. The most urbanized of the eleven, it had 36,059 people in the 2010 census. Before that, it had 26,359 in the 1990 census; until it was annexed into Mason in 1997, Kings Island amusement park was in the township. Statewide, other Deerfield Townships are located in Morgan and Ross Counties. One of the original four townships of Warren County, Deerfield Township was organized on May 10, 1803; the township was named for mineral licks within its borders. Located in the southwestern corner of the county, it borders the following townships: Turtlecreek Township - north Union Township - northeast Hamilton Township - east Symmes Township, Hamilton County - south Sycamore Township, Hamilton County - southwest West Chester Township, Butler County - west Liberty Township, Butler County - northwestCommunities within the township include Kings Mills, Fosters, Twenty Mile Stand, Loveland Park, Landen The median age for males in the township is 33.4 years of age.
The median age for females in the township is 33.8 years of age. The median income for a household in the township was $84,427 in 2008. In 1999, the median income for a household in the township was $71,800; the township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election. Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. Members of the board include President Dan Corey, Vice-President Pete Patterson, Chris Romano; the fiscal officer is John R. Wahle. Voters in 2002 rejected a proposal to expand the board of trustees to five members. Most of the township is in the Mason City and Kings Local School Districts, but the extreme southwest corner of the township is in the Princeton City School District.
Telephone service is provided through the Mason exchange through most of the township, but the southeastern part is in the Little Miami exchange. Mail is provided through the Mason, Kings Mills and Loveland post offices and the Sharonville and Sycamore branches of the Cincinnati post office. Township website County website
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl