Roatán is an island in the Caribbean, about 65 kilometres off the northern coast of Honduras. It is located between the islands of Útila and Guanaja, is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras; the island was known as Ruatan and Rattan. It is 77 kilometres long, less than 8 kilometres across at its widest point; the island consists of two municipalities: José Santos Guardiola in the east and Roatán, including the Cayos Cochinos, further south in the west. The island rests on an exposed ancient coral reef, rising to about 270 metres above sea level. Offshore reefs offer opportunities for diving. Most habitation is in the western half of the island; the most populous town of the island is Coxen Hole, capital of Roatán municipality, located in the southwest. West of Coxen Hole are the settlements of Gravel Bay, Flowers Bay and Pensacola on the south coast, Sandy Bay, West End and West Bay on the north coast. To the east of Coxen Hole are the settlements of Mount Pleasant, French Harbour, Parrot Tree and Oakridge on the south coast, Punta Gorda on the north coast.
The easternmost quarter of the island is separated by a channel through the mangroves, 15 metres wide on average. This section is called Santa Elena in Spanish. Satellite islands at the eastern end are Morat and Pigeon Cay. Further west between French Harbour and Coxen Hole are several cays, including Stamp Cay and Barefoot Cay. Located near the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, the largest barrier reef in the Caribbean Sea, Roatán has become an important cruise ship, scuba diving and eco-tourism destination in Honduras. Tourism is its most important economic sector, though fishing is an important source of income for islanders. Roatán is located within 40 miles of La Ceiba; the island is served by the Juan Manuel Gálvez Roatán International Airport and the Galaxy Wave Ferry service twice a day. The Indians of the Bay Islands are believed to have been related to either the Paya, the Maya, the Lenca or the Jicaque, which were the tribes present on the mainland. Christopher Columbus on his fourth voyage came to the islands as he visited the neighbouring Bay Island of Guanaja.
Soon after the Spanish began trading in the islands for slave labour. More devastating for the local Indians was exposure to Eurasian infectious diseases to which they had no immunity, such as smallpox and measles. No indigenous people survived the consequent epidemics. Throughout European colonial times, the Bay of Honduras attracted an array of individual settlers, pirates and military forces. Various economic activities were engaged in and political struggles played out between the European powers, chiefly Britain and Spain. Sea travellers stopped over at Roatán and the other islands as resting points. On several occasions, the islands were subject to military occupation. In contesting with the Spanish for colonisation of the Caribbean, the English occupied the Bay Islands on and off between 1550 and 1700. During this time, buccaneers found the vacated unprotected islands a haven for safe harbour and transport. English and Dutch pirates established settlements on the islands, they raided the Spanish treasure ships, cargo vessels carrying gold and silver from the New World to Spain.
During the War of the Austrian Succession, a detachment of the British Army under Lt. Col John Caulfeild garrisoned the island from 1742 to 1749; the garrison was found from two companies of Gooch's Virginia Regiment, but these were amalgamated into Trelawney's 49th Foot. In 1797, the British defeated the Black Carib, supported by the French, in a battle for control of the Windward Caribbean island of St. Vincent. Weary of their resistance to British plans for sugar plantations, the British rounded up the St. Vincent Black Carib and deported them to Roatán; the majority of Black Carib migrated to Trujillo on mainland Honduras, but a portion remained to found the community of Punta Gorda on the northern coast of Roatán. The Black Carib, whose ancestry includes Arawak and African Maroons, remained in Punta Gorda, becoming the Bay Island's first permanent post-Columbian settlers, they migrated from there to parts of the northern coast of Central America, becoming the foundation of the modern-day Garífuna culture in Honduras and Guatemala.
The majority permanent population of Roatán originated from the Cayman Islands near Jamaica. They arrived in the 1830s shortly after Britain's abolition of slavery in 1838; the changes in the labour system disrupted the economic structure of the Caymans. The islands had had a seafaring culture. Former slaveholders from the Cayman Islands were among the first to settle in the seaside locations throughout western Roatán. During the late 1830s and 1840s, former slaves migrated from the Cayman Islands, in larger number than planters. Altogether, the former Cayman peoples became the largest cultural group on the island. For a brief period in the 1850s, Britain declared the Bay Islands its colony. Within a decade, the Crown ceded the territory formally back to Honduras. British colonists were sent to compete for control, they asked American William Walker, a freebooter with a private army, to help end the crisis in 1860 by invading Honduras. In the latter half of the 19th century, the island populations grew and established new settlements all over Roatán and the other islands.
Wärtsilä Oyj Abp is a Finnish corporation which manufactures and services power sources and other equipment in the marine and energy markets. The core products of Wärtsilä include technologies for the energy sector, including gas, multi-fuel, liquid fuel and biofuel power plants and energy storage systems. Ship design capabilities include ferries and vessels for the fishing, merchant and special segments. Services offerings include online services, underwater services, turbocharger services, solutions for the marine and oil and gas markets. At the end of June 2018, the company employed more than 19,000 workers. Wärtsilä has three main businesses. Wärtsilä operates globally; the company has signaled its intention to transform from an equipment maker, to a Smart Marine and Smart Energy company, following acquisitions of companies such as Transas, Guidance Marine, MSI, the setting up of Digital Acceleration Centres in Helsinki, Central Europe, North America. The company services the merchant, offshore and ferry, fishing, tugs and special vessel markets, the offering includes ship design and auxiliary engines, auxiliary power systems and automation packages, seals, gears, scrubbers and all related services, such as repair, upgrading, training and environmental services.
Customers comprise both shipyards and ship owners. The environmental products range from reduction of air emissions, such as NOx, SOx, CO, volatile organic compounds, to oily waste water treatment and other water solutions such as ballast water management systems. In November 2017, the company introduced its Smart Marine Ecosystem vision, with the promise of delivering value and optimisation for customers through the use of connectivity and digitalisation. Wärtsilä Marine was an important Finnish shipbuilder from 1935 until 1989, building cruiseferries, cruise ships and a large share of the icebreakers of the world; the former Wärtsilä Marine Turku Shipyard is now owned by Meyer Werft under its Meyer Turku subsidiary and the Helsinki shipyard is operated by Arctech. Wärtsilä is a provider of power plants in distributed and flexible power generation; the product portfolio consists of installations up to 600 MW, running on any gaseous or liquid fuels, such as Heavy fuel oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, different types and qualities of fuel oils, renewable fuels like biogas and biofuel.
In addition for the reliability of traditional base power generation, the engines have the capability to start and stop and they maintain their efficiency in part load, which makes them well suited for peaking power production, smart grids, emergency power systems. They can utilize the combined cycle and cogeneration to produce steam or hot water for heating, trigeneration for chilled water, which can be used for air conditioning. Wärtsilä provides products and services for grid stability management, utilization of gas flares, pumping applications, financial services, project management services for projects concerning power generation. In May 2017, Wärtsilä signed an agreement to acquire Greensmith Energy Management Systems Inc. In March 2018, the company announced that it had delivered the world's largest solar hybrid power plant], situated in Burkina Faso. Wärtsilä provides about 25 percent of Bangladesh's total grid capacity, with the company's total power supply to Bangladesh rising to more than 4200 MW when a 105MW power plant being built by Baraka Shikalbaha Power Ltd goes operational in spring 2019.
Wärtsilä's wide energy solutions and systems footprint includes the USA, the UK, Russia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Senegal, the Dominican Republic, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Sierra Leone, Finland, Rwanda, Honduras, El Salvador, Mexico and Oman. The wholly owned service network consist of over 4,500 field services professionals in more than 160 locations in over 70 countries globally, with the installed base of over 180 000 MW; the focus lies on optimising operations and life cycle performance of land based power plants and ship installations. Wärtsilä provides services, spare parts, maintenance and fuel conversions solutions for medium and low-speed gas and diesel engines and other related systems, propulsion systems, electrical & automation systems, boilers including environmental solutions regarding particulates and NOx, covering scrubber, selective catalytic reduction, oxidation catalysts, ballast water treatment systems and oily-water systems, long-term service agreements, condition monitoring, condition-based maintenance and advisory services.
In January 2017, Wärtsilä and Carnival Corporation announced a 12-year performance-based agreement worth 900 million euros. Acquisitions in the Services business include Eniram in 2016, Trident B. V in 2017, Lock-N-Stich. At the end of 2017, Wärtsilä’s market share in marine medium-speed main engines was 47% and in auxiliary engines 10%. Wärtsilä’s market share for gas and liquid fuel power plants was 19%. Wärtsilä’s biggest competitors in the marine market are MAN Diesel & Turbo, Caterpillar Inc. and Rolls-Royce plc. and in the energy market the biggest com
A diesel–electric transmission, or diesel–electric powertrain, is used by a number of vehicle and ship types for providing locomotion. A diesel–electric transmission system includes a diesel engine connected to an electrical generator, creating electricity that powers electric traction motors. No clutch is required. Before diesel engines came into widespread use, a similar system, using a petrol engine and called petrol–electric or gas–electric, was sometimes used. Diesel–electric transmission is used on railways by diesel electric locomotives and diesel electric multiple units, as electric motors are able to supply full torque at 0 RPM. Diesel–electric systems are used in submarines and surface ships and some land vehicles. In some high-efficiency applications, electrical energy may be stored in rechargeable batteries, in which case these vehicles can be considered as a class of hybrid electric vehicle; the first diesel motorship was the first diesel–electric ship, the Russian tanker Vandal from Branobel, launched in 1903.
Steam turbine–electric propulsion has been in use since the 1920s, using diesel–electric powerplants in surface ships has increased lately. The Finnish coastal defence ships Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen laid down in 1928–1929, were among the first surface ships to use diesel–electric transmission; the technology was used in diesel powered icebreakers. In World War II the United States built diesel–electric surface warships. Due to machinery shortages destroyer escorts of the Evarts and Cannon classes were diesel–electric, with half their designed horsepower; the Wind-class icebreakers, on the other hand, were designed for diesel–electric propulsion because of its flexibility and resistance to damage. Some modern diesel–electric ships, including cruise ships and icebreakers, use electric motors in pods called azimuth thrusters underneath to allow for 360° rotation, making the ships far more maneuverable. An example of this is Symphony of the Seas, the largest passenger ship as of 2019. Gas turbines are used for electrical power generation and some ships use a combination: Queen Mary 2 has a set of diesel engines in the bottom of the ship plus two gas turbines mounted near the main funnel.
This provides a simple way to use the high-speed, low-torque output of a turbine to drive a low-speed propeller, without the need for excessive reduction gearing. Early submarines used a direct mechanical connection between the engine and propeller, switching between diesel engines for surface running and electric motors for submerged propulsion; this was a "parallel" type of hybrid, since the motor and engine were coupled to the same shaft. On the surface, the motor was used as a generator to recharge the batteries and supply other electric loads; the engine would be disconnected for submerged operation, with batteries powering the electric motor and supplying all other power as well. True diesel–electric transmissions for submarines were first proposed by the United States Navy's Bureau of Engineering in 1928—instead of driving the propeller directly while running on the surface, the submarine's diesel would instead drive a generator that could either charge the submarine's batteries or drive the electric motor.
This meant that motor speed was independent of the diesel engine's speed, the diesel could run at an optimum and non-critical speed, while one or more of the diesel engines could be shut down for maintenance while the submarine continued to run using battery power. The concept was pioneered in 1929 in the S-class submarines S-3, S-6, S-7 to test the concept; the first production submarines with this system were the Porpoise-class, it was used on most subsequent US diesel submarines through the 1960s. The only other navy to adopt the system before 1945 was the British Royal Navy in the U-class submarines, although some submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy used separate diesel generators for low-speed running. In a diesel–electric transmission arrangement, as used on 1930s and US Navy, German and other nations' diesel submarines, the propellers are driven directly or through reduction gears by an electric motor, while two or more diesel generators provide electric energy for charging the batteries and driving the electric motors.
This mechanically isolates the noisy engine compartment from the outer pressure hull and reduces the acoustic signature of the submarine when surfaced. Some nuclear submarines use a similar turbo-electric propulsion system, with propulsion turbo generators driven by reactor plant steam. During World War I, there was a strategic need for rail engines without plumes of smoke above them. Diesel technology was not yet sufficiently developed but a few precursor attempts were made for petrol–electric transmissions by the French and British. About 300 of these locomotives, only 96 being standard gauge, were in use at various points in the conflict. Before the war, the GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab had been produced in the USA. In the 1920s, diesel–electric technology first saw limited use in switchers, locomotives used for moving trains around in railroad yards and assembling and disassembling them. An early company offering "Oil-Electric" locomotives was the American Locomotive Company; the ALCO HH series of diesel–electric switcher entered series production in 1931.
In the 1930s, the system was adapted for the fastest trains of their day. Diesel–electric powerplants became popular
Basseterre is the capital and largest city of Saint Kitts and Nevis with an estimated population of 14,000 in 2018. Geographically, the Basseterre port is located at 17°18′N 62°44′W, on the south western coast of Saint Kitts Island, it is one of the chief commercial depots of the Leeward Islands; the city lies within Saint George Basseterre Parish. Basseterre is one of the oldest towns in the Eastern Caribbean. Basseterre was founded in 1627 under Sieur Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc, it served as the capital of the French colony of Saint-Christophe, which consisted of the northern and southern extremities of the island of St. Kitts; when Phillippe de Longvilliers de Poincy was made the French governor of St. Kitts in 1639, the town turned into a large, successful port, commanding Eastern Caribbean trade and colonisation. De Poincy quickly made Basseterre capital of the entire French West Indies colony, which included the islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, remained so until his death in 1660; the city was made capital of the entire island of St. Kitts in 1727, following French expulsion from the island and full British control.
The city of Basseterre has one of the most tragic histories of any Caribbean capital, destroyed many times by colonial wars, earthquakes, floods and hurricanes. Despite all of this, a considerable number of well-restored buildings still exist in downtown Basseterre. Most of the city structures were built after the great fire of 1867; the Circus was modelled after Piccadilly Circus, the fountain in the center was built in 1883, dedicated to The Honourable Thomas Berkeley Hardtman Berkeley, the father of Henry Spencer Berkeley. The city of Basseterre skirts a 2-mile bay on the southwestern shore of Basseterre Bay; the city lies within the large Basseterre Valley completely surrounded by lush green hills and mountains. It is low-lying, one explanation for the name which the French gave unto it, as Basseterre translates to "low land" in English. However, the name Basseterre is due to the fact that the island is on the lee of winds of the island, is thus a safe anchorage; the name Capesterre, given to the region to the North, was dubbed.
Basseterre is surrounded by the Olivees Mountains to the north and the Conaree-Morne peaks to the east. The city is drained by the College River and the Westbourne River, which are locally known as "ghauts" and are dry most of the year, they form streets in downtown Basseterre. This engineering folly has proven quite disastrous though, as College River has been the scene of many disastrous floods in Basseterre history. Port Zante, located in the centre of the bay, lies on 15 acres of land reclaimed from the sea in 1995. Under the Köppen climate classification, Basseterre features a tropical rainforest climate; as is the characteristic of cities with this climate, temperatures remain constant throughout the course of the year, with temperatures averaging 27 °C year-round. Basseterre has no dry season. On average, 1700 mm of rain falls on the city annually. Basseterre is a small town, laid out in a grid pattern, it has four main streets running west to east, they are listed here in sequence from south to north: Bay Road, Liverpool Row, Central Street, Cayon Street.
The main street running north to south is Fort Street/Bank Street, home to the bulk of the island's main shops and banks. The city has 2 centres, at The Circus, geared towards tourism, the Independence Square, which contains the cathedral and most of the older buildings. Basseterre is the main industrial centre of St. Kitts, it is the country's main port of entry for both sea and air travel, as well as the road and rail transport hub. It houses the administration buildings for the federal government, it houses the headquarters of the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank, as well as the headquarters for many other regional financial institutions. Despite its small size, Basseterre played host to Carifesta VII in 2000, outbidding rivals many times its size; the city was able to outbid the United States of America to host matches for the 2007 World Cricket Cup. The Warner Park Sporting Complex was the site of the allocated first round matches of the tournament; this made St. Kitts and Nevis the smallest country in the world to host a World Cup event.
Basseterre is home to two private, for-profit medical institutions founded by Robert Ross: Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine and the International University of Nursing. The city has four secondary schools, two of which are government-owned, two are private schools. Independence Square The Circus St. George's Anglican Church Basseterre Co-Cathedral of Immaculate Conception The Cenotaph St. Kitts Heritage Society National Museum of Saint Kitts Amina Craft Market Public Market St. Kitts Sugar Factory Museum Warner Park Sporting Complex Pelican Shopping Mall Queen Victoria Statue Roundabout Basseterre National Park Fort Thomas Springfield Cemetery and Chapel There are a large number of Christian churches in the city for its size. Most are Protestant, due to British colonization; the Anglican called the "Church of England" has the largest number of members, followed by the Methodist. Other Protestant denominations include Moravian, Church of God, Seventh-day Adventist, Jehovah's Witness, Rivers of Living
Harmony of the Seas
Harmony of the Seas is an Oasis-class cruise ship built by STX France at the Chantiers de l'Atlantique shipyard in Saint-Nazaire, for Royal Caribbean International. With a gross tonnage of 226,963 GT, she is the second largest passenger ship in the world, surpassing her older sisters Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas, but surpassed by her newer sister Symphony of the Seas; the success of the first two Oasis-class ships led Royal Caribbean Cruises to order a third ship of the type in December 2012. Harmony of the Seas was floated out on 19 June 2015, began her first sea trials on 10 March 2016, was delivered to Royal Caribbean on 12 May 2016. After a construction time of 32 months, the ship first set sail on 15 May 2016 from the STX France docks in Saint-Nazaire, viewed by some 70,000 people, her first destination was Southampton, although her home port was Barcelona until 23 October 2016 when she crossed the Atlantic. Harmony of the Seas took two short "preview cruises", three nights to Cherbourg and four nights to Rotterdam, after reaching port in Southampton on 17 May.
During these voyages, passengers complained of ongoing construction, a lack of hot water, unopened attractions, excessive waits at restaurants, other issues. The ship's maiden voyage departed from Southampton on 29 May and arrived at its summer home port of Barcelona on 5 June. According to passengers on this cruise, construction had finished and the ship was ready to sail. For the inaugural season, Harmony of the Seas offered seven-night western Mediterranean cruises originating from Barcelona and Civitavecchia. On 10 November 2016, the vessel was christened by her godmother, Miami-Dade County teacher Brittany Affolter. In 2016, Harmony of the Seas was awarded "Best New Cruise Ship" in Travel Weekly's 2016 Readers Choice Awards. In March 2019, Harmony of the Seas was named the "Number 4 Best Cruise Ship Overall" and won the award for the "Best Cruise Ship Cabins" in the 9th annual Cruise Critic Cruisers' Choice Awards. Harmony of the Seas has 2,747 staterooms, of various sizes; the ship is divided into seven neighborhoods, including Central Park and Boardwalk, like her Oasis-class sisters.
Harmony of the Seas has a number of water-based attractions including a large dry slide complex, two surf simulators and 23 swimming pools. It has the first water slides on a Royal Caribbean ship, she has 20 dining venues, a 1,400 seat theatre and 11,252 works of art. Harmony of the Seas is 20% more energy efficient than her sister ships Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas. Small air bubbles from the keel reduce drag and thus fuel consumption by 7-8%, a smooth hull surface further reduces resistance; the bubble system reduces propeller noise, is used on Celebrity Reflection and Quantum of the Seas. LED and fluorescent lamps replace incandescent light bulbs, reducing power consumption and need for air conditioning; the engine system uses a waste heat recovery system, drives three Azipod propellers. On 13 September 2016, one employee was killed and four were injured when a lifeboat broke loose and dropped from the fifth deck during a security drill. On 25 December 2018, British crew member Arron Hough was reported missing by other crew members after failing to report to work.
The United States Coast Guard suspended the search for the on-board entertainer on 27 December 2018, after stating that the ship had reported that a crew member had gone overboard. On 11 January 2019, a 16 year old was trying to enter his eighth-deck cabin through a nearby balcony when he slipped and fell to his death; the accident happened. The ship's medical team performed CPR but the boy had sustained major head trauma and died of his injuries. Official website
Philipsburg, Sint Maarten
Philipsburg is the main town and capital of the country of Sint Maarten. The town is situated on a narrow stretch of land between the Great Salt Pond, it functions as the commercial center of Saint Martin island, whereof Sint Maarten encompasses the southern half. As of 2011, it has 1,327 inhabitants. Philipsburg was founded in 1763 by a Scottish captain in the Dutch navy. Two historic forts bear witness to Philipsburg's strategic importance in St. Maarten's history: Fort Amsterdam and Fort Willem. See List of Designated Monuments in Philipsburg Philipsburg has a tropical savanna climate, is drier than most parts of the northeastern Caribbean due to a rain shadow from the island’s mountains, drying the northeast trade winds; the driest months are from January to July, the wettest from September to November, when hurricanes are a frequent occurrence in the region. The main shopping district, Front Street, is in the heart of the city; the city has a port, visited by many cruise liners, such as ships like Celebrity Solstice, Crown Princess, Disney Magic, since 2010, Oasis of the Seas & Anthem of the Seas, since 2018, the Symphony of the Seas or MSC Divina.
World-famous for its close photographs of landing aircraft, Princess Juliana International Airport, west of Philipsburg, has become a tourist destination in its own right. Jet blast from departing aircraft is another ` attraction'. However, jet blast is physically hazardous. Schools include: Oranje School Sr. Borgia Primary St. Joseph Primary Sundial School Philipsburg Jubilee Library is in Philipsburg. Philipsburg Jubilee Library, Public Library of St. Maarten
DNV GL is an international accredited registrar and classification society headquartered in Høvik, Norway. The company has about 14,500 employees and 350 offices operating in more than 100 countries, provides services for several industries including maritime, renewable energy, oil & gas, food & beverage and healthcare, it was created in 2013 as a result of a merger between two leading organizations in the field - Det Norske Veritas and Germanischer Lloyd. DNV GL is the world's largest classification society, providing services for 13,175 vessels and mobile offshore units amounting to 265.4 mill gt, which represents a global market share of 21%. It is the largest technical consultancy and supervisory to the global renewable energy and oil & gas industry - 65% of the world's offshore pipelines are designed and installed to DNV GL's technical standards. Prior to the merger, both DNV and GL have independently acquired several companies in different sectors, such as Hélimax Energy, Garrad Hassan, Windtest and KEMA, which now contribute to DNV GL's expertise across several industries.
In addition to providing services such as technical assessment, risk management and software development, DNV GL invests in research. Remi Eriksen took over as Group President and CEO of DNV GL on August 1, 2015, succeeding Henrik O. Madsen. DNV GL's history dates back to 1864, when Det Norske Veritas was established in Norway to head technical inspection and evaluation of Norwegian merchant vessels. On the other hand, Germanischer Lloyd was founded in Hamburg around the same period in 1867 by a group of 600 ship owners, ship builders and insurers. DNV GL celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2014. On December 20, 2012, the two companies announced the merger, approved by competition authorities in South Korea, the US, the EU and China, thus allowing the merger contract between DNV and GL to be signed on September 12, 2013; the independent Det Norske Veritas Foundation owned 63.5% of DNV GL shares and Mayfair Vermögensverwaltung 36.5%.until December 2017, when Mayfair sold its shares to the Det Norske Veritas Foundation.
Together with Bureau Veritas and American Bureau of Shipping, DNV GL is one of the three major companies in the classification business with 300 offices in 100 different countries. But the company is a key player in strategic innovation and risk management for several other industries including renewable energy and gas, electric power generation and distribution, aviation, finance and beverage, healthcare and information technology; every year, DNV GL invests in R&D which amounts to 5% of its total revenue. Since 1864, DNV GL has always maintained a department dedicated to research that enhances and develops services and standards for various industries. Many of the innovations and findings by DNV have been used as a basis for international standards. At present, the main research programs include arctic operations, biological hazards, future energy solutions and information processes, maritime technology and transport systems, as well as multifunctional materials. DNV GL is organised into five business areas: DNV GL - Maritime: Classification, risk-management and technical advisory to the maritime industry on safety, enhanced performance, fuel efficiency, etc.
As a classification society, DNV GL sets standards for ships and offshore structures - known as Class Rules. They comprise safety and environmental requirements that vessels and other offshore mobile structures in international waters must comply with. DNV GL is authorized by 130 maritime administrations to perform certification or verification on their behalf. DNV GL - Oil & Gas: Technical advisor to the global oil and gas industry, services in technical and marine assurance and advisory, risk management and offshore classification. DNV GL works with upstream oil and gas companies to identify and control risk, improve safety and performance, assure reliability of a project's development and operation; the company develops industry standards and best practices through joint industry projects, bringing together a number of industry players to address specific technical challenges. As an example, about 65% of the world's offshore pipelines are designed and installed to DNV GL's technical standards.
DNV GL - Energy: Counselling and certification services to the global energy sector, including: renewable energy, energy efficiency, power production and distribution. DNV GL operates the world's largest high power and voltage test laboratory, working as an independent, accredited certifier of electricity transmission & distribution components. DNV GL is the leading independent advisor and certifier to the renewable industry, notably within wind energy, its services include wind turbine type certification, design consultancy, energy yield assessments, site assessments, solar plants and turbine design and solar forecasting, front-end engineering. In addition, DNV GL's energy arm has advisory services in energy efficiency, renewable integration, clean conventional power generation, renewable plant operations improvement services and distribution grids, energy storage and cyber security. DNV GL - Business Assurance: Certification, training/education services that support customer products and organizations over a wide spectrum of fields.
DNV GL is an accredited certification body. They certify the compliance of companies according to a third party standard, such as ISO 9001